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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 7 — Apr. 8, 2013
  • pp: 8865–8872
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Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B.J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 7, pp. 8865-8872 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.008865


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Abstract

We present the first elastic, space division multiplexing, and multi-granular network based on two 7-core MCF links and four programmable optical nodes able to switch traffic utilising the space, frequency and time dimensions with over 6000-fold bandwidth granularity. Results show good end-to-end performance on all channels with power penalties between 0.75 dB and 3.7 dB.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In this paper, we present results from the first optical multi-dimensional networking demonstration based on two 7-core MCFs and four programmable AoD all-optical nodes able to switch traffic in space, frequency and time, with a range of bandwidth granularity of over 6000 fold [7

7. N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “First fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication. Optical Society of America, 2012, p. Th.3.D.3.

]. We successfully demonstrate end-to-end transport of 5.7-Tb/s traffic, using a combination of fixed/flexgrid, elastic band and sub-wavelength switching. Channels include 4x555 Gb/s, 60x42.7 Gb/s and 38x10 Gb/s wavelength channels, plus 12x42.7 Gb/s and 6x10 Gb/s time-multiplexed sub-wavelength.

2. Multi-granular switching using space, frequency and time

Optical networks using SDM technology will be required to switch large volumes of traffic combined with the flexibility to switch bands or individual wavelength and sub-wavelength channels. In this paper we demonstrate that by switching in space, frequency and time, as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Illustration of multi-granular switching in space, frequency and time, using AoD.
, it is possible to provide a large range of all-optical granularities in networks with SDM transmission technology. When the space domain is used, entire fibre /cores are switched without demultiplexing the signals they carry. Therefore, there is no need for (de)multiplexing devices, which improves node scalability. However, fibre/core switching is only possible if all the signals in a given input go to the same output. If this is not the case, fibres/cores may require demultiplexing into individual bands or channels and aggregated at the output, e.g. using spectrum selective switches (SSSs). Moreover, spectrum slots can be further divided into time slices, to support time-multiplexed sub-wavelength traffic.

3. Architecture-on-demand nodes

In a dynamic network, where switching requirements may change over time, a flexible network infrastructure is required in order to cope effectively with such changes. Hence, we propose using AoD nodes, which are able to adapt and evolve with traffic requirements [8

8. N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011 37th European Conference and Exhibition on, Sept. 2011.

]. As illustrated in Fig. 1(c), an AoD node consists of an optical backplane, e.g. based on a large port-count 3D-MEMS [9

9. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4433–4454 (2006). [CrossRef]

], connected to the node’s inputs and outputs and several plug-in modules that provide the required signal processing functions, e.g. SSSs [10

10. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, March 2006.

], fast switches [11

11. K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, July 2010, 540 –542.

], EDFAs, wavelength converters, regenerators, etc. Based on traffic requirements, an AoD synthesis algorithm calculates a synthetic node design that provides the required functionality with the available modules. Such synthesis algorithms are presented elsewhere [12

12. M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), 2012 16th Conference on, Apr. 2012.

]. Furthermore, if traffic requirements change an alternative synthetic node design may be calculated and implemented in order to fulfill the new requirements. The time required to implement a new synthetic node depends on the speed of the optical backplane and the number of cross-connections to configure. However, once a synthetic node has been setup the optical backplane speed has no influence on the supported bit rates as cross-connections remain unchanged until a new synthetic node, with different functionalities, is required.

An illustrative example of a synthetic node design that supports multiple switching granularities is shown in Fig. 1(b). It provides fibre/core switching granularity from input C to output G. Elastic wavelength and waveband granularity from input A to output E are implemented with an SSS. Also, sub-wavelength switching granularity is implemented with a PLZT fast switch (e.g. 10 ns switching time), which is set to ON during time-slots occupied by sub-wavelength channels that need to be passed through to the output, and OFF elsewhere. Although at the PLZT input there is a copy of all signals from input A, and they all undergo the same alternating ON/OFF process, the undesired signals are filtered out by the SSS. Thus, only the spectral components of the required sub-wavelength channels is passed through to output E. Synthetic node designs, such as the one shown in Fig. 1(b), are implemented by creating appropriate cross-connections in the optical backplane, so that fibre inputs/outputs and modules are interconnected to construct the required synthetic node. For instance, the cross-connections depicted in Fig. 1(c) would implement the synthetic node design presented in Fig. 1(b).

