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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 7 — Apr. 8, 2013
  • pp: 8550–8557
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Remoted all optical instantaneous frequency measurement system using nonlinear mixing in highly nonlinear optical fiber

Lam Anh Bui and Arnan Mitchell  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 8550-8557 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.008550


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Abstract

A novel remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using all optical mixing is demonstrated. This system copies an input intensity modulated optical carrier using four wave mixing, delays this copy and then mixes it with the original signal, to produce an output idler tone. The intensity of this output can be used to determine the RF frequency of the input signal. This system is inherently broadband and can be easily scaled beyond 40 GHz while maintaining a DC output which greatly simplifies receiving electronics. The remoted configuration isolates the sensitive and expensive receiver hardware from the signal sources and importantly allows the system to be added to existing microwave photonic implementations without modification of the transmission module.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

MODERN electronic warfare self protection systems utilize instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM) to ensure a high probability of intercept when detecting potential threats [1

1. J. Tsui, Digital techniques for wideband receivers (SciTech Publishing, 2004).

]. Electronic IFMs have been demonstrated operating from 2 to 20 GHz, but can be limited by bandwidth of delay lines and mixers. Microwave photonic (MWP) systems can provide exceptionally broadband delays, summation and mixing of RF signals in the optical domain. IFM systems have been reported using MWP techniques; however, most require broadband photodectors [2

2. L. Nguyen and D. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]

4

4. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1437–1439 (2010). [CrossRef]

], which can be expensive and failure prone. This becomes particularly important if multiple IFMs are employed to cover several frequency bands.

We have recently demonstrated photonic IFMs using four wave mixing (FWM) in highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] where the amplitude comparison function (ACF) is obtained by measuring the DC power of the idler. It is shown that this idler contains a coherent superposition of differentially delayed modulated optical signals [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This system requires only DC detection, significantly reducing implementation cost, complexity and likelihood of failure. However, this advantage is offset by the requirement for two optical carriers at the transmitter. In practical applications it may not be possible to modify the transmitter and thus techniques to remote the receiver from the transmitter should be considered.

In this paper we propose and demonstrate a photonic IFM system which extends the system of [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] through use of an additional HNLF at the receiver to copy the input signal onto a second optical wavelength. Thus all of the components of the IFM system can be remoted to the receiver, with no specific requirements placed on the transmitter. This modular isolation of the IFM system from the transmitter greatly improves practical potential. It should be noted that a preliminary proof of this concept was presented by us in [6

6. L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber”, Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, 5–9 Dec. (2010).

]; however, the current paper provides an improved implementation, detailed demonstration and rigorous analysis.

2. Original all optical IFM

Figure 1
Fig. 1 (a) Original IFM system; (b) LD1 & LD2 generate optical carriers at frequencies ω1 & ω2; which are: (c) modulated by RF signal using Mach–Zehnder (MZ); (d) differentially delayed by time Δt using cascaded fiber Bragg grating (CFBG), amplified by an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and; (e) mixed in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) to create idler at 2ω1 - ω2; (e). The idler is then isolated using a filter and its power detected using a low frequency photodiode (PD). The output oscillates with RF frequency enabling frequency measurement.
illustrates our previously demonstrated all optical IFM system [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. At the transmitter, two optical carriers are modulated with the RF signal to be measured. These are then differentially delayed and mixed producing new optical wavelengths (idlers) via FWM [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The idlers have characteristics of both original signals. The carrier at the idler wavelengths is the product of the two original carriers, but the signal carried by these idlers is a coherent summation of the two input carriers. Since the sidebands of the input carriers are differentially delayed, a relative phase shift which is proportional to the RF modulating frequency is incurred. Hence, the sidebands at each idler may coherently sum or cancel causing the total optical power at the idler to oscillate with RF frequency enabling frequency measurement.

