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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Mar. 25, 2013
  • pp: 7133–7138
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Surface localized polymer aligned liquid crystal lens

Lu Lu, Vassili Sergan, Tony Van Heugten, Dwight Duston, Achintya Bhowmik, and Philip J. Bos  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 7133-7138 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.007133


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Abstract

The surface localized polymer alignment (SLPA) method allows complete control of the polar pretilt angle as a function of position in liquid crystal devices. In this work, a liquid crystal (LC) cylindrical lens is fabricated by the SLPA method. The focal length of the LC lens is set by the polymerization conditions, and can be varied by a non-segmented electrode. The LC lens does not require a shaped substrate, or complicated electrode patterns, to achieve a desired parabolic phase profile. Therefore, both fabrication and driving process are relatively simple.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Liquid crystal (LC) lenses [1

1. S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979). [CrossRef]

] have a variety of applications, such as focusing and zooming in personal portable devices [2

2. C. W. Chiu, Y. C. Lin, P. C. P. Chao, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Achieving high focusing power for a large-aperture liquid crystal lens with novel hole-and-ring electrodes,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19277–19284 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4

4. H. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], ophthalmic corrections [5

5. G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], accommodation corrections for 3D displays [6

6. L. Lu, L. Shi, P. J. Bos, T. Van Heugten, and D. Duston, “Late-newspaper: comparisons between a liquid crystal refractive lens and a diffractive lens for 3D displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 42, 171–174 (2011).

]; and active lenses in switchable autostereoscopic 3D displays [7

7. Y.-P. Huang, C.-W. Chen, and Y.-C. Huang, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012). [CrossRef]

10

10. L. Lu, V. Sergan, T. Van Heugten, D. Duston, A. Bhowmik, and P. J. Bos, “Distinguished paper: tunable polymer localized liquid crystal lenses for autostereoscopic 3D displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 43, 383–386 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In the active lens application, the LC lenticular lens offers an approach to achieve glasses-free 3D displays [8

8. P. J. Bos and A. K. Bhowmik, “Liquid-crystal technology advances toward future “True” 3-D flat-panel displays,” Inf. Display 27, 6–9 (2011).

, 11

11. N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. By turning the optical power of the LC lens off or on, 2D or 3D images can be shown on the same display [7

7. Y.-P. Huang, C.-W. Chen, and Y.-C. Huang, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 847–855 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, the viewing distance and zones of the autostereoscopic 3D displays can be adjusted by using a tunable LC lenticular lens, with a low value of crosstalk [13

13. Y.-Y. Kao, Y.-P. Huang, K.-X. Yang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-C. Tsai, and C.-N. Mo, “An auto-stereoscopic 3D display using tunable liquid crystal lens array that mimics effects of GRIN lenticular lens array,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 40, 111–114 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

LC tunable lenses typically control the refractive index of LC with multiple electrode structures [7

7. Y.-P. Huang, C.-W. Chen, and Y.-C. Huang, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. Y.-Y. Kao, P. C. P. Chao, and C.-W. Hsueh, “A new low-voltage-driven GRIN liquid crystal lens with multiple ring electrodes in unequal widths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18506–18518 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], or hole patterned electrodes [3

3. H.-C. Lin and Y.-H. Lin, “An electrically tunable-focusing liquid crystal lens with a low voltage and simple electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2045–2052 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4302–4308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On the other hand, variable pretilt lenses have been developed from non-uniform alignment layers [16

16. M. C. Tseng, F. Fan, C. Y. Lee, A. Murauski, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Tunable lens by spatially varying liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083109 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 17

17. F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006). [CrossRef]

], but the non-uniformity can result in image degradation. Another approach uses polymer networks [18

18. T. Nose, S. Masuda, S. Sato, J. L. Li, L. C. Chien, and P. J. Bos, “Effects of low polymer content in a liquid-crystal microlens,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 351–353 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010). [CrossRef]

] to set the orientation of LC directors; however, this approach is problematic, since it leads to a small amount of light scattering. The light scattering issue can be reduced by localizing the polymer layer in the vicinity of the LC layer boundary [22

22. L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 23

23. L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with the thickness of the polymer layer less than the wavelength of visible light. This technique is called surface localized polymer alignment (SLPA) method (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The surface localized polymer alignment method for controlling LC directors spatially
).

