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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 8 — Apr. 22, 2013
  • pp: 9238–9246
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Widely tunable difference frequency generation source for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy

Chun-Chieh Liao, Yu-Hung Lien, Kuo-Yu Wu, Yan-Rung Lin, and Jow-Tsong Shy  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 9238-9246 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.009238


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Abstract

We have developed a widely tunable mid-infrared difference frequency generation (DFG) source by mixing ∼ 1 W Ti:sapphire laser and 6 W Nd:YAG laser beams in a 50-mm MgO-doped long periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN). The power of the DFG source is > 2 mW over the tuning range of 2.66–4.77 μm and its free-running linewidth is about 100 kHz. Combining various frequency stabilisation schemes for the Nd:YAG laser and the Ti:sapphire laser, the DFG frequency can be precisely controlled. Besides, its frequency can be determined better than 12 kHz by measuring the Ti:sapphire laser frequency using an optical frequency comb. Two high resolution spectroscopic studies on 12C16O2 molecule are demonstrated using this DFG source. The saturation spectra of R(18) and R(60) transitions of 0001 ← 0000 fundamental band at 4.2 μm and P(20) transition of [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 band at 2.7 μm have been observed and their absolute transition frequencies are measured with an accuracy better than 30 kHz.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The mid-infrared (mid-IR) coherent sources have been enthusiastically developed since the early era of lasers. One of the major impetuses is that many molecular rovibrational spectral lines exist in mid-IR spectral region, and appropriate coherent sources are strongly demanded for the relevant studies and applications such as spectroscopy and trace detection. In the past, either the wavelength tunability or power was limited for available sources such as molecular lasers, lead-salt diodes and nonlinear optical devices. Nevertheless, the emergence of the innovative sources such as quasi-phase-matching (QPM) nonlinear optical devices, quantum cascade laser (QCL) and solid state lasers significantly changes the scenario [1

1. Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds. Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2003), vol. 89 [CrossRef] .

5

5. A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Physique 8, 1100–1128 (2007) [CrossRef] .

].

Among these innovative sources, the QPM continuous-wave difference frequency generation (DFG) is rather favorable for studying high precision spectroscopy [6

6. D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. D. Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30, 997–999 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

10

10. M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, “Broadly tunable mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4422–4424 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

]. The frequency of DFG source is solely determined by the difference between two input sources whose wavelengths are usually in either visible or near infrared region, in which frequency control technique is very mature. Moreover, the frequencies of two input sources can be precisely measured or directly locked [6

6. D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. D. Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30, 997–999 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 7

7. K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009) [CrossRef] .

, 9

9. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 11

11. I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17, 9582–9587 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

] to an optical frequency comb (OFC) and therefore the DFG frequency. If higher power is desired, several schemes including an optical power amplifier for one input source [12

12. D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 281–288 (2002) [CrossRef] .

], cavity-enhanced scheme [13

13. I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ti:sapphire laser intracavity difference-frequency generation of 30 mW cw radiation around 4.5μm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3616–3618 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 14

14. M. F. Witinski, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “Pump-enhanced difference-frequency generation at 3.3 μm,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2600–2606 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

] and waveguide nonlinear crystal [9

9. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

, 15

15. K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, “Spectroscopic detection of methane by use of guided-wave diode-pumped difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1052–1054 (1998) [CrossRef] .

, 16

16. D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

] can significantly boost the output.

In this paper, we describe the development of a mid-IR DFG source with mW-level power, wide tuning range, narrow linewidth and high frequency accuracy. The DFG is generated by pumping a periodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) crystal with a Ti:sapphire laser and a Nd:YAG laser and its wavelength can cover 2.66–4.77 μm by tuning the Ti:sapphire laser and choosing the QPM PPLN period correspondingly. The frequency accuracy of the DFG source is better than 12 kHz by applying appropriate locking schemes to the pump sources and employing an OFC for measuring the absolute frequencies. Comparing with the very latest high precision spectrometers based on DFG [8

8. G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

10

10. M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, “Broadly tunable mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4422–4424 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

] and cw optical parametric oscillator (cw OPO) [17

17. I. Ricciardi, E. D. Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. D. Rosa, and P. De Natale, “Frequency-comb-referenced singly-resonant OPO for sub-Doppler spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20, 9178–9186 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

19

19. K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. I. I. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012) [CrossRef] .

