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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Mar. 25, 2013
  • pp: 7202–7208
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Investigation of a planar optical waveguide in 2D PPLN using Helium implantation technique

Q. Ripault, M. W. Lee, F. Mériche, T. Touam, B. Courtois, E. Ntsoenzok, L.-H. Peng, A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 7202-7208 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.007202


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Abstract

In this work, we report the investigation of a planar waveguide in a 2D periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN). The waveguide is fabricated by helium (He+) implantation at 2 MeV and a fluence of 1.5 x 1016 ions/cm2. Second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm using a Q-switched laser and a CW laser diode at 1064 nm, was measured as a function of angular distribution and temperature. The experimental results show higher gain in SHG conversion efficiency in the waveguide than in the bulk 2D PPLN. In particular, SHGs from 2D reciprocal lattice vectors (RLV) are observed and studied.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Nonlinear integrated optics has attracted much attention as it allows designs of new optical components for solid tunable coherent and miniature light sources [1

1. O. B. Jensen, P. E. Andersen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, and P. M. Petersen, “1.5 W green light generation by single pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 6532–6539 (2009).

]. In particular, integrated optics using nonlinear photonic crystals (NLPC) has been recently subject of several developments for applications in the field of light sources and optical signal processing [2

2. N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally Poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 3

3. L. H. Peng, C. C. Hsu, J. Ng, and A. H. Kung, “Wavelength tunability of second-harmonic generation from two dimensional χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals with a tetragonal lattice structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3250–3252 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. NLPCs are materials where the sign of χ(2) is periodically reversed in two dimensions [4

4. V. Berger, “Nonlinear Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4136–4139 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. This produces many reciprocal lattice vectors (RLV) in the 2D reciprocal lattice, corresponding to one or more phase matching solution. Consequently, the 2D structure provides a much greater flexibility to quasi-phase matching (QPM) processes [2

2. N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally Poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] than 1D structure. Despite of low QPM orders, the high flexibility of 2D structure allows multi-wavelength light generation by temperature and angular tuning. 2D-PPLN is an excellent materiel for this purpose. Moreover it offers new QPM orders which are no multiples of the fundamental QPM process. Therefore, such a structure in a waveguide configuration can provide high non-linear conversion efficiency with low power due to long interaction length and high energy density confinement within the crystal.

Up until now, the most widely-used waveguide fabrication techniques in periodically-poled crystals such as 1D PPLN are in-diffusion of metals and ionic exchange [5

5. M. L. Shah, “Waveguide in LiNbO3 by ion exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 652–653 (1975). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, it has been reported that these techniques not obviously affect nonlinear optical properties of the crystal. Recently, Helium ion implantation with several MeV energies has been developed and it manifests an alternative technique to fabricate optical waveguides in nonlinear crystals including 1D PPLN [7

7. B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, and P. Moretti, “Second harmonic generation in helium-implanted periodically poled lithium niobate planar waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 461–469 (2005). [CrossRef]

10

10. F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The flexibility of the implantation technique particularly comes from the fact that one can precisely control the implantation parameters. Regarding to this, the ion beam energy allows us to define accurately the waveguide thickness which is related to the implantation energy of the ions within the crystal. Furthermore, the fluence of ions gives rise to the refractive index variation, creating an optical barrier. This method also allows fabricating nonlinear crystal thin films by crystal ion slicing technique (CIS) [11

11. A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood Jr, D. H. Jundt, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Second-order optical nonlinearity of 10-μm -thick periodically poled LiNbO3 films,” Opt. Lett. 25(14), 1034–1036 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This well-controlled method does not virtually affect linear and non-linear optical properties of PPLN after an optimized post-annealing step of the sample [8

8. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LinbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

]. Besides, He+ implantation ensures a good homogeneity of optical properties along the waveguide, and avoids out-diffusion of lithium oxide from the sample surface which may occur at high annealing temperature with other methods. Despite it induces defects and stress in the implanted region with increasing ion fluence [9

9. F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Opt. 106, 081101 (2012).

, 10

10. F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012). [CrossRef]

], this process shows high efficiency in frequency conversion [8

8. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LinbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

].