The system of Fig. 1 has the advantages of ultra-broad bandwidth due to the use of all optical mixing and requires no high speed electronic components since only the total optical power must be measured at the output with no requirement to analyze frequency. Further, despite the output being a coherent superposition of two independently delayed optical carriers; it is also surprisingly stable due to the fact that the idler carrier is the product of the original optical carriers and hence is immune to relative phase variations on these carriers [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

A disadvantage of this system is that a non-standard transmitter is required. This limitation is shared by many other proposed photonic IFM system [2

2. L. Nguyen and D. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]

4

4. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1437–1439 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It may be desirable to measure the RF frequency of a photonic signal without requiring alteration or even access to the transmitter. Such a remote IFM is described in the following section.

3. Remoted all optical IFM principle

E(ω5)=A5ejω5t+B5ej(ω5+Ω)t+B5ej(ω5Ω)t.
(2)

The original signal at ω3 and copied signal at ω5 are isolated by filtering and differentially delayed by time Δt. Assuming this delay is not dispersive, these fields can be described as:.

E(ω3)=[A3+B3ejΩt+B3ejΩt]ejω3t;
(3)
E(ω5)=[A5+B5ejΩ(t+Δt)+B5ejΩ(t+Δt)]ejω5(t+Δt).
(4)

The two optical signals in Eq. (3) and Eq. (4) are then mixed using a second HNLF producing an idler at ω1 = 2ω35 with electric field:
E(ω1)A32A5{1+2m3[ejΩt+ejΩt]+m5[ejΩ(t+Δt)+ejΩ(t+Δt)]}ej2ω3tjω5(t+Δt),
(5)
where m3 = B3/A3 and m5 = B5/A5 are the signal modulation indices at ω3 and ω5 respectively. The total power measured on this idler can be expressed as

P(ω1)A34A52{1+8m32+2m52+12m3m5cos(ΩΔt)}.
(6)

Equation (6) is similar to the frequency measurement equation derived for the original nonlinear mixing IFM system of [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and becomes identical when modulation indices m3 = m5.

4. System characterization

Having conceived an implementation of our novel remoted IFM system, it is now possible to attempt a proof of concept demonstration. However, before attempting such a demonstration, it will be valuable to characterize the system elements systematically in stages to ensure that each stage behaves as required. The component specifications are in the caption of Fig. 2.

4.1 Frequency response of the photonic transmitter

4.2 Optical mixing in HNLF1

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 Optical spectra through system of Fig. 2: (a) input HNLF1; (b) output HNLF1; (c) output programmable Filter1, 100 GHz passband only on Ch3, inset: zoomed in on Ch3 (d) output Filter1, 100 GHz passband only on Ch5; (e) output Filter1, 100 GHz passpands on both Ch3 and Ch5 and reflection from CFBG; (f) output HNLF2; (g) output of Filter 2 / input PD.
shows the measured input spectrum (illustrated in Fig. 2(iii). This spectrum consists of the modulated carrier at Ch3 and the un-modulated pump at Ch4. The RF sidebands of Ch3 are ~28 dB down from the carrier. Figure 3(b) shows the spectrum after passing through HNLF1 (illustrated in Fig. 2(iv). Idlers carrying side-bands are clearly evident. Sidebands are also now evident on the pump at Ch4, which can be attributed to XPM.

Figures 3(c) and 3(d) present the spectra at Ch3 and Ch5 independently isolated using the reconfigurable filter. It is evident that the signals at Ch3 and Ch5 have thus been successfully isolated with unwanted spectral components suppressed by at least 40 dB. The ASE noise has also been reduced by ~30 dB. We expect Ch5 to be a a copy of the signal at Ch3. To verify this expectation, we demodulate Ch3 and Ch5 using high speed photodiodes and then analyze using electrical spectrum analyzer (ESA), as illustrated in inset e) of Fig. 2.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 RF frequency response of various channel configurations for system of Fig. 2: red trace (circles): no pump (Ch4) and 10 dBm on signal Ch3 at input to HNLF1; green trace (squares): output on Ch3 and; blue trace (triangles) Ch5 with equal power on pump and signal at input to HNLF1; solid line: predicted response (see Section 4.1).
presents the RF power measured at Ch3 and Ch5 for various cases of channel illumination. The green and blue curves present the RF signal power received on Ch3 and Ch5 respectively when both signal (Ch3) and pump (Ch4) are present at the input. The RF powers reduce with increasing frequency and the two RF power measurements exhibit essentially the same frequency response scaled by appropriate mixing gain. This shows that the RF signal at Ch5 was in fact a faithful copy of the output on Ch3.