One major benefit of AoD is the flexibility to support arbitrary switching granularities on any port. Various switching granularities are implemented by selectively introducing modules within the synthetic node design that provide the required switching function, e.g. (DE)MUX or Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS) devices for fixed-grid switching, SSSs for flexgrid/gridless switching, fast switches for time-based sub-wavelength switching, etc. Also, due to their efficient multi-granular support, AoD nodes can provide substantial scalability gains. High scalability is achieved by switching traffic at the coarsest granularity, i.e. fibre/core switching, so that single backplane cross-connections are able to switch large volumes of traffic. At the same time, the system is able to provide switching at finer granularities (e.g. fixed/flexgrid, subwavelength switching) plus additional functionality when necessary, with extra modules inserted only when and where required. Therefore, AoD can yield overall hardware reductions [12

12. M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), 2012 16th Conference on, Apr. 2012.

].

This is illustrated in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Comparison of multiple switching granularities provided by AoD and a conventional ROADM design in an SDM environment.
, where all channels from input cores 2 and 7 require switching to output cores 6 and 7 respectively. In order to fulfill signals’ switching requirements, an AoD node utilizes only two cross-connections. In contrast, a conventional static ROADM broadcasts the channels to all possible outputs only to select them again at the required output, as shown in Fig. 2(b). Hence, in this case the conventional ROADM approach introduces higher loss and is less hardware efficient than the AoD approach, as the modules employed to implement the broadcast and select functions (optical amplifiers, power splitters and SSSs) are underutilized. Also, as illustrated in Fig. 2(a), the AoD node is able to provide additional functionality when required, e.g. wavelength conversion. It is possible to achieve hardware reductions by dimensioning the number of modules that provide additional functionality according to their specific demand, so that the blocking probability is lower than a given threshold. For instance, if the demand for a specific functionality increases a higher number of modules that provide such functionality will be required (connected to the backplane) in order to maintain the same blocking probability. This method of dimensioning additional functionalities (services) in an AoD node is enabled by the fact that modules can be connected freely to any input/output ports, thereby making it possible to share modules. In contrast, in a static node design sharing modules is not always possible as they are fixed to specific inputs/outputs. Therefore, static nodes will often require a higher number of modules than AoD nodes to achieve the same blocking probability for a specific additional functionality.

4. MCF links

As shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Experimental setup of the elastic SDM and multi-granular network, (b) Optical spectra and time plots.
, a 2-km trench-assisted 7-core fibre (MCF-1), and a 3-km single-step index homogeneous 7-core fibre (MCF-2) are used for connecting nodes 1-3. Inset A of Fig. 3(a) shows the MCF facets. Both MCFs were fabricated by Mitsubishi Cable Industries, and connected to optical nodes using SDM MUX/DEMUX devices based on free-space optics [13

13. W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “Free-space coupling optics for multi-core fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2012 IEEE, July 2012, 230 –231.

]. There are two main contributions to the total core loss of the MCF links, one due to the multi-core fibre itself and the other due to the free-space coupling optics. The total loss of the MCF and SDM MUX/DEMUX was measured for each core in both MCF links, results are presented in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Combined MCF and SDM MUX/DEMUX (a) insertion loss for each core, (b)inter-core crosstalk.
. The average loss across all cores was 2 dB for MCF-1 and 2.4 dB for MCF-2. The maximum core loss fluctuation observed over an 11-hour period was 0.4 dB and 0.2 dB for MCF-1 and MCF-2 respectively, as shown in Fig. 4(b). The average measured crosstalk (including MUX/DEMUX contributions) was −56.5 dB and −53.8 dB for MCF-1 and MCF-2 respectively, as depicted in Fig. 4(c).

5. Experimental SDM and multi-granular network setup and results

The elastic multi-dimensional switching network is comprised of four programmable optical nodes of different sizes and capabilities, as shown in Fig. 3(a). Nodes 1-4 are based on the AoD concept [8

8. N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011 37th European Conference and Exhibition on, Sept. 2011.

] and consist of an optical backplane that interconnects MCF/SMF fibre inputs, functional modules and MCF/SMF fibre outputs, as shown in Fig. 1(c). The optical backplanes of Nodes 1, 2 and 4 are implemented as independent partitions of a 160x160 3D-MEMS optical switch with a 20-ms switching time. Node 3 is implemented with a 16x16 beam steering switch [14

14. T. A. Truex, A. A. Bent, and N. W. Hagood, “Beam-steering optical switch fabric utilizing piezoelectric actuation technology,” http:/www.polatis.com/products/technology.asp.