In this paper, we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the investigation of optical waveguides in 2D PPLN using He+ implantation technique. The 2D PPLN with a square lattice of a period of 6.92 µm is used in our experiments. The 2D PPLN waveguide obtained by He+ implantation is characterized by the guiding properties and non-linear optical properties. The experimental results particularly include second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements at high power density with a Q-switched laser at 1064 nm. SHG from 2D RLV is also investigated. The characterizations on bulk and waveguides are compared.

2. Sample preparations

The 2D PPLN (z-cut) used in this work is obtained by electrical poling method [12

12. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993). [CrossRef]

]. An electric field density of 21 kV/mm closed to the coercive field of the material, is applied to LiNbO3 through a titanium microelectrode lattice [8

8. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LinbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

]. The poled area is 6 mm x 6 mm at the centre of the sample with a thickness of 1 mm. Figure 1
Fig. 1 z + and z- 2D-periodically-poled surfaces of LiNbO3 with a square lattice period of 6.92 µm revealed by chemical etching.
indicates both z + and z- faces of the poled region with a 2D square lattice with a period of Λ = 6.92 µm and a duty cycle of 50%. This square lattice period is particularly chosen to obtain QPM for SHG at 1064 nm.

After the poling process, helium ions are implanted with a fluence of 1.5 x 1016 ions/cm2 and energy of 1.5 MeV on the entire surface of the 2D-PPLN z + side by using a Van De Graaff accelerator. According to Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) simulations [13

13. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985), www.srim.org.

], the implantation energy is set to 1.5 MeV. At this energy, an optical confinement barrier is expected to be built at a depth of 3.6 µm below the surface of our samples [14

14. F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Int. Optical Materials 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 15

15. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. L. Wang, H. Liu, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical waveguide in stoichiometric lithium niobate formed by 500 keV proton implantation,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16880–16885 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Thus, light can be confined between this barrier and the crystal-air interface. In fact, a large disordering of the crystal lattice is formed by the energy deposition, which results in the decrease of both the ordinary and extraordinary indices of the crystal, thus creating a light confinement for TE and TM guided modes. The choice of implantation energy allows low TM-multimode guiding at a wavelength of 1064 nm (quasi single-mode waveguide at this wavelength). The implantation fluence is chosen to obtain a maximum refractive index variation in the optical barrier. After the implantation, the sample is annealed at 200°C for 1 hour [8

8. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LinbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

]. The annealing treatment allows the crystal to recover from the implantation-induced defects [16

16. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).

]. Note that the implantation should be undertaken after poling, because the quality of the poling process highly depends on the purity of substrates. In fact, it has been shown that poling process on He+-implanted LiNbO3 can alter the growth of reversed domains [7

7. B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, and P. Moretti, “Second harmonic generation in helium-implanted periodically poled lithium niobate planar waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 461–469 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

3. Linear optical properties of the NLPC waveguide

First, we have measured the waveguiding properties of our He+ NLPC samples at 532 nm and 632 nm. For this purpose, we have used the well-known dark m-lines method based on prism coupling in order to excite the structure guided modes. Our results indicate that the waveguide supports both the ordinary and extraordinary guided modes (TE and TM modes, respectively). Note that, 5 TE and 3 TM modes were clearly identified.

Afterward, we have extrapolated the refractive index profile of our sample. We have used the inverse Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (i-WKB) method [17

17. J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15(1), 151–155 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to reconstruct the refractive index profiles. For instance, at 633 nm, the results indicate that the maximum index variation is obtained as 0.07 for the ordinary index and 0.019 for the extraordinary one. The obtained waveguide shows a quasi-step index profile and low-multimode for TM-polarization which allows SHG using the optimal non-linear coefficients d33 at 1064 nm. Comparing these results with other samples made with lower fluences, it is seen that the implantation fluence has a greater influence on the ordinary index than the extraordinary one. It is noted that only the extraordinary effective indices participate to fulfill QPM conditions in our work.

We have also estimated that the profile of no indicates a waveguide thickness of 3.6 µm which is similar to the one obtained by the damage profile simulated using SRIM code [13

13. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985), www.srim.org.

