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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 8 — Apr. 22, 2013
  • pp: 10351–10357
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A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal

Alexander Klenner, Matthias Golling, and Ursula Keller  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 10351-10357 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.010351


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Abstract

A high-power gigahertz SESAM modelocked Yb:KGW laser is pumped with a commercial multimode diode laser and enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal without additional amplification or pulse compression. The ultrafast Yb:KGW solid-state laser oscillator generates 125-fs pulses at an average power of 3.4 W and a repetition rate of 1.06 GHz with a record-high peak power of 22.7 kW. An octave-spanning frequency comb was generated with a 1-m long highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) launching only 900 mW of the total average power with a PCF coupling efficiency of 70%. The frequency comb offset was successfully detected with a carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency beat signal of 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio for a resolution bandwidth of 100 kHz. The robust and simple pumping scheme based on a commercially available multimode diode laser makes this laser attractive for future frequency comb metrology applications.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The recent advances of gigahertz femtosecond lasers has enabled many applications such as ultra-high-speed optical data transmission [1

1. D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]

], nonlinear bio-imaging [2

2. S.-W. Chu, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Real-time second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on a 2-GHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 11(8), 933–938 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and frequency metrology [3

3. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

5

5. E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, D. J. Jones, D. Barbier, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Erbium-Ytterbium waveguide laser mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 149–151 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) modelocked solid-state lasers [6

6. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8

8. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]

] are excellent sources for optical frequency combs, which have become some of the most precise instruments in fundamental science and technology to date. Frequency comb applications benefit from higher gigahertz pulse repetition rates, since the increased comb tooth spacing provides a simpler access to the individual optical comb lines [9

9. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition the increased power per comb line for a given average power improves the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for many comb applications, such as high-resolution spectroscopy [10

10. V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, “High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1734–1736 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and the Astro-comb [11

11. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Different laser technologies, such as Kerr-lens modelocked (KLM) Ti:sapphire laser oscillators [12

12. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(1), 42–44 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], fiber lasers, diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) and novel SESAM modelocked semiconductor lasers are being pushed into gigahertz pulse repetition rate regime with increased high peak power. Ti:sapphire lasers deliver very short pulses and exhibit low noise levels, but they rely on expensive multi-watt single-mode green pump lasers. Furthermore KLM requires critical laser cavity alignment, typically operated at the edge of a stability region, which increases the sensitivity to mechanical or thermal perturbations of the laser. More convenient and robust are diode-pumped fiber laser systems. However, fiber lasers operate with high gain and high nonlinearities, which can lead to higher phase noise [13

13. S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To enter the GHz-regime short fibers of a few centimeters length become necessary, which limit the achievable output power [14

14. I. Hartl, H. A. McKay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully Stabilized GHz Yb-Fiber Laser Frequency Comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Denver, Colorado, USA, 2009), p. MF9.

]. SESAM modelocked diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) are excellent compact sources for frequency combs. They combine the favorable properties of cost-efficient diode-pumping and an intrinsic low quantum noise level [15

15. A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1536–1538 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Furthermore, DPSSLs can be modelocked robustly with SESAMs without any critical cavity alignments and achieve watt-level average powers without any amplification, even in combination with high repetition rates [8

8. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), 33–167.

].

Gigahertz SESAM modelocked DPSSLs have to overcome some challenges also because the decreased pulse energy may result in Q-switching instabilities [17

17. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

] and the reduced pulse peak power makes nonlinear processes, such as supercontinuum generation, more difficult. To effectively address these challenges, shorter pulses and higher average powers are required. Short pulses with a duration of 55 fs were obtained from a 1-GHz Cr:LiSAF laser with an average output power of 110 mW [18

18. D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Remarkable progress of GHz-DPSSLs was achieved using Yb-doped potassium tungstate lasers such as Yb:KGW and Yb:KYW: high efficiency [19

19. T. C. Schratwieser, C. G. Leburn, and D. T. Reid, “Highly efficient 1 GHz repetition-frequency femtosecond Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1133–1135 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], high repetition rate [20

20. S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4248–4253 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with multimode pumping [21

21. S. Yamazoe, M. Katou, T. Adachi, and T. Kasamatsu, “Palm-top-size, 1.5 kW peak-power, and femtosecond (160 fs) diode-pumped mode-locked Yb+3:KY(WO4)2 solid-state laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 748–750 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], KLM [22