The predicted photonic transmitter frequency response of Section 4.1 is also shown as a solid line in Fig. 4. A fixed gain offset is added to match the prediction to the measurement at Ch3 for the case of illumination of only Ch3. Agreement between the predicted and measured responses is excellent. This confirms that the photonic components and nonlinear mixing in HNLF1 do not alter the frequency response of the photonic transmitter and that the simple model of Section 4.1 can be used up to 40 GHz.

Referring back to Fig. 3(b) and the inset of Fig. 3(c), it can be noted that the carrier to sideband ratios (CSR) of the two idlers at Ch2 and Ch5 are −19 and −22 dB respectively. The CSR at Ch2 is 3 dB higher than that at Ch5. This is expected from optical mixing within HNLF1 [5

5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the CSR at Ch5 and Ch3 are −22 and −28 dB respectively which signifies that the modulation indices at these two channels are not the same. A 6 dB sideband enhancement of Ch5 relatively to Ch3 has been achieved during wavelength conversion process in HNLF1. This translates to a 3 dB enhancement of modulation index. From Section 4.1, the DC modulation index of Ch3 was m30 = 0.129. Thus, the modulation index at Ch5 should be twice this or m50 = 0.258 which agrees well with the measured RF power of Fig. 4.

4.3 Optical mixing in HNLF2

The final characterization step was to establish that the idlers generated by mixing Ch3 and Ch5 in HNLF2 were measurable at the IFM output. To do this, the system was configured as depicted in Fig. 2 and Filter1 was programmed to provide 100 GHz passbands at both Ch3 and Ch5. Figure 3(e) presents the optical spectrum output from Filter1 and also after reflection from the CFBG to impart a differential delay. Only Ch3 and Ch5 are present in the spectrum with other wavelengths being suppressed. This spectrum was input to HNLF2 and Fig. 3(f) presents the spectrum measured at the output of HNLF2. Idlers have evidently been generated at 1542.1 nm (Ch1) and 1551.7 nm (Ch7). The idler at Ch1 is more intense than Ch7 due to the power imbalance between Ch3 and Ch5 at the input to HNLF2.

An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) was employed to isolate the various channels at the output of HNLF2. Figure 3(f) shows the spectrum at the output of the AWG which is nominally only the idler at Ch1, as illustrated in Fig. 2(viii). The AWG has suppressed the optical powers in Ch3 and Ch5 by approximately 40 dB, however these channels are still present at the AWG output. This will add a DC offset to the optical power measured at the IFM output and may increase the noise. However, the RF sidebands are clearly visible on Ch1 indicating that their power should be measureable.

This characterization shows that the optical mixing and filtering processes have behaved as expected and it is thus possible to attempt to demonstrate the complete IFM system.