]. As a matter of fact, the ions are initially slowed by electronic excitation (defined as the electronic stopping region just below the surface) with the ionization of the crystal and creation of point defects along their path. At the end of the ion track, a low refractive index optical barrier is built up because of the lattice disorder produced by the nuclear collisions with damages in the crystal lattice and the creation of impurities [18

18. T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Gunter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(2), 628–639 (1998). [CrossRef]

].

We have also measured the optical losses by using a CCD camera in order to collect the light scattered from the waveguide surface. An end-fire coupling configuration is used to couple-in light beam through the polished waveguide face with a microscope objective. Measurements are performed at 532 nm, 633 nm and 1064 nm. We have found that our sample presents a global optical loss of 3 dB/cm. We speculate that defects and optical tunnelling might be at the origin signal attenuation along the waveguide [19

19. S. L. Li, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, G. Fu, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses,” Opt. Express 12(5), 747–752 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The attenuation can be optimised by finding out a compromise between implantation and post-implantation parameters. Another study was conducted concerning multiple He+-implantation at lower fluences and revealed losses of about 2 dB/cm.

4. Second harmonic generation measurements

An experimental setup similar to reference [20

20. B. Vincent, R. Kremer, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, Y. C. Zhang, C. Hsu, and L. H. Peng, “Green light generation in a periodically poled Zn-doped LiNbO3 planar waveguide fabricated by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 235–239 (2007). [CrossRef]

] is used in order to measure the non-linear properties of the bulk and the He+-implanted 2D-PPLN waveguide. Using a Q-switched laser at 1064 nm, the beam goes through a half wave plate and a polarization splitter cube to select the TM polarization and vary the pump power. The NLPC sample is temperature-stabilized using an oven in order to achieve phase matching at the pump laser wavelength. The laser beam is coupled into the waveguide through a x20 microscope objective at a normal incidence. In order to calculate the fundamental power included into the conversion, we have considered 70% of the incident power due to the Fresnel coupling losses. Then, SHG signal at 532 nm is collected via another microscope objective and the infrared is then filtered out by a dichroic mirror in front of the power meter.

First, we have considered the angular distribution of the SHG signal obtained from a sample with a square lattice and a period of Λ = 6.92 µm at different temperatures (T). By using the nonlinear Bragg’s law [4

4. V. Berger, “Nonlinear Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4136–4139 (1998). [CrossRef]

], we can predict the walk-off angles of each RLV according to the temperature. Note that the nonlinear Bragg’s law [4

4. V. Berger, “Nonlinear Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4136–4139 (1998). [CrossRef]

] is set by:
λ2ω=2π|Gmn|(n2ω(T)nω(T))2+4n2ω(T)nω(T)sin2θwo2
(1)
where θwo=(k2ω,kω) is the walk-off angle, nωandn2ωare the extraordinary refractive indices at 1064 nm and 532 nm, and |Gmn|=2πΛm2+n2 with m and n integers

From Eq. (1), the observed SHG-external angles Θmn for these RLVs are calculated:
Θmn(T)=arcsin[n2ω(T)sin[2arcsin[(λ2ωΛ)2(m2+n2)(n2ω(T)nω(T))24n2ω(T)nω(T)]1/2]]
(2)
From Eq. (2), the calculated angles at 53°C are 0° for G10, ± 4.6° for G1 ± 1 and ± 7.8° for G1 ± 2. As a matter of fact, Fig. 4 (a) indicates that the TM-modes can contribute to the SHG for the RLVs of G10, G1-1, G11, G1-2 and G12.