22. M. Endo, A. Ozawa, and Y. Kobayashi, “Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KYW laser at 4.6-GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12191–12197 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and graphene modelocking [23

23. H.-W. Yang, C. Kim, S. Y. Choi, G.-H. Kim, Y. Kobayashi, F. Rotermund, and J. Kim, “1.2-GHz repetition rate, diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by a carbon nanotube saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29518–29523 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] were reported in recent years. A stabilized frequency comb was generated from Yb:KYW in the MHz-regime [24

24. S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and the first self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz DPSSL was demonstrated with an Yb:KGW laser, which delivered an average output power of 2.2 W in 290-fs pulses and a peak power of 6.7 kW [25

25. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this case a more complex pump laser was used with the high-brightness DBR tapered diode laser [26

26. C. Fiebig, G. Blume, C. Kaspari, D. Feise, J. Fricke, M. Matalla, W. John, H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, and G. Erbert, “12W high-brightness single-frequency DBR tapered diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1253–1255 (2008). [CrossRef]

], which was also more sensitive for optical feedback.

In this paper, we report a gigahertz femtosecond DPSSL with the highest average power and a record-high peak power based on a SESAM modelocked diode-pumped Yb:KGW. This laser delivers a pulse repetition rate of 1.06 GHz, a pulse duration of 125 fs and an average output power of 3.43 W. These parameters correspond to a pulse energy of 3.2 nJ and a peak power of 22.7 kW. Without any additional amplification and pulse compression a self-referenceable frequency comb was generated, launching the output of this laser into a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF).

2. Experimental setup

The laser is based on a 5% Yb-doped KGW (potassium gadolinium tungstate, Yb:KGd(WO4)2) crystal of 2 mm thickness with broadband anti-reflection coatings on both sides. Yb:KGW provides favorable large absorption and emission cross sections [27

27. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Y b-dope d KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2.,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1317–1319 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 28

28. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997). [CrossRef]

] supporting low lasing threshold, high efficiency and a reduced tendency for Q-switched modelocking (QML). Furthermore, the gain material has proven to be capable to deliver pulse durations down to 100 fs [29

29. G. Paunescu, J. Hein, and R. Sauerbrey, “100-fs diode-pumped Yb:KGW mode-locked laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 555–558 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and average output powers up to 10 W [30

30. G. R. Holtom, “Mode-locked Yb:KGW laser longitudinally pumped by polarization-coupled diode bars,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2719–2721 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A strong absorption line located around 981 nm is used to pump the crystal.

So far only high-brightness close to Gaussian beam pumps have been used for high-repetition-rate lasers [20

20. S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4248–4253 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 31

31. R. Paschotta, L. Krainer, S. Lecomte, G. J. Spühler, S. C. Zeller, A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, “Picosecond pulse sources with multi-GHz repetition rates and high output power,” New J. Phys. 6, 174 (2004). [CrossRef]

], since small mode sizes are required to avoid QML [17

17. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. However, the output power of such high-brightness laser diodes is usually limited to a few hundred milliwatts. More powerful tapered amplifier laser diodes [26

26. C. Fiebig, G. Blume, C. Kaspari, D. Feise, J. Fricke, M. Matalla, W. John, H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, and G. Erbert, “12W high-brightness single-frequency DBR tapered diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1253–1255 (2008). [CrossRef]

] are highly sensitive to back-reflections from the system, potentially leading to a catastrophic damage of their facets [32

32. A. K. Chin and R. K. Bertaska, “Catastrophic Optical Damage in High-Power, Broad-Area Laser Diodes,” in Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices, O. Ueda, and S. J. Pearton, eds. (Springer, New York, 2013), 123–147.

]. For the current laser a commercially available transversal-multimode fiber-coupled laser diode is used. We consider this approach simpler, cheaper and more robust because it is based on a standard diode-pumping scheme typically used for commercial DPSSLs.

The multimode pump diode (LUMICS, LU0975T250) delivers up to 24 W output power and provides a 4.2-nm broad spectrum centered around 978 nm. Its multimode character (M2 ≈25) results in a comparably low brightness. A careful choice of pump optics and an appropriate cavity design still enables a relatively small gain mode size of approximately 115 μm in diameter (calculated with ABCD-matrix formalism).