], the reported spectrometer has a very large tuning range, a decent linewidth and frequency accuracy but a mediocre sensitivity attributed to the lack of absorption enhancement implementation. The characteristics of these spectrometers are smmarised in Table 1. To demonstrate this novel source, we investigate the saturation spectra of 12C16O2 rovibrational transitions: 0001 ← 0000 R(18) and R(60) at 4.2 μm and [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 P(20) at 2.7 μm, and their absolute frequencies are measured with an accuracy better than 30 kHz.

Table 1. Characteristics of the latest high precision mid-infrared spectrometers.

table-icon
View This Table

2. Experimental setup

2.1. Difference frequency generation source

The schematic of our DFG source is illustrated in Fig. 1. The mid-IR DFG radiation is generated by simultaneously pumping a MgO:PPLN crystal with a pump laser and a signal laser. The pump beam is from a Ti:sapphire laser (MBR-110, Coherent) with power ∼ 1 W in the wavelength range 760–870 nm, and its linewidth is about 100 kHz in free run. The signal beam is either a 1064 nm “Master” Nd:YAG laser (Model 166, Lightwave Electronics), or “Slave” Nd:YAG laser (Mephisto 1200NE, InnoLight) offset-locked to the former one, depending on different experimental schemes and the linewidths are both about 5 kHz. To boost the power of the idler laser, i.e. the DFG radiation, the signal beam is amplified to 6 W by an Yb-fibre amplifier (AR-10K-1064-LP-SF, IPG Photonics). An optical isolator is attached to the fibre amplifier to prevent the potential damage caused by the optical feedback effect. The pump and signal laser beams are combined by a dichroic mirror (DM) and directed into an antireflection-coated MgO:PPLN crystal. In order to achieve good beam overlapping, these two laser beams are focused into the MgO:PPLN crystal with different lenses. The MgO:PPLN crystal (HC Photonics) is 50 mm long and 1 mm thick and hosts ten different gratings whose periods are from 21.25 to 23.5 μm with 0.25 μm increment. In order to satisfy QPM condition, we tune the crystal temperature, which can be set between 30 and 200 °C, to adapt to the selected PPLN period. A Brewster angle germanium plate is following to block the pump and the signal beams. The output power of the DFG source is initially larger than 15 mW at 3.6 μm as a fresh crystal is installed but deteriorates to about 5 mW after a period of three-month operation due to unknown mechanisms.

Fig. 1 The schematic layout of the DFG source. OI: optical isolator. HWP: half wave plate. PBS: polarisation beam splitter. BS: beam splitter. PD: photodetector. IM: a mirror on indexing mount. BD: beam dump. Yb FA: Yb optical fibre amplifier. ML: mode-matching lens. DM: dichroic mirror. Ge filter: a germanium plate at Brewster angle. F-P: highly stable Fabry-Pérot cavity. InSb: InSb photodetector. SA Cell: saturated absorption cell. SF cell: saturated fluorescence cell. The region enclosed by green dash line is covered by plexiglass and continuously purged with dry nitrogen.

