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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 6 — Mar. 25, 2013
  • pp: 7478–7487
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A novel transform domain processing based channel estimation method for OFDM radio-over-fiber systems

Li Tao, Jianjun Yu, Qi Yang, Yufeng Shao, Junwen Zhang, and Nan Chi  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 6, pp. 7478-7487 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.007478


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Abstract

In this paper, a transform domain processing (TDP) based channel estimation method for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) systems is proposed. Theoretically investigation shows that TDP can greatly reduce the number of required training symbols. An 8 x 4.65 Gb/s multi-user OFDM RoF system over 40 km fiber link and 60 GHz wireless link is experimentally demonstrated utilizing TDP scheme. Compared with conventional time domain averaging (TDA) scheme, the overhead can be reduced from several tens of training symbols to merely one symbol and the receiver sensitivity has been improved by 1.8 dB at BER of 3.8 x 10−3. The calculated BER performance for 8 wireless users clearly validates the feasibility of this TDP-based channel estimation method.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) becomes a very attractive modulation scheme, because it exhibits high spectrum efficiency, flexible coding and strong tolerance towards channel impairments. In recent years, it has been widely utilized in 60 GHz Radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems, which have been considered as a promising candidate to provide multi-Gbps data rate [1

1. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, “Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2376–2397 (2010). [CrossRef]

-5

5. C. Wei, C. Lin, M. Chao, and W. Jiang, “Adaptively modulated OFDM RoF signals at 60 GHz over-long-reach 100-km transmission systems employing phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 49–51 (2012).

]. OFDM modulation scheme could employ training symbols (TSs) as the overhead to perform channel estimation, which can provide the key information of the transmission channel, so the optical channel impairments caused by chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) could be estimated easily. In order to increase the accuracy of channel estimation, which is mainly affected by optical noise in transmission link, time domain averaging based (TDA) [6

6. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and frequency domain averaging (FDA) [7

7. X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] based method are proposed. The former one averages the channel transfer function estimated by multiple TSs, but the disadvantage is that the required number of TSs is large and the estimation could hardly work when the transmission channel is poor. The latter one averages the estimated transfer function over multiple adjacent frequency domain subcarriers in the same TS. This method could improve the accuracy of channel estimation in the presence of large optical noise and reduce the requirement of the overhead, but inaccurate channel estimation occurs on the edge subcarriers because of the averaging windows are not symmetric, thus the system performance would be deteriorated when the considering number of OFDM neighboring subcarriers is decreased. In the wireless communication field, transform domain processing (TDP) based channel estimation method is proposed to overcome this problem, which benefits from the overhead reduction and identical channel estimation accuracy over the whole subcarriers [8

8. Y. Zhao and A. Huang, “A novel channel estimation method for OFDM mobile communication systems based on pilot signals and transform-domain processing,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 3, 2089–2093 (1997).

].

In this paper, the TDP-based channel estimation method for OFDM RoF system is investigated theoretically. The system performances of three different kinds of channel estimation methods are compared. Then an 8 x 4.65 Gb/s multiple-user OFDM RoF system based on TDP-based channel estimation is demonstrated experimentally. The transmission performance of the TDP and TDA based channel estimation method is measured and the BER performance for all 8 wireless users is tested. Obviously TDP scheme can outperform TDA scheme with a sensitivity enhancement about 1.8 dB.

2. Principle

2.1 Theoretical analysis of TDP-based channel estimation

After multiplexing with the beat carrier of a specified frequency spacing and fiber link, the signal at the output of optical band-pass filter can be expressed as
eout(t)=(e(t)+ej(ωc+ωr)t)hf(t)
(2)
Here ωris the frequency spacing between the signal carrier and beat carrier. hf(t) and Hf(ω)are the fiber channel response in time-domain and frequency-domain respectively, i.e. hf(t)=12πHf(ω)exp(jωt)dω. “” is the symbol of convolution.