5. Demonstration of remoted nonlinear mixing IFM

Having characterized the elements of the system, it is now possible to demonstrate the remoted frequency measurement operation. Using the setup of Fig. 2, LD1 was set to 1545.3 nm (Ch3). A 10 dBm RF signal was modulated onto Ch3 using a Mach Zehnder modulator and then transmitted to the remoted receiver. At the receiver, the input signal at Ch3 was combined with a local optical pump provided by LD2 at 1546.9 nm (Ch4) using a 3 dB coupler. The combined optical signal was then amplified to 20 mW using EDFA1 to ensure efficient mixing in the HNLF1. The output of HNLF1 consisted of idlers at 1543.7 nm (Ch2) and 1548.5 nm (Ch5). The idler at Ch5 is the phase conjugate copy of the signal at Ch3. Thus, Ch3 and Ch5 represented two copies of the RF signal required for IFM operation [4

4. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1437–1439 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The signals at Ch3 and Ch5 were extracted by programming Filter1 to provide two 100 GHz passbands centered at 1545.3 nm and 1548.5 nm. The filter output was amplified to 80 mW using EDFA2. Ch3 and Ch5 were then differentially delayed by time Δt = 80 ps using the CFBG and then mixed in HLNF2 to create new idler products appearing at 1542.1 nm (Ch1) and 1551.7 nm (Ch7). Ch1 was then isolated using Filter2 (actually an AWG) and its power was measured using a low speed photodetector and a DC voltmeter.

To interpret this oscillating response as a measurement of frequency, a quantitative prediction of the output voltage as function of input RF frequency is required. The output voltage can be predicted using Eq. (6). This equation requires several system parameters which can be obtained as described in Section 4. To calculate the output DC voltage, it was also necessary to scale Eq. (6) to account for the system frequency invariant response [8

8. L. Bui, N. Sarkhosh, and A. Mitchell, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement: parallel simultaneous implementations in as single highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 915–925 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. This scaling factor was obtained by measuring the system output when the RF signal was turned off. This factor was measured to be ~5 V which agrees well with value calculated from the measured optical intensity of Fig. 3(g). The predicted voltage is plotted using solid line in Fig. 5(a). Excellent agreement between the prediction and measurement is evident.

Frequency interpretation of the measured signals was conducted by solving Eq. (6) using the data of Fig. 5(a). Due to the oscillatory nature of Eq. (6), unambiguous interpretation of frequency can only be made within a half period of oscillation – between a peak and a valley of the voltage curve. The voltage curve of Fig. 5(a) consists of 7 bands where unambiguous frequency measurement is possible. Solving Eq. (6) within each of these bands, we obtain the frequency measurement shown in Fig. 5(b). It is evident that the interpreted frequencies are very close to the actual signal frequency indicated by a solid straight line with the slope of unity. The frequency measurement accuracy degrades at the band edges due to reduction of the voltage-frequency slopes. Frequency measurement errors are calculated and presents as insets of Fig. 5(b) for two representative bands Band 1: DC-6 GHz; and Band 6: 30-37 GHz. For both bands, the errors are less than ± 250 MHz which suggests that the system is stable and accurate. These results complete the remoted IFM demonstration.

7. Discussion and conclusions

The proof of concept was implemented using fiber platform and demonstrated up to 40 GHz with excellent agreement between the predictions and measurements. The interpreted frequency error was within +/− 250 MHz throughout the entire 40 GHz band, demonstrating excellent system stability and noise performance. While electronic IFM solutions are highly sophisticated, it is difficult to scale them to high frequencies. The demonstrated all-optical system is inherently broadband and could be easily scaled to 40 GHz and beyond if required.

In order to achieve the demonstrated performance, it was necessary to use high pump powers to achieve sufficient mixing gain in the cascaded HNLFs. The power and spectral distribution must be carefully balanced to minimize the effect of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) which can cause system instability [6

6. L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber”, Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, 5–9 Dec. (2010).

]. It is also important that the filtering stages effectively isolate the desired channels from the pump and other mixing products. This is particularly true in the copying stage where the copied idler is far weaker than the original signal. It is anticipated that using other wavelength conversion techniques where the converted wavelength is naturally separated from the pump would alleviate this requirement.