]. Average losses of both switches per cross-connection are 2 dB and 0.59 dB, respectively. Node-4 is linked to Nodes 1, 2 and 3 by different lengths of SMF, shown in Fig. 3(a).

Signals A-J, which are input to nodes 1-4, consist of mixtures of 555 Gb/s Discrete Multi-tone (DMT) [15

15. N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, Sept. 2011.

], 42.7 Gb/s, and 10 Gb/s OOK NRZ signals (continuous or sub-wavelength channels) with different destinations as described in Table 1

Table 1. Summary of channels used in the experimental SDM networking demonstration

table-icon
View This Table
. Various lengths of fibres, including an 80-km installed fibre between the towns of Colchester and Ipswich, are inserted for signal transmission or de-correlation, as shown in Fig. 3(a). Fibre/core switching is realized in Node-1, where SMF inputs B-E, G, and K are 〉exibly connected to MCF-1 core 1-6. Fixed-grid switching is also demonstrated in Node-1, where 9x10G signals from H and 4x10G signals from Node 4 (I) are combined in a 200-GHz Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and transmitted over core 7 of MCF-1 to Node-2. Switching across multiple dimensions with the largest granularity range is demonstrated in Node-2. The core/core switching has the coarsest granularity, and the signals from cores 1-4 of MCF-1 are directly switched to cores 1-4 of MCF-2 because they have common destinations (Node 3). On the other hand, signals from core 7 and inputs A, F and J (Figs. 3(b)i-iv) consist of channels with different destinations. Such spatial fragmentation was effectively solved with the AoD node functions. Figure 3(b)v-vii show the spectra of Node-2 outputs, where 700 GHz elastic band switching and 50G-600G 〉exgrid switching are demonstrated by means of a Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCOS)-based Spectrum Selective Switch (SSS) [10

10. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, March 2006.

]. Figure 3(b)viii represents an elastic sub-wavelength switching of 10G/42.7G channels using a 10-ns PLZT switch [11

11. K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, July 2010, 540 –542.

], where time-slot size is variable within 1-18µs on a 64-µs frame. Since the minimum data rate of sub-wavelength switched 10G channel and maximum data rate of a space-switched core amount to 156 Mb/s and 939.3 Gb/s respectively, these results demonstrate 6000-fold elastic bandwidth granularity.

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) OSNR of each channel (λ), legend = drop node - □nal MCF(core), (b) BER curves for Tx-2 F λ1218 and λ2227, (c) E-to-E BER results for 555G (52sub-carriers) and (d) typical BER curves for different channels and paths.
shows the end-to-end OSNR of the channels after ampli□cation and dispersion compensation. BER results for the 42.7G signals that traverse the longest path (Tx-2 F λ1218 and λ2227) showed a maximum penalty at BER = 10−9 of 2.4 dB, Fig. 5(b). End-to-end BER curves for Tx-1 A λ0 (555G) are presented in Fig. 5(c). All sub-carriers showed BER under 2x10−3 for average received powers higher than −32 dBm. Figure 5(d) shows typical BER curves where penalties of Tx-1 A λ0, Tx-1 B λ3, Tx-2 F λ18 and Tx-1 A sub-λ2 were 1.75 dB, 0.75 dB, 1.7 dB and 3.7 dB (due to high PLZT loss). The measured inter-core crosstalk penalty for 555G and 42.7G over MCF1-core1 and MCF2-core1 was negligibly small, as shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Inter-core crosstalk penalty results for Tx-1 λ6 (42.7 Gb/s) and Tx-1 λ0 (555 Gb/s) SC26 through MCF1-core 1 and MCF2-core 1. For the measurements without crosstalk cores 2-7 of MCF1 and MCF2 were disconnected.
.