We followed the approach of building a Σ-shaped cavity instead of a simpler Z-shape (Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the 1-GHz SESAM modelocked diode-pumped KGW laser oscillator: L1 and L2 denote the pump optics, BS is a dichroic beam splitter; M1 is the input-output coupler; M2, M4 are curved GTI mirrors; M3 is a flat dichroic folding mirror and the SESAM is placed as the second end-mirror. A 3.2% output coupling was used with the M1 mirror.
). The additional folding mirror provides more flexibility especially for cavity dispersion management. One cavity end-mirror (M1) and a flat folded mirror (M3) are highly transparent for the pump wavelength. Therefore M1 transmits the pump power for the gain medium, while M3 eliminates the remaining pump light protecting the SESAM.

The dichroic cavity mirror M1 offers 3.2% transmission at the lasing wavelength of 1046.6 nm. Therefore it is used as an output coupler for the oscillator. Subsequently a dichroic beam splitter (BS) separates the pulsed laser light from the pump light.

Two Gires-Tournois interferometer (GTI) type mirrors (M2, M4) provide a negative group delay dispersion (GDD) of −500 fs2 each. Thus stable soliton modelocking [33

33. F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996). [CrossRef]

] is obtained by the balance between self-phase-modulation (SPM) and an overall negative GDD in the cavity. To start and maintain the fundamental continuous-wave (cw) modelocking we inserted a single InGaAs quantum-well based SESAM with an incident mode size diameter of 215 μm. The SESAM structure is based on an antiresonant design [34

34. L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, “Design and Operation of antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable semiconductor absorbers for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(2), 311–322 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 35

35. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005). [CrossRef]

] and was modified by deposition of a 60 nm thick fused silica layer, leading to a modulation depth of 2% and a saturation fluence of ≈20 μJ/cm2 (measured at 1030 nm with the setup presented in [36

36. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High Precision Optical Characterization of Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)(San Jose, California, 2008), p. talk CThKK6. [CrossRef]

]). The nonsaturable losses are below 1%. The SESAM is soldered onto a copper heat-spreader, which is kept at room temperature via a Peltier element. Note, that the laser is a self-starting “turn-key” system, which can operate at least 12 hours without decreasing performance.

3. Results

The second-harmonic autocorrelation trace and the optical spectrum are shown in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) respectively. Both are fitted assuming ideal sech2-shape pulses. The integrated overlap of the low-brightness pump light with the fundamental mode of the cavity is calculated to be 78%, assuming a tophat and a Gaussian beam profile respectively. An insufficient overlap could lead to gain for higher-order spatial modes of the cavity. However undisturbed single-mode TEM00 operation is confirmed by the measured M2 of the laser of 1.04. Furthermore, the microwave frequency spectrum verifies cw modelocking without side peaks (Fig. 2(c)). Thus brightness conversion via the gain crystal works effectively.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 SESAM modelocked multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser at a 1-GHz pulse repetition rate: (a) Average output power vs. pump power: continuous-wave (cw) lasing (blue), Q-switched modelocking (QML) (red) and cw modelocking (green); pulse duration vs. pump power: measured pulse duration (purple) and calculated pulse duration from measured optical spectrum (yellow) (b) fCEO beats measured with 30 dB S/N at 100 kHz RBW (unaveraged) including frep.
depicts the average laser output power versus pump power. The cw-lasing threshold is located at 2.1 W pump power and the cw slope efficiency is 20%. Modelocking starts at a pump power of 7.2 W, accompanied by a jump in average output power from 1.07 W to 1.38 W and an increase of the slope efficiency to 34.6% due to reduced cavity losses for a saturated absorber in a high-Q cavity. The observed Q-switched modelocking (QML) range is remarkably narrow: it occurs only within a 100 mW pump power range at 7.2 W and is then suppressed quickly. One may have expected a stronger tendency for QML considering the relatively large mode sizes in the gain and absorber and the moderate modulation depth of the SESAM. However, both soliton modelocking and SESAM roll-over provide better stabilizing mechanisms against QML [17

17. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

, 37

37. R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 151–158 (2005). [CrossRef]

].

The measured pulse duration and the time-bandwidth product (TBP) limited pulse duration calculated from the measured optical spectrum are in good agreement with each other at lower power and additional SPM broadening explains the lower TBP limit at higher power (Fig. 3(a)). At the maximum output power of 3.43 W we obtain a TBP of 0.386 (theoretical limit would be 0.315 for sech2-pulses).