The PD at the receiver side works as an envelope detector for photonic up-conversion. The output photon current can be expressed as
IPD(t)=Reout(t)eout*(t)=R|(1+γs(t))hf(t)+ejωrt|2=R[1+((1+γs(t))hf(t))2+2((1+γs(t))hf(t))cos(ωrt)]
(3)
Here R denotes the responsivity of PD. The wireless signal with carrier frequency of ωr at the Tx antenna is expressed as

IT(t)=2R(((1+γs(t))hf(t))cos(ωrt))hw(t)
(4)

It should be noted that the direct current and low frequency component are removed in above equation because of the band-pass filter at the wireless signal transmitter. hw(t)and Hw(ω)is the channel response in time-domain and frequency-domain at wireless signal transmitter respectively, i.e. hw(t)=12πHw(ω)exp(jωt)dω. After wireless transmission link, down-conversion and low-pass filter is employed to extract the payload signal, which can be expressed as
IR(t)=RA+RAγs(t)hf(t)hw(t)
(5)
where A represents the power attenuation during the wireless transmission. From Eq. (5), the channel transfer function of the RoF system consists of the fiber channel response and wireless channel response. The channel transfer function of the sampled value can be expressed in frequency domain as follows

H(k)=Hf(k)Hw(k)
(6)

Generally, the conventional TDA-based channel estimation method is employed for optical OFDM systems. H(k)is calculated by averaging over multiple training symbols (TSs). More training symbols would increase the accuracy of channel estimation, but the increasing overhead would reduce the effective bitrate of the OFDM system. In order to improve the accuracy of channel estimation and reduce the length of overhead, transform-domain processing based method is proposed for channel estimation. Figure 2
Fig. 2 The schematic diagram of the proposed OFDM signal process at the receiver.
shows the OFDM signal process at the receiver, and only the channel estimation method is different from the conventional OFDM signal process at the receiver. First, the transfer function H(k) is obtained through initial channel estimation. Usually, only one TS is needed for this. Then, H(k) is transformed toHT(m)by employing another discrete Fourier transform (DFT). HT(m)is in transform domain and expressed as

HT(m)=k=0N1(H(k))exp(j2πmk/N)
(7)

Because the transfer function is distorted by the high “frequency component” in transform domain, a feasible way to improve the channel estimation is to employ a well-designed filter in transform domain. So an improved transfer function H~(k)is given by
H~(k)=1Nm=0N1HT(m)F(m)exp(j2πmk/N),F(m)={1,N2mc<m<N2+mc0,others
(8)
Here F(m) represents the transfer function of a designed filter and mcis the cutoff coefficient which changes along with the channel parameters. The cutoff coefficient mc of the designed filter affects the accuracy of the channel estimation. Owing to most of the energy distribution in the transform domain locates around the “low frequency” component, mcis defined by the following equation.
RT=m=N/2mcN/2+mc|HT(m)|2/m=0N1|HT(m)|2
(9)
So mc represents the level of energy convergence in transform domain under a specified RT and it will be chosen properly according to different channel parameters. Figures 3(e) and 3(f) shows the transfer function after filtering in transform domain.

The initial channel estimation could be operated by employing only one or several TSs, thus the overhead of OFDM signal can be reduced largely. On the other hand, the proposed method could reduce the noise out of the band in transform domain with appropriate filter, so the new transfer function H~(k) will be more accurate.

2.2 Comparison of three channel estimation methods

Table 1

Table 1. Comparison of the three channel estimation methods

table-icon
View This Table
shows the comparison of the three channel estimation methods. The TDA-based method averages the estimated transfer function over multiple TSs, so the required number of TSs is large and the improvement is limited with poor transmission channel. The FDA-based method averages the estimated transfer function over multiple adjacent frequency domain subcarriers in the same TS. It could improve the accuracy of channel estimation in the presence of large optical noise and reduce the overhead. When the number of OFDM subcarriers is decreasing (this probably occurs to reduce the computational complexity of Fast Fourier Transfer in inline digital processing in practical system [9

9. Q. Yang, S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time reception of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM signals,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7985–7992 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. Q. Yang, N. Kaneda, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-Time coherent optical OFDM receiver at 2.5-GS/s for receiving a 54-Gb/s multi-band signal,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2009), San Diego, USA, PDPC, Mar. 2009.

]), the edge subcarriers will experience large channel distortion, which leads to the degradation of system performance. The proposed TDP-based method can reduce the required number of TSs and improve the performance of the edge subcarriers compensation.

