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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 8 — Apr. 22, 2013
  • pp: 9547–9555
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An efficient broad-band mid-wave IR fiber optic light source: design and performance simulation

A. Barh, S. Ghosh, R. K. Varshney, and B. P. Pal  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 9547-9555 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.009547


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Abstract

Design of a mid-wave IR (MWIR) broad-band fiber-based light source exploiting degenerate four-wave mixing (D-FWM) in a meter long suitably designed highly nonlinear (NL) chalcogenide microstructured optical fiber (MOF) is reported. This superior FWM bandwidth (BW) was obtained through precise tailoring of the fiber’s dispersion profile so as to realize positive quartic dispersion at the pump wavelength. We consider an Erbium (Er3+) - doped continuous wave (CW) ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 μm as the pump source with an average power of 5 W. Amplification factor as high as 25 dB is achievable in the 3 – 3.9 μm spectral range with average power conversion efficiency > 32%.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In recent years, there has been a surge and continued interest to leverage on the huge development witnessed in fiber optic telecommunication to develop fibers and fiber-based devices suitable for mid-IR spectral region (2-10 μm). Emerging potential applications like non-destructive soft tissue ablation in medical diagnostics, monitoring of combustion flow and gas dynamics through molecular absorption spectroscopy, semiconductor processing (e.g. in situ real time monitoring of plasma etch rates), and huge military applications in the mid-wave IR (MWIR) spanning 3 - 5 μm region have lately attracted a lot of research investments [1

1. A. Barh, S. Ghosh, G. P. Agrawal, R. K. Varshney, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. P. Pal, “Design of an efficient mid-IR light source using chalcogenide holey fibers: a numerical study,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035205 (2013). [CrossRef]

, 2

2. S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. MWIR wavelength region is particularly important since a large number of molecules undergo strong characteristic vibration band transitions in this domain, which is also known as “molecular fingerprint regime” e.g. various hydrocarbons, hydrochlorides and commonly used solvents show strong absorption in the range of 3.2 – 3.6 μm [2

2. S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Compact fiber-based light sources for MWIR would find wide scale military applications as it is a clean atmospheric window for high power transmission leading to applications in heat sinking missiles, IR counter-measures, and also thermal imaging for low power night vision in defense. Therefore it has become strategically important to develop an efficient light source in this wavelength region.

Chalcogenide glass (S-Se-Te)-based microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) have been considered potentially very suitable for the MWIR region due to certain special properties, which could be exploited to realize devices for applications in this wavelength range [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

5

5. G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Studies on MOFs have shown that, waveguide dispersion in them dominates over material dispersion in determining the total dispersion of such fibers. This dispersion tailoring feature along with the relatively high Kerr nonlinearity in chalcogenide glasses (achievable n2 being as high as 100 times larger than that of conventional silica fiber) [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

], in them make these fibers imminently suitable for a number of applications like signal processing [6

6. B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

], all optical switching [7

7. J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 119–121 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], supercontinuum generation [8

8. J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Computational study of 3-5 microm source created by using supercontinuum generation in As2S3 chalcogenide fibers with a pump at 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2907–2909 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. B. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 660–662 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], wavelength translation via FWM [11

11. M. R. E. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As2S3 waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9458–9463 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St .J. Russell, “Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2225 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] etc. However, realization of low transmission losses in chalcogenide MOFs is still a challenge [6

6. B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

]. On the other hand, their chemical durability, glass transition temperature, strength, stability etc. can be improved by doping with As, Ge, Sb, Ga for drawing an optical fiber. At present their fabrication technology is well matured though expensive [6

6. B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

, 14

14. D. W. Hewak, “The promise of chalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 474 (2011). [CrossRef]

16

16. M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we have numerically designed an efficient, broad-band (covering 3 - 4 μm spectral domain) mid-IR light source by exploiting the degenerate four-wave mixing (D-FWM) process through the extraordinary linear and nonlinear (NL) properties of chalcogenide glass-based MOFs by using a commercially available continuous-wave (CW) Erbium (Er3+) -doped ZBLAN fiber laser emitting at 2.8 μm as a pump for the FWM process. In order to achieve broad and flat continuous spectrum around the targeted signal wavelength in the MWIR, we have designed the fiber so as to obtain low anomalous dispersion (β2 ≤ 0) and positive fourth order GVD parameter (β4) at this pump wavelength (λp). Keeping these targets in mind, a broad-band chalcogenide fiber-based efficient light source for use in the MWIR wavelength regime (3 – 3.9 μm) has been numerically designed and reported here. This work should be of interest to those involved with chalcogenide fiber fabrication for its possible fabrication, if necessary with another more suitable glass composition, and subsequent fine tuning of the design in order to realize MWIR devices.