2.2. DFG frequency tuning

Two different DFG frequency tuning schemes have been implemented in the experiment. First scheme, called Ti:S tuning, is tuning the Ti:sapphire laser while master Nd:YAG laser frequency is locked to a specific hyperfine transition of 127I2 using wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Apparently, the DFG frequency of this scheme carries the same frequency modulation coming from the master Nd:YAG laser. Second scheme, called YAG tuning, is to tune the slave Nd:YAG laser respect to the master YAG laser via offset-locking while the Ti:sapphire laser is locked to a highly stable optical cavity by typical side-of-fringe locking scheme [20

20. W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008), vol. 1, p. 297.

]. The offset-locking is based on the frequency-dependent phase shift experienced by the beat frequency of the master and slave lasers when it propagates along a 10 m long coaxial cable [21

21. U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243 (1999) [CrossRef] .

]. The beat frequency is precisely tuned by a RF frequency synthesizer and therefore the slave laser frequency as well. The DFG frequency are modulated by directly applying a sinusoidal signal on the piezo of slave Nd:YAG laser. Because of the exceptional linewidth performance of the slave Nd:YAG laser, the bandwidth of the loop filter is set to be pretty low, and the influences coming from master and slave Nd:YAG laser modulations on beat frequency locking are suppressed. The stable optical cavity is constructed by optical contacting the cavity mirrors directly onto a ultra-low thermal expansion Zerodue spacer. The thermal drift of the cavity is further suppressed by placing it into a vacuum chamber which is constantly pumped by an ion pump and enclosed in a temperature stabilised box. By beating against our OFC we found that the frequency jitter of the stabilised Ti:sapphire laser is around 10 kHz and the frequency drift is less than 100 kHz/hr. To avoid the Ti:sapphire frequency fluctuations due to the laser intensity variation, a differencing scheme is employed.

2.3. Absolute frequency measurement

Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the iodine-stabilised Nd:YAG master laser.

Our OFC is based on a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser (Gigajet20, Gigaoptics). Its repetition frequency is about 1 GHz, and the output spectrum of the mode-locked laser is further stretched by coupling the light into a 1 m long photonic crystal fibre (NL-PM-750, NKT Photonics A/S) to generate a supercontinuum covering 500–1450 nm. The repetition frequency fr is detected by a fast silicon photodiode and phase-locked to an RF signal source by controlling the laser cavity length. The carrier envelope offset frequency δ is detected via the f-2f self-reference scheme [24

24. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999) [CrossRef] .

, 25

25. H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327–332 (1999) [CrossRef] .

], and phase-locked to another RF signal source by controlling the intracavity optical intensity. To ensure the frequency accuracy of the OFC, all RF equipments including RF synthesizers and universal frequency counters are referenced to a GPS disciplined Rb frequency standard (PRS10, Stanford Research System). The overall accuracy of our OFC is better than 10−12 level for 1000 s measurement time. This OFC has been used on absolute frequency measurements of near infrared hyperfine transitions of I2[26

26. C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, H. Knöckel, H.-C. Chui, E. Tiemann, and J.-T. Shy, “Precise frequency measurements of 127I2 lines in the wavelength region 750–780 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1208–1214 (2010) [CrossRef] .

], 2S–3S transitions of Li [27

27. Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 042511 (2011) [CrossRef] .

], and 6P–6D transitions of Tl [28

28. I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 042504 (2011) [CrossRef] .

].

3. High resolution spectroscopic measurements of 12C16O2

To demonstrate the application of our DFG source on high precision spectroscopy, we proceed the absolute frequency measurement on the 0001 ← 0000 fundamental band at 4.3 μm and [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 band at 2.7 μm of the common carbon dioxide isotopologue (12C16O2).

3.1. 0001 ← 0000 fundamental band at 4.3μm

The saturation spectroscopy of the 0001 ← 0000 fundamental band at 4.3 μm is observed by collimating the DFG beam into a 20-cm long flowing gas cell and being retroreflected by a spherical mirror. The available 4.3 μm DFG power is about 2 mW and the radius of the collimated beam is about 2 mm. The theoretical saturation intensity is estimated about 0.0026 mW/mm2. The reflected beam is partially picked up by a CaF2 plate and fed into a LN2-cooled InSb detector. To reduce the atmospheric absorption of the DFG beam, we enclose the experimental region with a plexiglas cover and continuously purge the region with dry nitrogen. The DFG frequency is tuned by the Ti:S tuning scheme and the 3rd harmonic demodulated saturation dip of CO2 spectral line is obtained using a lock-in amplifier. The observed spectrum 0001 ← 0000 R(18) line shown in Fig. 3 is acquired with modulation frequency 3 kHz and modulation depth 1.1 MHz on the master Nd:YAG laser. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is above 1000 @ 1 Hz bandwidth for CO2 pressure ∼ 2 mTorr. Meanwhile, the FWHM of the transition 1.16 MHz is derived from the dependence of the peak amplitude of the third-derivative signal on the modulation width [29