As an example, the experimental results are reported in Fig. 2(b)
Fig. 2 (a) The schematic geometrical reciprocal lattice for SHG interaction. (b) The normalized far-field SHG intensity angular distribution from different RLVs, in bulk at 53°C (brown trace) and 102°C (red trace) and waveguide at 53°C (dark blue trace) and 102°C (blue trace).
. At 53°C the SHG signal is only observed for G10. However, at 102°C, in addition to the G10 contribution, the SHG is also observed around ± 5° in both the bulk and the waveguide in Fig. 2(b), which are close to the calculated values. This is a clear evidence of the RLV contribution to SHG, which is not observed in 1D-PPLN. Moreover, the SHG intensity for G1-1 and G11 in the waveguide is higher than that in the bulk with a slight angular shift due to the fact that in the waveguide, one has to consider the effective refractive indices instead of the materiel refractive index. It is clearly seen from the figure that the SHG efficiency is improved in the waveguide. On the other hand, the SHG intensity relative to the G1-2 and G12 RLVs is not observed in our work.

In the second step, the SHG temperature tuning curves are measured in the 2D-PPLN bulk and the waveguide. Results are displayed in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized optical SHG powers vs. temperature from (a) the 2D-PPLN bulk and (b) the waveguide.
. The optimal crystal temperature is obtained as 53° C for G10 and 102 °C for G1 ± 1. In the inset of the figure, the images taken by a CCD camera clearly show the SHGs for RLV G10 and G1 ± 1. The images confirm again the G1-1 and G11 contribution to SHG. The temperature tuning bandwidth at each peak is halved in the waveguide compared to the bulk case. We also notice a slight shift of the maximum peak temperature in the waveguide configuration (≈0.2 °C). In fact, the consideration of the effective refractive indices in the waveguide QPM conditions should slightly decrease the crystal working temperature. The experimental results are fitted with a sinc function [18

18. T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Gunter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(2), 628–639 (1998). [CrossRef]

]. From this fitting, the interaction length is obtained as 4.4 mm in the waveguide and 1.2 mm in the bulk.

Finally, we report the SHG power at 532 nm versus the pump power at 1064 nm. Initially, we have worked in pulsed regime with a Q-switched laser with a pulse width of 7 ns at a repetition rate of 15 Hz. We note that the SHG emission for G10 in the waveguide is almost doubled as shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 SHG output power vs. input power in pulsed (a) and CW regimes (b). In (b) the numerical fit results in a nonlinear conversion efficiency of 1.23%/W for the waveguide. (c) Conversion efficiency resulting from the 2D-PPLN waveguide (black points) and the bulk (red points) in CW and pulsed regimes.
. This is very likely due to the pump beam confinement in the planar waveguide and the improved effective interaction length as the waveguide is considered.

On the other hand, the SHG is saturated at lower optical pump power in the waveguide than that in the bulk due to the higher power density in the waveguide as shown in Fig. 4(c). Furthermore, at these pump intensities, we observe few damages from photorefractive effects in the waveguide. We have also studied SHGs at much lower pump power density with a CW diode laser at 1064 nm (Fig. 4(b)). For that pump source, the injection pump power into the sample is measured as ~250 mW. At this power, the QPM frequency doubling output power from the waveguide reaches a maximum power of 2.9 mW whereas 1.1 mW is measured from the bulk 2D-PPLN as shown in Fig. 4(b). In Fig. 4(c), the SHG power from the waveguide is three time stronger than that from the bulk, which again clearly shows the improvement of SHG efficiency. The experimental results are fitted to the theoretical curve for second harmonic generation with a polynomial function in Fig. 4(b). The fit gives a non-linear conversion efficiency of 1.23%/W for the waveguide and 0.4%/W for the bulk case. Indeed, the improvement in SHG emission comes from the long interaction length in the waveguide.

5. Conclusion

In this work, we have successfully demonstrated a waveguide in 2D-PPLN by the Helium implantation technique. The obtained experimental results clearly demonstrate that this technique does not affect the non-linear properties of our 2D-PPLN. Furthermore, under the same experimental conditions, the 2D-PPLN waveguide exhibits a three times higher conversion efficiency in SHG from infrared light to green light compared to the bulk ones. We have also observed SHGs resulting from the reciprocal vectors in the 2D lattice crystal.

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge the Taipei Representative Office in France (Taiwan) for support of this research.

References and links

1.

O. B. Jensen, P. E. Andersen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, and P. M. Petersen, “1.5 W green light generation by single pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode,” Opt. Express 17(18), 6532–6539 (2009).