In the SLPA method, under the application of an external electric field, reactive monomers (RMs) drift to the electrode surface, with the facilitation of polar groups on RMs [23

23. L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The SLPA layer allows complete control of the polar pretilt angle as a function of position [22

22. L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012). [CrossRef]

] by selecting the UV illumination region and the strength of the electric field during the polymerization process.

It is the objective of this paper to demonstrate a LC cylindrical lens via the SLPA method. This LC lens has a simple fabrication process – it does not require special electrode structures or complex photolithographic patterning. Additionally, the optical power of the lens can be tuned by the applied voltage with just one single non-segmented electrode. It also provides the potential to track the viewer position relative to the display in the autostereoscopic application.

2. Lens fabrication

A positive cylindrical lens is considered. The lens has high optical path difference (OPD) in the center and low OPD on the edge. In this work, we use 22 µm planar cells filled with BL006 nematic mixture (Δn = 0.286, Δε = 17.3) at room temperature. The mixture contains 1.2 wt% of the reactive monomer RM-257 (both by EM Industries) and 0.12 wt % of Irgacure 651 photoinitiator (by Aldrich). Polyimide PI-2555 (by HD MicroSystems) is coated inside of the planar cells and anti-parallel rubbed to provide the initial alignment of LC mixtures. RMs are confined to the surface and polymerized with a particular applied voltage that sets the pretilt uniquely. A pre-polymerization voltage (100V, 60Hz AC) is applied on the cell for 10 minutes before the following process, which helps the segregation of RMs to the surface [23

23. L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The high power LED collimator source with a 22-mm clear aperture (by Mightex, model: LCS-0365-02, peak wavelength ~365nm) is used for the polymerization process. Intensity of the UV light source is set at a low level (5 mW/cm2) to prevent the formation of non-uniform textures [22

22. L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. An LED power controller is used to control the UV light on/off sequentially. A step motor and a step motor controller are used to precisely control the position of the slit as designed in the cure voltage pattern profile.

3. Lens characterization

We have fabricated a cylindrical lens (with a width of 5mm) by using the method described above. In our experiment, the Michelson interferometer method and the interferometric analysis software IntelliWave are used to check the OPD (in number of waves) across the LC lens. Wavelength of the laser beam is 543nm. Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 OPD measurement across the cured area in the LC cell
shows a photograph of the cell, with an observed spatially varying OPD profile. Figure 3(b) shows the parabolic OPD profile (without applying an electric field) across the UV light cured area in the SLPA LC cell.

To characterize the LC lens quality, it is placed in front of a camera focused at infinity aimed at an image (a modified USAF 1851 chart) 0.5 meter away. The quality assessment is made by comparing the LC lens with a high quality Newport glass lens (f = 0.5m). However, the glass lens is a spherical lens which can focus on the horizontal direction and vertical direction at the same time. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 Comparing the LC lens with the glass lens: (a) focus in infinity; (b) the LC lens focuses on the vertical lines; (c) the LC lens focuses on the horizontal lines; (d) the spherical glass lens focuses on both horizontal and vertical lines; (e) and (f) are the same as (b) and (c), but with masks added for clarity.
shows the image without a correction lens in front. With the Newport glass lens, it brings back the focus on both vertical lines and horizontal lines (Fig. 4(d)). Depending on the axis direction of the LC lens, the LC lens can bring the camera in focus either on the vertical lines or on the horizontal lines (Fig. 4(b) and 4(c)). Figure 4(e) and 4(f) are the same as Fig. 4(b) and 4(c), but with the masks added on the figure to make the edge definition (of the vertical or horizontal lines) more obvious.

The modulation transfer function (MTF) value gives a quantitative comparison between the LC cylindrical lens and the Newport glass lens. MTF = (Imax – Imin)/(Imax + Imin), where Imax and Imin are maximal and minimal intensity. It falls from 1 to 0 with the increasing of spatial frequency. By analyzing the slanted-edge picture, we can calculate the MTF value of different lenses. This slanted-edge methodology is described by standard ISO 12233 and used in the QuickMTF software. The same setup is used as it is in Fig. 4, but with a tilted USAF 1951 chart as a subject. Accordingly, we get 3 images as Fig. 4(b)-4(d), but tilted. Slanted edges in those figures are analyzed by the QuickMTF software. The first step is edge detection in the tilted image. When a right edge is detected, the QuickMTF software is able to calculate the MTF of that edge. For each tilted image, 5 edges are selected and accordingly 5 MTF are calculated. Then, an averaged MTF value is calculated to represent the quality of the lens.