2. Numerical modeling

In optical fibers, several nonlinear phenomena could be exploited to generate new wavelength(s). Under certain conditions, however, FWM is the dominant nonlinear mechanism for generating new wavelengths, provided a certain phase-matching condition is satisfied [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

, 17

17. C. Lin, W. A. Reed, A. D. Pearson, and H. T. Shang, “Phase matching in the minimum-chromatic-dispersion region of single-mode fibers for stimulated four-photon mixing,” Opt. Lett. 6(10), 493–495 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. For our design purpose we will consider input pump power (P0) levels to be below 5 W, which is considerably lower than the threshold for the onset of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scatterings in fibers shorter than 10 m [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

]. Under D-FWM process, pump photons of frequency ωp get converted into a signal photon (ωs < ωp) and an idler photon (ωi > ωp) according to the energy conservation relation (2ωp = ωs + ωi) where, subscripts s, i and p stands for signal, idler, and pump, respectively. For efficient mixing, it is important to recognize that the following phase matching condition is satisfied:
Δκ=γP0+ΔkL
(1)
where P0 is the input pump power, γ is the well-known effective NL coefficient, and ∆kL is the linear phase-mismatch term that is chromatic and inter-modal dispersion dependent and is given by [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

]
ΔkL=m=2,4,6...2βm(ωP)ΩSmm!+ΔkW
(2)
where βm is the mth order GVD parameter, Ωs is the frequency shift (Ωs = ωp - ωs = ωi - ωp), and ΔkW is the phase mismatch term due to waveguide dispersion, which can be neglected in single-mode fibers [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

]. Under CW pump condition in a highly NL fiber, the maximum Ωs depends on both the magnitude and sign of GVD parameters. On one hand, positive β4 leads to broad-band and flat gain where as negative β4 reduces the flatness and BW of FWM. Thus higher order dispersion management is very crucial in such fiber designs. Considering up to fourth order dispersion, for positive β4 and negative β2, Ωs can be approximated as

Ωs=6|β2|β4(1±1β4γP03β22)
(3)

From Eq. (3), we can see that two sets of signal and idler are generated for this particular choice of GVD and NL parameters, i.e. for two signal wavelengths (λs), the phase matching becomes perfect. Therefore, we have to optimize the fiber and launching parameters such that the overall signal spectrum, generated around these two phase matching λs become broad and flat with sufficient amplification. This positive β4 value in the vicinity of low negative β2 at the λp could be achieved by suitably adjusting the fiber parameters to optimize the waveguide dispersion and hence multi-order dispersion management is feasible to engineer the FWM efficiency.

In our design calculation, first we have studied the D-FWM performance under lossless, undepleted pump condition, where CW pump power is only transferred to signal and idler wave. The launch of a weak idler along with the pump improves the FWM efficiency since stimulated FWM is employed in place of spontaneous FWM. It may be noted that here we are referring to the idler as an input field and the new wavelength generated in the MWIR region as the signal. The peak amplification factor (AF) for the generated signal becomes
AFS=PS,out/PI,in=(γP0/g)2sinh2(gL)
(4)
where PS,out is the peak signal power at the output, PI,in is the input idler power, L is the interaction length and the D-FWM amplification coefficient g is given by [3

3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

]

g=(γP0)2(Δκ/2)2
(5)

3. Proposed fiber design

Figure 2(a) clearly indicates that λZD falls at 2.792 μm, which is slightly below the λp. At a fixed P0, maximum amplification (AFs,max) depends on γ and length of the fiber (L) as it increases exponentially with “γP0L”. But BW is inversely proportional to this L as long as L >> LNL ( = (γ P0)−1). Thus to maintain large BW, L should be relatively short at the cost of peak amplification.