29. H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76–83 (2006) [CrossRef] .

]. To measure the absolute frequency of the transition centre, we lock the Ti:sapphire laser onto the CO2 transition centre and measure its frequency using the OFC. The transition frequency is determined as 70 834 903 061(12) kHz by the difference between the Ti:sapphire and the master Nd:YAG laser frequencies. Although the precision of the measurement is about 8 kHz, the accuracy of this measurement is limited to 12 kHz which includes the uncertainties of the OFC, offsets coming form frequency locking electronics. The self-induced pressure shift is negligible for current experimental condition.

Fig. 3 The third harmonic demodulated signal of 0001 ← 0000 R(18) line.

Fig. 4 The chronological distribution of absolute frequency measurements of 0001 ← 0000 R(18) line.

3.2. [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 band at 2.7μm

The saturation spectroscopy and heterodyne frequency measurements of the [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 band were first performed by W. Urbans group [30

30. A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161–168 (1991) [CrossRef] .

]. A tunable color centre laser with output power > 10 mW was used for the spectroscopy, and the frequency was measured by heterodyning the color centre laser with two frequency-stabilised CO lasers simultaneously. The absolute frequencies of nine transitions in [1001, 0201]I ← 0000 band were measured with accuracy better than 1.2 MHz (two standard deviations). The small transition dipole moment and high saturation intensity limited the signal-to-noise ratio, and hence the accuracy of frequency measurements.

Fig. 5 The schematic of the longitudinal 4.3 μm fluorescence collecting cell (L-cell).
Fig. 6 The second harmonic demodulated signal of P(20) [1001, 0201]I ← 0000. The frequency span = 10 MHz, and scan time T is 500 s.

4. Summary

The wavelength span of the DFG source is currently limited by the Ti:sapphire laser. By replacing the output coupler, it can easily cover 700–1000 nm, and then the wavelength of the DFG source can span over 2–16 μm. Different nonlinear optical crystals are definitely switched because of the optical transparency but the frequency accuracy is still the same. The frequency accuracy of the DFG source can be further improved by measuring the frequencies of Nd:YAG and Ti:sapphire lasers simultaneously.

Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan, ROC under grant NSC 96-2112-M007-014-MY3.

References and links

1.

Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources, I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, eds. Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, 2003), vol. 89 [CrossRef] .

2.

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A. Godard, “Infrared (2–12 μm) solid-state laser sources: a review,” C. R. Physique 8, 1100–1128 (2007) [CrossRef] .

6.

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. D. Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30, 997–999 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

7.

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F.-L. Hong, “Absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032518 (2009) [CrossRef] .

8.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 110801 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

9.

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, K. Iwakuni, H. Inaba, and H. Sasada, “Absolute frequency list of the ν3-band transitions of methane at a relative uncertainty level of 10−11,” Opt. Express 19, 23878–23888 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

10.

M. W. Porambo, B. M. Siller, J. M. Pearson, and B. J. McCall, “Broadly tunable mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4422–4424 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

11.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ultra-stable, widely tunable and absolutely linked mid-IR coherent source,” Opt. Express 17, 9582–9587 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

12.

D. Richter, A. Fried, B. P. Wert, J. G. Walega, and F. K. Tittel, “Development of a tunable mid-IR difference frequency laser source for highly sensitive airborne trace gas detection,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75, 281–288 (2002) [CrossRef] .

13.

I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Ti:sapphire laser intracavity difference-frequency generation of 30 mW cw radiation around 4.5μm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 3616–3618 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

14.