The fabricated LC lens shows good tunability with the application of an external voltage. Under different external applied voltages, OPD across the SLPA LC cell (symbols in Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) OPD of the cured area fits well with the ideal lens curve under different applied voltages; (b) lens focus is tuned with different applied voltages.
) fits the ideal lens profile (red lines in Fig. 6(a)) very well. Correspondingly, the focal length of the fabricated LC lens is changed from 0.5 meter (0V), to 2 meter (2.5V), to 4.8 meter (4V) with a non-segmented ITO electrode (Fig. 6(b)). However, between 0.5 meter and 2 meter focus, the central region of the lens requires a higher voltage than the outer region in order to approach the ideal lens profile. Consequently, the lens focus cannot be tuned from 0.5 meter to 2 meters gradually with one single non-segmented electrode. However, with 2 or 3 segmented electrodes, the lens could have different applied voltages in the central and outer regions, and could be tuned through the focal lengths between 0.5 meter and 2 meters, not only the discrete focal length in the graph.

4. Summary

In this paper, we demonstrate a simple lens fabrication approach by the surface localized polymer alignment (SLPA) method. Optical power of a LC lens and the lens width can be accurately controlled by the polymerization process and can be easily adjusted for different display and ophthalmic applications. The fabrication process does not require any complex electrode patterns or pre-shape cell surfaces. Both fabrication and driving process of the lens are relatively simple. Furthermore, we show the potential of adjusting of the LC lens focus with a non-segmented electrode.

Acknowledgment

We thank Dr. Oleg Kurtsev for the discussion on MTF calculation, and X. Cai for English corrections.

References and links

1.

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979). [CrossRef]

2.

C. W. Chiu, Y. C. Lin, P. C. P. Chao, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Achieving high focusing power for a large-aperture liquid crystal lens with novel hole-and-ring electrodes,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19277–19284 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

H.-C. Lin and Y.-H. Lin, “An electrically tunable-focusing liquid crystal lens with a low voltage and simple electrodes,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2045–2052 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

H. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11328–11335 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

L. Lu, L. Shi, P. J. Bos, T. Van Heugten, and D. Duston, “Late-newspaper: comparisons between a liquid crystal refractive lens and a diffractive lens for 3D displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 42, 171–174 (2011).

7.

Y.-P. Huang, C.-W. Chen, and Y.-C. Huang, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(11), 650–655 (2012). [CrossRef]

8.

P. J. Bos and A. K. Bhowmik, “Liquid-crystal technology advances toward future “True” 3-D flat-panel displays,” Inf. Display 27, 6–9 (2011).

9.

G. Lawton, “3D displays without glasses: coming to a screen near you,” Computer 44(1), 17–19 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

L. Lu, V. Sergan, T. Van Heugten, D. Duston, A. Bhowmik, and P. J. Bos, “Distinguished paper: tunable polymer localized liquid crystal lenses for autostereoscopic 3D displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 43, 383–386 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(8), 847–855 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

Y.-Y. Kao, Y.-P. Huang, K.-X. Yang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-C. Tsai, and C.-N. Mo, “An auto-stereoscopic 3D display using tunable liquid crystal lens array that mimics effects of GRIN lenticular lens array,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 40, 111–114 (2009). [CrossRef]

14.

Y.-Y. Kao, P. C. P. Chao, and C.-W. Hsueh, “A new low-voltage-driven GRIN liquid crystal lens with multiple ring electrodes in unequal widths,” Opt. Express 18(18), 18506–18518 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4302–4308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

M. C. Tseng, F. Fan, C. Y. Lee, A. Murauski, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Tunable lens by spatially varying liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 083109 (2011). [CrossRef]

17.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

T. Nose, S. Masuda, S. Sato, J. L. Li, L. C. Chien, and P. J. Bos, “Effects of low polymer content in a liquid-crystal microlens,” Opt. Lett. 22(6), 351–353 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid-crystal microlens arrays using patterned polymer networks,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1608–1610 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, “Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103101 (2005). [CrossRef]

21.