We used this laser without additional pulse compression and explored the regime for stable CEO frequency detection and self-referenceable gigahertz frequency comb generation. Launching only 900 mW of the total average power with a coupling efficiency of 70% directly into a 1-m long highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) we generated an octave-spanning spectrum. The PCF has a zero-dispersion wavelength at 945 nm and a 3.2-μm core diameter. The stabilization of the frequency comb requires a highly coherent spectrum [38

38. J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] which should be obtained for short pulses with high peak power. In this regime the spectral broadening should be dominated by higher order dispersion and stimulated Raman scattering without modulation instabilities and noise amplification. A proposed simplified metric for the supercontinuum coherence is a soliton order N below 10 [39

39. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. For our specific laser pulses and fiber parameters we calculated N = 5.6, indicating a coherent supercontinuum generation according to this simple guideline.

A standard f-to-2f interferometer scheme [3

3. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

] was utilized to measure the CEO frequency. We used a dichroic mirror for wavelength separation in the quasi-common path interferometer (Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Full experimental setup including 1-GHz SESAM modelocked Yb:KGW oscillator, PCF and f-to-2f interferometer. M: silver mirror; M680, M1360: Notch-type mirror for 680 nm, 1360 nm; BS: dichroic beam splitter; OI: optical isolator; HWP1, HWP2: half-wave-plate for 1050 nm and 1310 nm; L1, L2, L3: lenses (focal lengths: 3.1 mm, 40 mm and 50 mm); PBS: polarizing beam splitter; PCF: photonic crystal fiber (see text for specs.); PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate for SHG of 1360 nm; BP: bandpass filter 680-10, PD: amplified photodiode with 0.5 ns response time; MSA: microwave spectrum analyzer; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; AC: second harmonic autocorrelator.
). We obtained a strong beat signal with 30 dB signal-to-noise ratio at 100 kHz resolution bandwidth (RBW) (Fig. 3(b)), which will be used to stabilize this self-referenceable gigahertz frequency comb. However, CEO stabilization using a electronic feedback to the pump laser is not straightforward. We note that it has been recently shown that a high signal-to-noise ratio and a low-noise CEO beat signal alone is not sufficient for stable frequency comb generation [40

40. N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4428–4430 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, additional work beyond the scope of this paper will be necessary in order to finally demonstrate a stabilized frequency comb.

4. Conclusion

We presented a 1-GHz DPSSL with record-high peak power of 22.7 kW enabling stable frequency comb generation without additional pulse compression or amplification. Strong fCEO beats of 30 dB S/N (100 kHz RBW) are detected, which will be explored for stable frequency comb generation in the future. The presented laser combines a gigahertz pulse repetition rate with femtosecond pulses and a high average output power level with record-high peak power.

The 1-GHz laser is pumped by a robust and low-cost pump source. This approach is advantageous compared to Ti:sapphire laser oscillators, which require expensive single-mode pumps in the green (e.g., generated by the second-harmonic of a solid-state laser, which itself is pumped by a diode laser). The high performance and simplicity of the present system is very interesting for numerous applications and commercializing of such compact and reliable laser sources.

Further increasing the repetition rate of the presented laser appears feasible, since the observed QML-range is negligibly small. The given power and pulse duration should allow scaling of the system to a 10-GHz repetition rate with a peak power remaining in kW-range.

For improved fCEO beat detection even shorter pulse durations can be beneficial. Optimizing the cavity dispersion and utilizing a faster SESAM could lead to sub-100 fs pulses. Moreover, our observation on suppressed QML enables the possibility to substitute Yb:KGW by a gain material with broader emission-bandwidth, such as Yb:CALGO [41

41. J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Laser emission with low quantum defect in Yb: CaGdAlO4.,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1345–1347 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 42

42. Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 119–121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which could provide even shorter pulses.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by ETH Research Grant ETH-26 12-1 and the Swiss Innovation Promotion Agency with the KTI contract Nr. 10497.2 PFNM-NM.

References and links

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D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]

2.

S.-W. Chu, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Real-time second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on a 2-GHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 11(8), 933–938 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]

4.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(22), 5102–5105 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, D. J. Jones, D. Barbier, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Erbium-Ytterbium waveguide laser mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(2), 149–151 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]

8.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, “High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1734–1736 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(1), 42–44 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24171–24181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

I. Hartl, H. A. McKay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully Stabilized GHz Yb-Fiber Laser Frequency Comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Denver, Colorado, USA, 2009), p. MF9.

15.

A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1536–1538 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), 33–167.

17.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]

18.