2.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally Poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

L. H. Peng, C. C. Hsu, J. Ng, and A. H. Kung, “Wavelength tunability of second-harmonic generation from two dimensional χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals with a tetragonal lattice structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3250–3252 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

V. Berger, “Nonlinear Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(19), 4136–4139 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

M. L. Shah, “Waveguide in LiNbO3 by ion exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26(11), 652–653 (1975). [CrossRef]

6.

K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1232–1234 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, and P. Moretti, “Second harmonic generation in helium-implanted periodically poled lithium niobate planar waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 247(4-6), 461–469 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LinbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt. 84, 5180–5183 (1998).

9.

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Opt. 106, 081101 (2012).

10.

F. Chen, “Micro- and submicrometric waveguiding structures in optical crystals produced by ion beams for photonic applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(5), 622–640 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood Jr, D. H. Jundt, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, “Second-order optical nonlinearity of 10-μm -thick periodically poled LiNbO3 films,” Opt. Lett. 25(14), 1034–1036 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993). [CrossRef]

13.

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, 1985), www.srim.org.

14.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Development of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: a review,” Int. Optical Materials 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007). [CrossRef]

15.

L. Wang, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, L. L. Wang, H. Liu, and Q. M. Lu, “Optical waveguide in stoichiometric lithium niobate formed by 500 keV proton implantation,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16880–16885 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).

17.

J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, “Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis,” Appl. Opt. 15(1), 151–155 (1976). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. Pliska, D. Fluck, P. Gunter, L. Beckers, and C. Buchal, “Mode propagation losses in He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(2), 628–639 (1998). [CrossRef]

19.

S. L. Li, K. M. Wang, F. Chen, X. L. Wang, G. Fu, D. Y. Shen, H. J. Ma, and R. Nie, “Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses,” Opt. Express 12(5), 747–752 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

B. Vincent, R. Kremer, A. Boudrioua, P. Moretti, Y. C. Zhang, C. Hsu, and L. H. Peng, “Green light generation in a periodically poled Zn-doped LiNbO3 planar waveguide fabricated by He+ implantation,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 235–239 (2007). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.3730) Integrated optics : Lithium niobate
(190.4390) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, integrated optics
(130.7405) Integrated optics : Wavelength conversion devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 29, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 15, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 16, 2013
Published: March 14, 2013

Citation
Q. Ripault, M. W. Lee, F. Mériche, T. Touam, B. Courtois, E. Ntsoenzok, L.-H. Peng, A. Fischer, and A. Boudrioua, "Investigation of a planar optical waveguide in 2D PPLN using Helium implantation technique," Opt. Express 21, 7202-7208 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-6-7202


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References

  1. O. B. Jensen, P. E. Andersen, B. Sumpf, K.-H. Hasler, G. Erbert, and P. M. Petersen, “1.5 W green light generation by single pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode,” Opt. Express17(18), 6532–6539 (2009).
  2. N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, “Hexagonally Poled lithium niobate: a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(19), 4345–4348 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. H. Peng, C. C. Hsu, J. Ng, and A. H. Kung, “Wavelength tunability of second-harmonic generation from two dimensional χ(2) nonlinear photonic crystals with a tetragonal lattice structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(17), 3250–3252 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. V. Berger, “Nonlinear Photonic Crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(19), 4136–4139 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. M. L. Shah, “Waveguide in LiNbO3 by ion exchange techniques,” Appl. Phys. Lett.26(11), 652–653 (1975). [CrossRef]
  6. K. Gallo, C. Codemard, C. B. E. Gawith, J. Nilsson, P. G. R. Smith, N. G. R. Broderick, and D. J. Richardson, “Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett.31(9), 1232–1234 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Vincent, A. Boudrioua, R. Kremer, and P. Moretti, “Second harmonic generation in helium-implanted periodically poled lithium niobate planar waveguides,” Opt. Commun.247(4-6), 461–469 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Rams, J. Olivares, P. J. Chandler, and P. D. Townsend, “Second harmonic generation capabilities of ion implanted LinbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Opt.84, 5180–5183 (1998).
  9. F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Opt.106, 081101 (2012).
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