V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 486(4-6), 123–125 (2010). [CrossRef]

22.

L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251912 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 86(5), 051706 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.2040) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Displays
(160.3710) Materials : Liquid crystals
(220.3630) Optical design and fabrication : Lenses

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: January 30, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 25, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: February 25, 2013
Published: March 14, 2013

Citation
Lu Lu, Vassili Sergan, Tony Van Heugten, Dwight Duston, Achintya Bhowmik, and Philip J. Bos, "Surface localized polymer aligned liquid crystal lens," Opt. Express 21, 7133-7138 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-6-7133


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References

  1. S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.18(9), 1679–1684 (1979). [CrossRef]
  2. C. W. Chiu, Y. C. Lin, P. C. P. Chao, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Achieving high focusing power for a large-aperture liquid crystal lens with novel hole-and-ring electrodes,” Opt. Express16(23), 19277–19284 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H.-C. Lin and Y.-H. Lin, “An electrically tunable-focusing liquid crystal lens with a low voltage and simple electrodes,” Opt. Express20(3), 2045–2052 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ren, D. W. Fox, B. Wu, and S.-T. Wu, “Liquid crystal lens with large focal length tunability and low operating voltage,” Opt. Express15(18), 11328–11335 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.103(16), 6100–6104 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Lu, L. Shi, P. J. Bos, T. Van Heugten, and D. Duston, “Late-newspaper: comparisons between a liquid crystal refractive lens and a diffractive lens for 3D displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 42, 171–174 (2011).
  7. Y.-P. Huang, C.-W. Chen, and Y.-C. Huang, “Superzone fresnel liquid crystal lens for temporal scanning auto-stereoscopic display,” J. Disp. Technol.8(11), 650–655 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. P. J. Bos and A. K. Bhowmik, “Liquid-crystal technology advances toward future “True” 3-D flat-panel displays,” Inf. Display27, 6–9 (2011).
  9. G. Lawton, “3D displays without glasses: coming to a screen near you,” Computer44(1), 17–19 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Lu, V. Sergan, T. Van Heugten, D. Duston, A. Bhowmik, and P. J. Bos, “Distinguished paper: tunable polymer localized liquid crystal lenses for autostereoscopic 3D displays,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 43, 383–386 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer38(8), 31–36 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. M. P. C. M. Krijn, S. T. de Zwart, D. K. G. de Boer, O. H. Willemsen, and M. Sluijter, “2-D/3-D displays based on switchable lenticulars,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.16(8), 847–855 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-Y. Kao, Y.-P. Huang, K.-X. Yang, P. C.-P. Chao, C.-C. Tsai, and C.-N. Mo, “An auto-stereoscopic 3D display using tunable liquid crystal lens array that mimics effects of GRIN lenticular lens array,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. 40, 111–114 (2009). [CrossRef]
  14. Y.-Y. Kao, P. C. P. Chao, and C.-W. Hsueh, “A new low-voltage-driven GRIN liquid crystal lens with multiple ring electrodes in unequal widths,” Opt. Express18(18), 18506–18518 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express16(6), 4302–4308 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. C. Tseng, F. Fan, C. Y. Lee, A. Murauski, V. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Tunable lens by spatially varying liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys.109(8), 083109 (2011). [CrossRef]
  17. F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051910 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Nose, S. Masuda, S. Sato, J. L. Li, L. C. Chien, and P. J. Bos, “Effects of low polymer content in a liquid-crystal microlens,” Opt. Lett.22(6), 351–353 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Liquid-crystal microlens arrays using patterned polymer networks,” Opt. Lett.29(14), 1608–1610 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. V. V. Presnyakov and T. V. Galstian, “Electrically tunable polymer stabilized liquid-crystal lens,” J. Appl. Phys.97(10), 103101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. V. V. Sergan, T. A. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Control of the molecular pretilt angle in liquid crystal devices by using a low-density localized polymer network,” Chem. Phys. Lett.486(4-6), 123–125 (2010). [CrossRef]
  22. L. Lu, T. Sergan, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Spatial and orientational control of liquid crystal alignment using a surface localized polymer layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(25), 251912 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. L. Lu, V. Sergan, and P. J. Bos, “Mechanism of electric-field-induced segregation of additives in a liquid-crystal host,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.86(5), 051706 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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