D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1446–1448 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

T. C. Schratwieser, C. G. Leburn, and D. T. Reid, “Highly efficient 1 GHz repetition-frequency femtosecond Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1133–1135 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4248–4253 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. Yamazoe, M. Katou, T. Adachi, and T. Kasamatsu, “Palm-top-size, 1.5 kW peak-power, and femtosecond (160 fs) diode-pumped mode-locked Yb+3:KY(WO4)2 solid-state laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 748–750 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. Endo, A. Ozawa, and Y. Kobayashi, “Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KYW laser at 4.6-GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12191–12197 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

H.-W. Yang, C. Kim, S. Y. Choi, G.-H. Kim, Y. Kobayashi, F. Rotermund, and J. Kim, “1.2-GHz repetition rate, diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by a carbon nanotube saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29518–29523 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 19–26 (2008). [CrossRef]

25.

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

C. Fiebig, G. Blume, C. Kaspari, D. Feise, J. Fricke, M. Matalla, W. John, H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, and G. Erbert, “12W high-brightness single-frequency DBR tapered diode laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1253–1255 (2008). [CrossRef]

27.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Y b-dope d KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2.,” Opt. Lett. 22(17), 1317–1319 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B 64(4), 409–413 (1997). [CrossRef]

29.

G. Paunescu, J. Hein, and R. Sauerbrey, “100-fs diode-pumped Yb:KGW mode-locked laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 555–558 (2004). [CrossRef]

30.

G. R. Holtom, “Mode-locked Yb:KGW laser longitudinally pumped by polarization-coupled diode bars,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2719–2721 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

31.

R. Paschotta, L. Krainer, S. Lecomte, G. J. Spühler, S. C. Zeller, A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, “Picosecond pulse sources with multi-GHz repetition rates and high output power,” New J. Phys. 6, 174 (2004). [CrossRef]

32.

A. K. Chin and R. K. Bertaska, “Catastrophic Optical Damage in High-Power, Broad-Area Laser Diodes,” in Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices, O. Ueda, and S. J. Pearton, eds. (Springer, New York, 2013), 123–147.

33.

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 540–556 (1996). [CrossRef]

34.

L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, “Design and Operation of antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable semiconductor absorbers for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(2), 311–322 (1995). [CrossRef]

35.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81(1), 27–32 (2005). [CrossRef]

36.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High Precision Optical Characterization of Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)(San Jose, California, 2008), p. talk CThKK6. [CrossRef]

37.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 151–158 (2005). [CrossRef]

38.

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]

40.

N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4428–4430 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Laser emission with low quantum defect in Yb: CaGdAlO4.,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1345–1347 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(1), 119–121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.3940) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Metrology
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics
(140.3615) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, ytterbium
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: February 27, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 11, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 11, 2013
Published: April 19, 2013

Citation
Alexander Klenner, Matthias Golling, and Ursula Keller, "A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal," Opt. Express 21, 10351-10357 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-8-10351