4. D-FWM performance under undepleted pump and lossless condition

During optimization of high-flat gain and maximum BW, a strong interplay was evident amongst P0, L, and λp. If we detune λp from λZD, absolute value of β2 increases leading to fluctuations in the output spectrum due to change in Δκ around its zero value. This makes the spectrum less uniform as shown in Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Variation of signal amplification factor (AFs) for different λp is shown. With λp coinciding at λZD ( = 2.792 μm), output signal spectrum is almost uniform around λp. With increase in λp from λZD, the BW as well as fluctuation increases. (b) Variation of AFs for a pump power of 5 W at 2.797 μm for different L (0.6 – 1.0 m).
; where only upper side of λp is shown. In the vicinity of λp, the gain parameter AFs decreases rapidly as λs approaches λp. When the phase mismatch term becomes γ P0, the AFs becomes (1 + γ P0 L) leading to a linear growth of signal from λp. From this figure, it can be interpreted that the best result could be achieved for λp ≈2.797 μm, where BW can be maximized. The GVD parameters β2 and β4 at this λp were −1.20948 ps2/Km and 3.71480 x 10−4 ps4/Km, respectively. Calculated Aeff at this wavelength came out to be quite small ~9.2 μm2, which also helps in increasing the effective nonlinearity. With 2.797 μm as the pump, and fixing P0 at 5 W, we have studied the variation of gain spectrum for different values of fiber length (shown in Fig. 3(b)). This figure clearly indicates that the maximum AFs increases with increase in L but at the cost of narrower BW. Thus to obtain high amplification of more than 35 dB optimum set of parameter were found to be P0 = 5W, L = 1 m, and λp = 2.797 μm (shown in Fig. 3(b)). The achievable full width at half maxima (FWHM) is ~670 nm with confinement loss < 0.01 dB/m across the entire BW.

5. D-FWM performance under depleted pump including material loss

We now consider the material loss as reported earlier to be < 0.2 dB/m for the entire signal wavelength range [8

8. J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Computational study of 3-5 microm source created by using supercontinuum generation in As2S3 chalcogenide fibers with a pump at 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2907–2909 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We have fixed the designed fiber length (L) at 1 m, P0 at 5 W and λp at 2.797 μm. The generated two signal wavelengths for which the phase matching is almost perfect were 3.12 μm and 3.85 μm, and corresponding λi’s were 2.53 μm and 2.19 μm. Optimizing the spectral width as well as their phase matching λs position, broad and flat spectrum can indeed be realizable.

To study the evolution of amplitudes (Aj), output powers (Pout), and AF of pump, signal and idler along the propagation length (L), we numerically solved the three coupled amplitude Eqs. (6)-(8) for P0 = 5 W, λp = 2.797 μm, λs = 3.85 μm and PI,in = 10 mW. Variations of Aj, Pout and AF are shown in Figs. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Variations of (a) amplitude, (b) output power (Pout) and (c) amplification factor (AF) of pump, signal and idler with the fiber length (L) are shown. A weak idler of 10 mW at 2.19 μm is assumed along with 5 W of pump to initiate this D-FWM.
-4(c), respectively. From these figures we can see that even considering pump depletion and material loss, more than 1 W of output signal power is achievable.

We have also optimized the PI,in to get maximum PS,out for 1 m of fiber length. These results are compiled in tabulated form in Table 1

Table 1. Variation of output signal power with input idler power

table-icon
View This Table
, for L = 1 m, P0 = 5 W, λp = 2.797 μm and λs = 3.85 μm, 3.12 μm. From this table it can be easily appreciated that to get a flat and broad output spectrum at the signal side, PI,in should lie between 8 to 11 mW. For 10 mW of PI,in, the average output signal power over the entire output signal band is ≈1.64 W. Thus the power transfer efficiency (PS,out/P0) for this case is ~32.8%, which is quite significant as a broad-band mid-IR light source. The entire output spectrum including both the idler and signal side is shown in Figs. 5(a)
Fig. 5 Variation of amplification factor (AF) for different PI,in with pumping at 2.792 μm, L = 1 m and P0 = 5 W. (a) The idler side of spectrum. (b) The signal side of spectrum. AFs as high as 25 dB is achievable, where overlap between two signal spectrum (one around 3.12 μm and another around 3.85 μm) makes the entire spectrum (3 – 3.9 μm) almost uniform.
and 5(b), respectively, where for four different PI,in, the variation of amplification factor is studied.