6. Conclusions

We have presented the first SDM multi-granular switching network based on two 7-core MCFs and four programmable AoD all-optical nodes able to switch traffic with a range of over 6000-fold elastic bandwidth granularities utilizing the space, frequency and time dimensions. We demonstrated sub-wavelength, fixed/flexgrid, elastic band, space switching and spatial defragmentation of 5.7-Tb/s traffic with good end-to-end performance.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the EPSRC grant EP/I01196X: The Photonics Hyperhighway. The authors are grateful to Mitsubishi Cable Industries from Japan for providing the MCFs and would like to thank Polatis for the loan of the low-loss space switch and Yenista Optics for the bandwidth-variable optical filter.

References and links

1.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2012, p. PDP5C.1.

2.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), s12–s20 (2012). [CrossRef]

3.

X. J. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 21(7), 1081–1095 (2003). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009). [CrossRef]

5.

T. Ban, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Watanabe, and H. Takahashi, “A novel large-scale OXC architecture that employs wavelength path switching and fiber selection,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Optical Society of America, 2012, p. We.3.D.1.

6.

Y. Iwai, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Large-Scale photonic node architecture that utilizes interconnected small scale optical cross-connect sub-systems,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Optical Society of America, 2012, p. We.3.D.3.

7.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “First fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication. Optical Society of America, 2012, p. Th.3.D.3.

8.

N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011 37th European Conference and Exhibition on, Sept. 2011.

9.

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4433–4454 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, March 2006.

11.

K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, July 2010, 540 –542.

12.

M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), 2012 16th Conference on, Apr. 2012.

13.

W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “Free-space coupling optics for multi-core fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2012 IEEE, July 2012, 230 –231.

14.

T. A. Truex, A. A. Bent, and N. W. Hagood, “Beam-steering optical switch fabric utilizing piezoelectric actuation technology,” http:/www.polatis.com/products/technology.asp.

15.

N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, Sept. 2011.

OCIS Codes
(060.4250) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 16, 2012
Revised Manuscript: January 4, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 23, 2013
Published: April 3, 2013

Citation
N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B.J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, "Fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes," Opt. Express 21, 8865-8872 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-7-8865


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References

  1. J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference. Optical Society of America, 2012, p. PDP5C.1.
  2. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag.50(2), s12–s20 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. X. J. Cao, V. Anand, Y. Xiong, and C. Qiao, “A study of waveband switching with multilayer multigranular optical cross-connects,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm.21(7), 1081–1095 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47(11), 66–73 (2009). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Ban, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Watanabe, and H. Takahashi, “A novel large-scale OXC architecture that employs wavelength path switching and fiber selection,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Optical Society of America, 2012, p. We.3.D.1.
  6. Y. Iwai, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Large-Scale photonic node architecture that utilizes interconnected small scale optical cross-connect sub-systems,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, Optical Society of America, 2012, p. We.3.D.3.
  7. N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, R. Nejabati, D. Simeonidou, J. Sakaguchi, W. Klaus, B. J. Puttnam, T. Miyazawa, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, and I. Henning, “First fully-elastic multi-granular network with space/frequency/time switching using multi-core fibres and programmable optical nodes,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication. Optical Society of America, 2012, p. Th.3.D.3.
  8. N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, M. Irfan, Y. Qin, and D. Simeonidou, “Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold bandwidth granularity,” in Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011 37th European Conference and Exhibition on, Sept. 2011.
  9. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4433–4454 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2006 and the 2006 National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference. OFC 2006, March 2006.
  11. K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC), 2010 15th, July 2010, 540 –542.
  12. M. Garrich, N. Amaya, G. S. Zervas, P. Giaccone, and D. Simeonidou, “Architecture on demand: Synthesis and scalability,” in Optical Network Design and Modelling (ONDM), 2012 16th Conference on, Apr. 2012.
  13. W. Klaus, J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “Free-space coupling optics for multi-core fibers,” in Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2012 IEEE, July 2012, 230 –231.
  14. T. A. Truex, A. A. Bent, and N. W. Hagood, “Beam-steering optical switch fabric utilizing piezoelectric actuation technology,” http:/www.polatis.com/products/technology.asp .
  15. N. Amaya, M. Irfan, G. Zervas, K. Banias, M. Garrich, I. Henning, D. Simeonidou, Y. R. Zhou, A. Lord, K. Smith, V. J. F. Rancano, S. Liu, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, “Gridless optical networking field trial: Flexible spectrum switching, defragmentation and transport of 10G/40G/100G/555G over 620-km field fiber,” in 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC), 2011, Sept. 2011.

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