The computational complexity of TDA-based and FDA-based method is Ο(n), while the TDP-based method is Ο(2nlog(n)) because of the extra DFT. Here, n represents the number of subcarriers in one OFDM symbols. For a practical OFDM system presented in [9

9. Q. Yang, S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time reception of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM signals,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7985–7992 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. Q. Yang, N. Kaneda, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-Time coherent optical OFDM receiver at 2.5-GS/s for receiving a 54-Gb/s multi-band signal,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2009), San Diego, USA, PDPC, Mar. 2009.

], n is not large for the sake of the computational complexity reduction. So the cost of TDP-based method is not high. In addition, for the extra DFT process, only 2mc+1points are needed to be computed, so the computational complexity of the proposed TDP-based method can be reduced further.

3. Experimental setup and results

In order to investigate the TDP-based channel estimation method, an 8 x 4.65 Gb/s multiple-user discrete Fourier Transform spread (DFT-S) OFDM RoF system is demonstrated. A localized carrier distribution scheme is employed, as shown in Fig. 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) interleaved carrier distribution scheme [11], (b) localized carrier distribution scheme with 15 GHz carrier frequency spacing.
, which is different from the interleaved carrier distribution scheme in [11

11. T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber system using a supercontinuum light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 404–410 (2006). [CrossRef]

,12

12. H. Toda, T. Yamashita, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Demultiplexing using an arrayed-waveguide grating for frequency-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave radio-on-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(8), 1735–1741 (2003). [CrossRef]

], as shown in Fig. 5(b). The middle 4 carriers are beat carriers and another 4 carriers that prepared for signal modulation are located at beat carriers’ left side and right side respectively. Here, 8 signal carriers and 4 beat carriers are demonstrated. Because each beat carrier and the signal carrier at its left or right side can generate mm-wave. Assuming that the total number of carriers is L, the number of carriers that could be used as signal carriers is 2L/3 for the localized schemes, while the number is L/2 for the interleaved scheme. Therefore, the localized scheme cannot only improve the carrier utilization efficiency by 33.3% but also reduce the frequency spacing. The DFT-S OFDM modulation format is utilized because of its good peak-to-average-power-ratio PAPR reduction [13

13. L. Tao, J. Yu, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Shao, and N. Chi, “Analysis of noise spread in optical DFT-S OFDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(20), 3219–3225 (2012). [CrossRef]

-15

15. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Note that this localized scheme would increase the spectral efficiency at the cost of hardware complexity [16

16. L. Tao, J. Yu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Z. He, Y. Shao, J. Zhang, and N. Chi, “Spectrally efficient localized carrier distribution scheme for multiple-user DFT-S OFDM RoF- PON wireless access systems,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29665–29672 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup of the DFT-S OFDM multiple-user RoF system, ECL: external cavity laser, PM: phase modulator, EA: electronic amplifier, IM: intensity modulator, AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, WSS: waveshaper.
. A lightwave at 1551.31 nm from external cavity laser (ECL) with a linewidth less than 100 kHz is utilized as a signal source of the multi-tone generator. The phase modulator (PM, Vπ = 2.9 V) is driven by 15 GHz RF signal. The signal carriers and beat carriers are separated through the first waveshaper (WSS1, Finisar WS4000S). The DFT-S OFDM wireless data is generated off-line and mapped to 4QAM constellation, as shown in Inset B of Fig. 6. The DFT-S OFDM baseband signal is constructed with 256 subcarriers and divided into 4 sub-bands, 4 subcarriers of each sub-band are used for phase estimation. After IDFT and cycle prefix insertion, the RF signal is produced through an arbitrary waveform generator at 5 GSample/s. In order to reduce the complexity of transmitter, the discrete multi-tone (DMT) method is employed [17

17. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. van den Boom, A. M. Koonen, and N. Hanik, “24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2007), Anaheim, USA, PDP 6, Mar. 2011.