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References

  1. D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. Ben Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s−1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011). [CrossRef]
  2. S.-W. Chu, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, C.-Y. Lin, and H.-J. Tsai, “Real-time second-harmonic-generation microscopy based on a 2-GHz repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express11(8), 933–938 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999). [CrossRef]
  4. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, D. J. Jones, D. Barbier, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, “Erbium-Ytterbium waveguide laser mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.12(2), 149–151 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett.17(7), 505–507 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996). [CrossRef]
  8. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb,” Science326(5953), 681 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, “High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1734–1736 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett.16(1), 42–44 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Schilt, N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, C. Schori, M. C. Stumpf, G. Di Domenico, S. Pekarek, A. E. H. Oehler, T. Südmeyer, U. Keller, and P. Thomann, “Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(24), 24171–24181 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Hartl, H. A. McKay, R. Thapa, B. K. Thomas, A. Ruehl, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Fully Stabilized GHz Yb-Fiber Laser Frequency Comb,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics (Denver, Colorado, USA, 2009), p. MF9.
  15. A. Schlatter, B. Rudin, S. C. Zeller, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spühler, L. Krainer, N. Haverkamp, H. R. Telle, and U. Keller, “Nearly quantum-noise-limited timing jitter from miniature Er:Yb:glass lasers,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1536–1538 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), 33–167.
  17. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. D. Li, U. Demirbas, J. R. Birge, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, A. Sennaroglu, F. X. Kärtner, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked GHz femtosecond Cr:LiSAF laser with kW peak power,” Opt. Lett.35(9), 1446–1448 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. C. Schratwieser, C. G. Leburn, and D. T. Reid, “Highly efficient 1 GHz repetition-frequency femtosecond Yb3+:KY(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Lett.37(6), 1133–1135 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Pekarek, A. Klenner, T. Südmeyer, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser with a repetition rate of 4.8 GHz,” Opt. Express20(4), 4248–4253 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Yamazoe, M. Katou, T. Adachi, and T. Kasamatsu, “Palm-top-size, 1.5 kW peak-power, and femtosecond (160 fs) diode-pumped mode-locked Yb+3:KY(WO4)2 solid-state laser with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Lett.35(5), 748–750 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Endo, A. Ozawa, and Y. Kobayashi, “Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KYW laser at 4.6-GHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express20(11), 12191–12197 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H.-W. Yang, C. Kim, S. Y. Choi, G.-H. Kim, Y. Kobayashi, F. Rotermund, and J. Kim, “1.2-GHz repetition rate, diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by a carbon nanotube saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Express20(28), 29518–29523 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. A. Meyer, J. A. Squier, and S. A. Diddams, “Diode-pumped Yb:KYW femtosecond laser frequency comb with stabilized carrier-envelope offset frequency,” Eur. Phys. J. D48(1), 19–26 (2008). [CrossRef]
  25. S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. C. Fiebig, G. Blume, C. Kaspari, D. Feise, J. Fricke, M. Matalla, W. John, H. Wenzel, K. Paschke, and G. Erbert, “12W high-brightness single-frequency DBR tapered diode laser,” Electron. Lett.44(21), 1253–1255 (2008). [CrossRef]
  27. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, A. V. Podlipensky, V. P. Mikhailov, and G. Huber, “Pulsed laser operation of Y b-dope d KY(WO4)2 and KGd(WO4)2.,” Opt. Lett.22(17), 1317–1319 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Lagatsky, V. G. Shcherbitsky, V. P. Mikhailov, E. Heumann, T. Jensen, A. Diening, and G. Huber, “CW laser performance of Yb and Er,Yb doped tungstates,” Appl. Phys. B64(4), 409–413 (1997). [CrossRef]
  29. G. Paunescu, J. Hein, and R. Sauerbrey, “100-fs diode-pumped Yb:KGW mode-locked laser,” Appl. Phys. B79(5), 555–558 (2004). [CrossRef]
  30. G. R. Holtom, “Mode-locked Yb:KGW laser longitudinally pumped by polarization-coupled diode bars,” Opt. Lett.31(18), 2719–2721 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R. Paschotta, L. Krainer, S. Lecomte, G. J. Spühler, S. C. Zeller, A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, K. J. Weingarten, and U. Keller, “Picosecond pulse sources with multi-GHz repetition rates and high output power,” New J. Phys.6, 174 (2004). [CrossRef]
  32. A. K. Chin and R. K. Bertaska, “Catastrophic Optical Damage in High-Power, Broad-Area Laser Diodes,” in Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices, O. Ueda, and S. J. Pearton, eds. (Springer, New York, 2013), 123–147.
  33. F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton Mode-Locking with Saturable Absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 540–556 (1996). [CrossRef]
  34. L. R. Brovelli, U. Keller, and T. H. Chiu, “Design and Operation of antiresonant Fabry-Perot saturable semiconductor absorbers for mode-locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(2), 311–322 (1995). [CrossRef]
  35. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005). [CrossRef]
  36. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High Precision Optical Characterization of Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirrors (SESAMs),” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)(San Jose, California, 2008), p. talk CThKK6. [CrossRef]
  37. R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B80, 151–158 (2005). [CrossRef]
  38. J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.27(13), 1180–1182 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006). [CrossRef]
  40. N. Bucalovic, V. Dolgovskiy, M. C. Stumpf, C. Schori, G. Di Domenico, U. Keller, S. Schilt, and T. Südmeyer, “Effect of the carrier-envelope-offset dynamics on the stabilization of a diode-pumped solid-state frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.37(21), 4428–4430 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “Laser emission with low quantum defect in Yb: CaGdAlO4.,” Opt. Lett.30(11), 1345–1347 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. Y. Zaouter, J. Didierjean, F. Balembois, G. Leclin, F. Druon, P. Georges, J. Petit, P. Goldner, and B. Viana, “47-fs diode-pumped Yb3+:CaGdAlO4 laser,” Opt. Lett.31(1), 119–121 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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