It is conceivable that the system could be extended to utilize multiple pumps within the same system to achieve simultaneous parallel IFM functions [8

8. L. Bui, N. Sarkhosh, and A. Mitchell, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement: parallel simultaneous implementations in as single highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 915–925 (2011). [CrossRef]

] and thus allow realization of complex and complete IFM systems. We have shown that such an extension can be achieved with minimal increase in component count and complexity; however, filtering can become complex [8

8. L. Bui, N. Sarkhosh, and A. Mitchell, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement: parallel simultaneous implementations in as single highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 915–925 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. This challenge could be alleviated using our recently reported scheme where each channel is labeled with low frequency tones [11

11. L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Parallel All-Optical Instantaneous frequency measurement system using channel labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1118–1120 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

A possible multi-channel system with cascaded HNLFs, cascaded gratings, high performance filtering and wavelength routing may appear to be prohibitively complex and hence impractical bulky and expensive. Recent progress in integrated microwave photonics has demonstrated that sophisticated MWP circuits and several compact nonlinear media such as SOAs could practically be integrated into a photonic chip [12

12. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “ Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser and Photonics Reviews, 1–33 (2013).

]. The design and realization of such an all-optical signal processing chip is currently under investigation.

References and links

1.

J. Tsui, Digital techniques for wideband receivers (SciTech Publishing, 2004).

2.

L. Nguyen and D. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Mengual, B. Vidal, and J. Marti, “Photonic RF frequency measurement combining SSB-SC modulation and birefringence,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2676–2680 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

S. Pan and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1437–1439 (2010). [CrossRef]

5.

L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber”, Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, 5–9 Dec. (2010).

7.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

8.

L. Bui, N. Sarkhosh, and A. Mitchell, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement: parallel simultaneous implementations in as single highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 915–925 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Danielsen, and K. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 942–954 (1996). [CrossRef]

10.

T. Durhuus, R. Pedersen, B. Mikkelsen, K. Stubkjaer, M. Oberg, and S. Nilsson, “Optical wavelength conversion over 18 nm at 2.5 Gb/s by DBR-laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 86–88 (1993). [CrossRef]

11.

L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Parallel All-Optical Instantaneous frequency measurement system using channel labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1118–1120 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “ Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser and Photonics Reviews, 1–33 (2013).

OCIS Codes
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(350.4010) Other areas of optics : Microwaves
(190.4223) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear wave mixing
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 26, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 12, 2013
Published: April 1, 2013

Citation
Lam Anh Bui and Arnan Mitchell, "Remoted all optical instantaneous frequency measurement system using nonlinear mixing in highly nonlinear optical fiber," Opt. Express 21, 8550-8557 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-7-8550


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References

  1. J. Tsui, Digital techniques for wideband receivers (SciTech Publishing, 2004).
  2. L. Nguyen and D. Hunter, “A photonic technique for microwave frequency measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1188–1190 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Mengual, B. Vidal, and J. Marti, “Photonic RF frequency measurement combining SSB-SC modulation and birefringence,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2676–2680 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Instantaneous microwave frequency measurement using a photonic microwave filter pair,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(19), 1437–1439 (2010). [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Bui, M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, N. Sarkhosh, H. Emami, B. J. Eggleton, and A. Mitchell, “Instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22983–22991 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Remoted instantaneous frequency measurement system using optical mixing in highly nonlinear fiber”, Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, 5–9 Dec. (2010).
  7. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).
  8. L. Bui, N. Sarkhosh, and A. Mitchell, “Photonic instantaneous frequency measurement: parallel simultaneous implementations in as single highly nonlinear fiber,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 915–925 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. Danielsen, and K. Stubkjaer, “All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(6), 942–954 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Durhuus, R. Pedersen, B. Mikkelsen, K. Stubkjaer, M. Oberg, and S. Nilsson, “Optical wavelength conversion over 18 nm at 2.5 Gb/s by DBR-laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(1), 86–88 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. L. Bui and A. Mitchell, “Parallel All-Optical Instantaneous frequency measurement system using channel labeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(13), 1118–1120 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “ Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser and Photonics Reviews, 1–33 (2013).

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