M. F. Witinski, J. B. Paul, and J. G. Anderson, “Pump-enhanced difference-frequency generation at 3.3 μm,” Appl. Opt. 48, 2600–2606 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

15.

K. P. Petrov, A. T. Ryan, T. L. Patterson, L. Huang, S. J. Field, and D. J. Bamford, “Spectroscopic detection of methane by use of guided-wave diode-pumped difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1052–1054 (1998) [CrossRef] .

16.

D. Richter, P. Weibring, A. Fried, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “High-power, tunable difference frequency generation source for absorption spectroscopy based on a ridge waveguide periodically poled lithium niobate crystal,” Opt. Express 15, 564–571 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

17.

I. Ricciardi, E. D. Tommasi, P. Maddaloni, S. Mosca, A. Rocco, J.-J. Zondy, M. D. Rosa, and P. De Natale, “Frequency-comb-referenced singly-resonant OPO for sub-Doppler spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20, 9178–9186 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

18.

H.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Hsiao, W.-J. Ting, S.-T. Lin, and J.-T. Shy, “Saturation spectroscopy of CO2 and frequency stabilization of an optical parametric oscillator at 2.77 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2409–2411 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

19.

K. N. Crabtree, J. N. Hodges, B. M. Siller, A. J. Perry, J. E. Kelly, P. I. I. Jenkins, and B. J. McCall, “Sub-Doppler mid-infrared spectroscopy of molecular ions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 551, 1–6 (2012) [CrossRef] .

20.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 4th ed. (Springer, 2008), vol. 1, p. 297.

21.

U. Schünemann, H. Engler, R. Grimm, M. Weidemüller, and M. Zielonkowski, “Simple scheme for tunable frequency offset locking of two lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 242–243 (1999) [CrossRef] .

22.

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23.

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24.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. H¨ansch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999) [CrossRef] .

25.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: a novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 327–332 (1999) [CrossRef] .

26.

C.-C. Liao, K.-Y. Wu, Y.-H. Lien, H. Knöckel, H.-C. Chui, E. Tiemann, and J.-T. Shy, “Precise frequency measurements of 127I2 lines in the wavelength region 750–780 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 1208–1214 (2010) [CrossRef] .

27.

Y.-H. Lien, K.-J. Lo, H.-C. Chen, J.-R. Chen, J.-Y. Tian, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Absolute frequencies of the 6,7Li 2S 2S1/2 → 3S 2S1/2 transitions,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 042511 (2011) [CrossRef] .

28.

I. Fan, T.-L. Chen, Y.-S. Liu, Y.-H. Lien, J.-T. Shy, and Y.-W. Liu, “Prospects of laser cooling in atomic thallium,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 042504 (2011) [CrossRef] .

29.

H.-M. Fang, S.-C. Wang, and J.-T. Shy, “Pressure and power broadening of the a10 component of R(56) 32–0 transition of molecular iodine at 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 257, 76–83 (2006) [CrossRef] .

30.

A. Groh, D. Goddon, M. Schneider, W. Zimmermann, and W. Urban, “Sub-doppler heterodyne frequency measurements on the CO2 10011 − 00001 vibrational band: New reference lines near 3714 cm−1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 161–168 (1991) [CrossRef] .

31.

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32.

A. G. Maki, C.-C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, and J.-T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994) [CrossRef] .

33.

F. Bayer-Helms and J. Helmcke, “Modulation broadening of spectral profiles,” in PTB-Me-17, PTB-Bericht, pp. 85–109 (PTB, 1977).

OCIS Codes
(190.4360) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, devices
(300.6390) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, molecular
(300.6460) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, saturation

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: February 1, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 18, 2013
Published: April 8, 2013

Virtual Issues
Vol. 8, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Chun-Chieh Liao, Yu-Hung Lien, Kuo-Yu Wu, Yan-Rung Lin, and Jow-Tsong Shy, "Widely tunable difference frequency generation source for high-precision mid-infrared spectroscopy," Opt. Express 21, 9238-9246 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-8-9238


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