Though the spectral BW is almost same like undepleted (i.e. loss less case), the maximum AFs decreases to ≈25 dB due to inclusion of pump depletion and spectral dependence of material loss. Such a fiber, if experimentally realized should be attractive as a mid-IR light source for a variety of applications outlined in the Introduction section.

6. Conclusions and remarks

We report a theoretical design of a broad-band MWIR light source by maximizing D-FWM band-width and efficiency in a highly nonlinear chalcogenide MOF. Through a detailed numerical and analytical study, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we have shown that MWIR power levels in excess of 1 W are achievable over the wavelength range of 3.1 – 3.9 μm with an amplification factor more than 25 dB for a 2.8 μm pump of 5W average power through a meter long specialty fiber based on our design. Additionally, a high power conversion efficiency (> 32%), and a very low confinement loss (< 0.01 dB/m) over the entire generated signal wavelength band should make our design route very attractive for making an all-fiber MWIR light source. This proposal is possibly first such proposal where a new avenue of generating significant output in the MWIR region is shown, where our contention was to theoretically prove feasibility of a new fiber design route with the potential to realize a fiber-based broad-band light source for shortwave IR region. We feel that our design route is novel and requires complex balance of design parameters to achieve desired group velocity dispersion parameters β2 and β4 and of appropriate signs as well as targeting zero dispersion at a wavelength commensurate to availability of high power pump lasers for achieving efficient FWM. Potential application areas could be mid-IR spectroscopy, medical diagnostics, sensing, thermal imaging, astronomy and defense since the generated wavelength matches the second low-loss transparency window of the terrestrial atmosphere and the “fingerprint regime” for large number of molecules.

It would be interesting to undertake fabrication of chalcogenide fibers based on this design, though there could be several fabrication challenges like maintaining the required d, Λ values throughout the fiber length, preparation of pure, low-loss, stable, stoichiometric glass compounds for appropriate control of viscosity between different glasses involves at the fiber drawing temperature, etc. We may mention that though there is a wide difference in glass transition temperature (Tg) of the two glass systems used in our theoretical modeling, a similar (though less difference in values of Tg’s) issue occurs in case of borosilicate glass and silica glass often used in drawing polarization maintaining fibers, which can be solved by appropriate choice of fiber drawing temperature and concentration of the dopants like boron [20

20. R. SenR. SenCentral Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, India, Personal Communication, (2013).

, 21

21. T. Yamashita and Y. Ohishi, “Cooperative energy transfer between Tb3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped in borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(17), 1883–1890 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. It is not only Tg but also viscosity as well as thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent glasses that matter while targeting fabrication of a multimaterial optical fiber, and variety of techniques could be employed to fabricate multimaterial fibers [22

22. G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E. H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Multimaterial preform coextrusion for robust chalcogenide optical fibers and tapers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2751–2753 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Finally, the important fact that there already exists well-matured fabrication technologies [6

6. B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

, 14

14. D. W. Hewak, “The promise of chalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 474 (2011). [CrossRef]

16

16. M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 22

22. G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E. H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Multimaterial preform coextrusion for robust chalcogenide optical fibers and tapers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2751–2753 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3728–3736 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to draw various chalcogenide MOFs, it should be of interest to invest efforts and money for fabrication of such application specific fibers. Note that, once the design is accepted, fiber fabricators could look for other appropriate glass combinations to solve fabrication issues using our design as the initial design platform and if necessary fine tune the design parameters. It is worthwhile to mention that, fabrication tolerance for pitch (Λ) and diameter of hole (d) with respect to their average value can be achieved within 2 to 4% [25

25. F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3728–3736 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which is below the tolerance limit of our designed fiber parameters for stable output as dispersion profiles remains nearly constant except the position of λZD. In that case tunable pump (2.71 – 2.88 μm) [2

2. S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012). [CrossRef]

] is needed to maintain the desirable GVD parameters at pump wavelength. Thus scope remains to improve this factor further.