]. The optical up-conversion is based on intensity modulator, because its output is of real value. The fiber launch power is set to 2.3 dBm. Figure 7(a)
Fig. 7 Optical spectrum (a) after phase modulator, (b) after wss1, (c) after 2:1 coupler, (d) after wss2.
shows the generated optical spectrum of multi-tone after phase modulator. The separated signal carriers modulated by wireless data is shown in Fig. 7(b). Figure 7(c) denotes the spectrum after multiplexing 8 signal carriers and 4 beat carriers.

After 40 km fiber link, the second waveshaper (WSS2) is employed as a multi-band pass filter and the specified signal carrier and its corresponding beat carrier are filtered and beating at the PD to generate 60 GHz mm-wave for one wireless user. Figure 7(d) shows the optical spectrum after WSS2. Then the 60 GHz mm-wave is amplified by a power amplifier (PA) with 7 GHz bandwidth centered at 60 GHz and broadcasted through a double-ridge guide rectangular horn antenna with a gain of 25 dBi, frequency range of 50-75 GHz. At the end user terminal, the broadcasted wireless signal is received by another 60 GHz horn antenna with 25 dBi gain at frequency range of 50-75 GHz. The broadcast distance between two antennas is 4cm. The received signal is amplified before mixing with 60 GHz RF clock using a V-band balanced mixer for direct signal down-converted, then amplified with an electronic amplifier again after a lowpass filter (LPF) [1

1. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, “Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2376–2397 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The down-converted 4QAM DFT-S OFDM signal is then sampled by a high-speed oscilloscope and processed off-line. For the certain wireless user, one of 8 signal carriers and its corresponding beat carrier could be chosen, so the total rate of this multiple-user system is 8 x 4.65 Gb/s (4.65 Gb/s for each one of 8 wireless users with considering the cost of overhead and inserted pilot). For the offline processing, the cyclic prefix is removed after signal synchronization and digital bandpass filter firstly. Then 256 x 2 points DFT is used to convert the signal in time domain into frequency domain and the baseband signal is divided into 4 sub-band signals and each sub-band signal is processed individually. The TDP-based channel estimation that introduced in Section 2 is employed. A 64-point IDFT is used to recover the signal and the inserted pilot subcarriers in each sub-band are used for phase noise estimation. At last, the errors were counted over 105 bits.

4. Conclusion

We propose a novel channel estimation method based on transform domain processing, which could reduce the overhead of OFDM signal and shows identical channel estimation accuracy over the whole subcarriers. An 8 x 4.65 Gb/s multi-user OFDM RoF system based on this method is demonstrated. Compared with the TDA-based scheme with 8 and 16 TSs, 1.8 dB and 0.8 dB improvements at BER of 3.8 x 10−3 are observed respectively. The calculated BER of all 8 channels are below 3.8 x 10−3 and this clearly shows the feasibility of TDP-based channel estimation.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the NHTRDP (973) of China (Grant No. 2010CB328300), and NNSF of China (No. 61107064, No. 61177071, No. 600837004), Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education, NHTRDP (863 Program) of China (2011AA010302, 2012AA011302), The National Key Technology R&D Program (2012BAH18B00).

References and links

1.

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, “Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2376–2397 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

Z. Cao, J. Yu, M. Xia, Q. Tang, Y. Gao, W. Wang, and L. Chen, “Reduction of intersubcarrier interference and frequency-selective fading in OFDM-ROF systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(16), 2423–2429 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Chowdhury, T. Wang, and G. Ellinas, “Super-broadband optical wireless access technologies,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2008), San Diego, USA, OThD1, Feb. 2008.

4.

B. Liu, X. Xin, L. Zhang, K. Zhao, and C. Yu, “Broad convergence of 32QAM-OFDM ROF and WDM-OFDM-PON system using an integrated modulator for bidirectional access networks,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2010), San Diego, USA, JThA26, Mar. 2010.

5.

C. Wei, C. Lin, M. Chao, and W. Jiang, “Adaptively modulated OFDM RoF signals at 60 GHz over-long-reach 100-km transmission systems employing phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 49–51 (2012).

6.

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Y. Zhao and A. Huang, “A novel channel estimation method for OFDM mobile communication systems based on pilot signals and transform-domain processing,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 3, 2089–2093 (1997).

9.

Q. Yang, S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time reception of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM signals,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7985–7992 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

Q. Yang, N. Kaneda, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-Time coherent optical OFDM receiver at 2.5-GS/s for receiving a 54-Gb/s multi-band signal,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2009), San Diego, USA, PDPC, Mar. 2009.

11.

T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber system using a supercontinuum light source,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 404–410 (2006). [CrossRef]

12.

H. Toda, T. Yamashita, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Demultiplexing using an arrayed-waveguide grating for frequency-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave radio-on-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(8), 1735–1741 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

L. Tao, J. Yu, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Shao, and N. Chi, “Analysis of noise spread in optical DFT-S OFDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(20), 3219–3225 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Tao, J. Yu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Z. He, Y. Shao, J. Zhang, and N. Chi, “Spectrally efficient localized carrier distribution scheme for multiple-user DFT-S OFDM RoF- PON wireless access systems,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29665–29672 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. van den Boom, A. M. Koonen, and N. Hanik, “24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2007), Anaheim, USA, PDP 6, Mar. 2011.

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 3, 2012
Revised Manuscript: February 22, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 4, 2013
Published: March 19, 2013

Citation
Li Tao, Jianjun Yu, Qi Yang, Yufeng Shao, Junwen Zhang, and Nan Chi, "A novel transform domain processing based channel estimation method for OFDM radio-over-fiber systems," Opt. Express 21, 7478-7487 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-6-7478


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References

  1. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, A. Chowdhury, M. F. Huang, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, W. Jian, C. Liu, and Z. Dong, “Cost-effective optical millimeter technologies and field demonstrations for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber access systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(16), 2376–2397 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Cao, J. Yu, M. Xia, Q. Tang, Y. Gao, W. Wang, and L. Chen, “Reduction of intersubcarrier interference and frequency-selective fading in OFDM-ROF systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(16), 2423–2429 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. G. K. Chang, Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Chowdhury, T. Wang, and G. Ellinas, “Super-broadband optical wireless access technologies,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2008), San Diego, USA, OThD1, Feb. 2008.
  4. B. Liu, X. Xin, L. Zhang, K. Zhao, and C. Yu, “Broad convergence of 32QAM-OFDM ROF and WDM-OFDM-PON system using an integrated modulator for bidirectional access networks,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2010), San Diego, USA, JThA26, Mar. 2010.
  5. C. Wei, C. Lin, M. Chao, and W. Jiang, “Adaptively modulated OFDM RoF signals at 60 GHz over-long-reach 100-km transmission systems employing phase noise suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 49–51 (2012).
  6. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Liu and F. Buchali, “Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging based channel estimation for coherent optical OFDM,” Opt. Express16(26), 21944–21957 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Zhao and A. Huang, “A novel channel estimation method for OFDM mobile communication systems based on pilot signals and transform-domain processing,” IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 3, 2089–2093 (1997).
  9. Q. Yang, S. Chen, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Real-time reception of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM signals,” Opt. Express17(10), 7985–7992 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Q. Yang, N. Kaneda, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-Time coherent optical OFDM receiver at 2.5-GS/s for receiving a 54-Gb/s multi-band signal,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2009), San Diego, USA, PDPC, Mar. 2009.
  11. T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber system using a supercontinuum light source,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 404–410 (2006). [CrossRef]
  12. H. Toda, T. Yamashita, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Demultiplexing using an arrayed-waveguide grating for frequency-interleaved DWDM millimeter-wave radio-on-fiber systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(8), 1735–1741 (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Tao, J. Yu, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Shao, and N. Chi, “Analysis of noise spread in optical DFT-S OFDM systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(20), 3219–3225 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express20(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for fiber nonlinearity mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(16), 1250–1252 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. L. Tao, J. Yu, Q. Yang, M. Luo, Z. He, Y. Shao, J. Zhang, and N. Chi, “Spectrally efficient localized carrier distribution scheme for multiple-user DFT-S OFDM RoF- PON wireless access systems,” Opt. Express20(28), 29665–29672 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. van den Boom, A. M. Koonen, and N. Hanik, “24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation,” Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC 2007), Anaheim, USA, PDP 6, Mar. 2011.

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