Acknowledgments

References and links

1.

A. Barh, S. Ghosh, G. P. Agrawal, R. K. Varshney, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. P. Pal, “Design of an efficient mid-IR light source using chalcogenide holey fibers: a numerical study,” J. Opt. 15(3), 035205 (2013). [CrossRef]

2.

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012). [CrossRef]

3.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, Academic, San Diego, Calif., (2007).

4.

A. Zakery and S. R. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330(1-3), 1–12 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

G. Boudebs, S. Cherukulappurath, M. Guignard, J. Troles, F. Smektala, and F. Sanchez, “Linear optical characterization of chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Commun. 230(4-6), 331–336 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

B. J. Eggleton, B. L. Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Review Articles - Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

7.

J. M. Harbold, F. Ö. Ilday, F. W. Wise, J. S. Sanghera, V. Q. Nguyen, L. B. Shaw, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Highly nonlinear As-S-Se glasses for all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(2), 119–121 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, L. B. Shaw, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Computational study of 3-5 microm source created by using supercontinuum generation in As2S3 chalcogenide fibers with a pump at 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2907–2909 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(15), 1980–1982 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. B. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 660–662 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. R. E. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, “Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As2S3 waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9458–9463 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

C. S. Brès, S. Zlatanovic, A. O. J. Wiberg, and S. Radic, “Continuous-wave four-wave mixing in cm-long chalcogenide microstructured fiber,” Opt. Express 19(26), B621–B627 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, S. Coen, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St .J. Russell, “Scalar modulation instability in the normal dispersion regime by use of a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(22), 2225 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. W. Hewak, “The promise of chalcogenides,” Nat. Photonics 5(8), 474 (2011). [CrossRef]

15.

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16.

M. El-Amraoui, G. Gadret, J. C. Jules, J. Fatome, C. Fortier, F. Désévédavy, I. Skripatchev, Y. Messaddeq, J. Troles, L. Brilland, W. Gao, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Microstructured chalcogenide optical fibers from As2S3 glass: towards new IR broadband sources,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26655–26665 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Lin, W. A. Reed, A. D. Pearson, and H. T. Shang, “Phase matching in the minimum-chromatic-dispersion region of single-mode fibers for stimulated four-photon mixing,” Opt. Lett. 6(10), 493–495 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

G. Cappellini and S. Trillo, “Third-order three-wave mixing in single-mode fibers: exact solutions and spatial instability effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8(4), 824–838 (1991). [CrossRef]

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C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Design of zero chromatic dispersion chalcogenide As2S3 glass nanofibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 2095–2099 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

R. SenR. SenCentral Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata, India, Personal Communication, (2013).

21.

T. Yamashita and Y. Ohishi, “Cooperative energy transfer between Tb3+ and Yb3+ ions co-doped in borosilicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(17), 1883–1890 (2008). [CrossRef]

22.

G. Tao, S. Shabahang, E. H. Banaei, J. J. Kaufman, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Multimaterial preform coextrusion for robust chalcogenide optical fibers and tapers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2751–2753 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

J. S. Sanghera, C. Florea, L. Busse, B. Shaw, F. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Reduced Fresnel losses in chalcogenide fibers by using anti-reflective surface structures on fiber end faces,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26760–26768 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

C. Quentin, B. Laurent, H. Patrick, N. T. Nam, C. Thierry, R. Gilles, M. Achille, F. Julien, S. Frédéric, P. Thierry, O. Hervé, S. Jean-Christophe, and T. Johann, “Fabrication of low losses chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers by molding process,” Proc. SPIE 7598, 75980O, 75980O-9 (2010). [CrossRef]

25.

F. Poletti, V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, N. G. R. Broderick, V. Tse, and D. J. Richardson, “Inverse design and fabrication tolerances of ultra-flattened dispersion holey fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3728–3736 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(060.4005) Fiber optics and optical communications : Microstructured fibers

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: March 6, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 20, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 21, 2013
Published: April 10, 2013

Citation
A. Barh, S. Ghosh, R. K. Varshney, and B. P. Pal, "An efficient broad-band mid-wave IR fiber optic light source: design and performance simulation," Opt. Express 21, 9547-9555 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-8-9547


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References

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