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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 8 — Apr. 22, 2013
  • pp: 9899–9905
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Generation and transmission of multiband and multi-gigabit 60-GHz MMW signals in an RoF system with frequency quintupling technique

Liang Zhang, Ming Zhu, Chenhui Ye, Shu-Hao Fan, Cheng Liu, Xiaofeng Hu, Pan Cao, Qingjiang Chang, Yikai Su, and Gee-Kung Chang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 9899-9905 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.009899


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Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate a cost-effective radio-over-fiber (RoF) system to simultaneously generate and transmit multiband and multi-gigabit 60-GHz millimeter wave (MMW) signals using frequency quintupling technique. Multiband signals at 56-GHz and 60-GHz are realized with two cascaded single-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), where phase control is not required. Furthermore, only low-frequency (≤12GHz) optical and electrical devices are used in the central station (CS), which enable a cost-effective system. At the user-terminal, two-stage down-conversions are employed by envelope detection (ED) and intermediate frequency (IF) mixing, eliminating expensive high-speed synthesizer and critical phase control components. Error-free performances are achieved for the multiband MMW signals after 50-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 10-ft wireless link transmissions.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The ever-increasing video-based interactive and multimedia services are requiring large bandwidths and high data rates in wireless access networks. 60-GHz wireless technology has gained much attention for its wide bandwidth availability over the 7-GHz unlicensed millimeter-wave (MMW) band [1

1. W.-J. Jiang, C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, L.-Y. Wang He, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous generation and transmission of 60-GHz wireless and baseband wireline signals with uplink transmission using an RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1099–1101 (2010). [CrossRef]

6

6. L. Zhang, X. Hu, P. Cao, and Y. Su, “A 60-GHz RoF system in WDM-PON with reduced number of modulators and low-cost electronics,” in Proceeding of PGC2010, conf10a420.

]. In addition, the 60-GHz MMW has been considered globally as a candidate for next-generation very high throughput (VHT) wireless personal area networks (WPANs) and wireless local access networks (WLANs). Recently, several industrializations and standardizations have been carried out, such as IEEE 802.15.3c [7

7. IEEE 802.15.3cWorking Group Homepage. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html

], 802.11ad [8

8. G. Anastasi, E. Borgia, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Performance Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Networks (MWN 2003), May 19, 2003.

], ECMA [9

9. H. D. Wireless, \texttrademark 1.0 Specification. [Online]. Available: http://www.wirelesshd.org/

], and Wireless-HD [10

10. High Rate 60 GHz PHY, MAC and HDMI PAL, Standard ECMA-387, Dec. 2008, under ballot in JTC 1 as ISO/IEC DIS 13156.

], to promote the global use of multi-gigabit 60-GHz wireless technology. However, due to high atmospheric loss of the 60-GHz MMW signal, the convergence range is limited to tens of meters [1

1. W.-J. Jiang, C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, L.-Y. Wang He, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous generation and transmission of 60-GHz wireless and baseband wireline signals with uplink transmission using an RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1099–1101 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Thanks to the huge bandwidth and low transmission loss provided by optical fibers, radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology is considered to be a promising solution to increase capacity and mobility as well as to reduce overall cost in wireless access networks [2

2. Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Among them, multiband signal transmission is an attractive choice. Recently, in Ref [11

11. Z. Jia, Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband signal generation and dispersion-tolerant transmission based on photonic frequency tripling technology for 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

14

14. K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3194–3202 (2003). [CrossRef]

], several demonstrations were carried on to realize multiband-signal transmissions based on RoF technology. However, all of the schemes produced widely-separated bands (baseband, microwave and millimeter wave) to carry single service [11

11. Z. Jia, Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband signal generation and dispersion-tolerant transmission based on photonic frequency tripling technology for 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

,12

12. Y. T. Hsueh, Z. Jia, J. Yu, S. H. Fan, and G. K. Chang, “A novel bidirectional 60-GHz radio-over-fiber scheme with multiband signal generation using a single intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1338–1340 (2009). [CrossRef]

] or multi-services [13

13. M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2311–2313 (2006). [CrossRef]

,14

14. K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3194–3202 (2003). [CrossRef]

], none of them realized multiband signal within 60-GHz band.

2. Architecture and principle of the proposed 60-GHz multiband RoF system

Figure 1
Fig. 1 Principle of multiband MMW-signal generation based on frequency quintupling technique.
shows the principle of multiband MMW-signal generation based on frequency quintupling technique. An IF clock SRF1 is mixed with an electrical signal Data1 to produce an electrical subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) signal, which is then combined with another electrical SCM signal realized by mixing an IF clock SRF2 with an electrical signal Data2. MZM-1 is driven by the combined signal and biased at the quadrature point of the transmission curve. The output of MZM-1 is input to an optical filter (OF-1) to generate a SSB signal (Fig. 1(a)), which consists of an un-modulated tone and two modulated tones carrying Data1 and Data2. The generated SSB signal can be expressed as:
Eout1=E0cos(ωct)+D1(t)cos[(ωc+ωRF1)t]+D2(t)cos[(ωc+ωRF2)t]
(1)
where E0 and ωcare the normalized amplitude of the un-modulated tone and the frequency of the input continual wave (CW) light, respectively. In order to keep MZM-1 operating in the linear region, the amplitude of the driven data should be properly controlled and the un-modulated tone should have much higher power (>10 dB) than that of the modulated tones. D1(t) and D2(t) are the two electrical data, which have the values of 0 or 1. ωRF1andωRF2are the frequencies of the two IF clocks. The signal after the optical filter (OF-1) is up-converted by a second MZM (MZM-2), biased at the peak of the transmission curve and driven by another IF clock with a frequency of ωRF1. At the output of MZM-2, another optical filter (OF-2) is employed to select the wanted bands (Fig. 1(c)), which can be illustrated as:
Eout2=E0cos[(ωc2ωRF1)t]+E0cos[(ωc+2ωRF1)t]+D1(t)cos[(ωc+3ωRF1)t]+D2(t)cos[(ωc+2ωRF1+ωRF2)t]
(2)
After fiber transmission, at the base station (BS), a high-speed PD is utilized to detect the upcoming signal. The output of the PD can be expressed as:
Eout3=μE02cos(4ωRF1t)+μD1(t)E0cos(5ωRF1t)+μD2(t)E0cos[(4ωRF1+ωRF2)t]
(3)
where μis the responsivity of the PD. In Eq. (3), only the MMW components are considered, while the low-frequency components are ignored since they will be filtered out by the 60-GHz band-pass antennas and amplifiers. From Eq. (3), one can find that frequency quadrupling RF clock (4ωRF1) and frequency quintupling multiband MMW signals (5ωRF1and 4ωRF1+ωRF2) are achieved. After wireless transmission, at the user-terminal, an envelope detector (ED) is employed to down-covert the wireless signal and the output can be illustrated as [17

17. J. Liu, L. Zhang, S. H. Fan, C. Guo, S. He, and G. K. Chang, “A novel architecture for peer-to-peer interconnect in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber access networks,” Prog. Electromag. Res. 126, 139–148 (2012). [CrossRef]

]:
Eout4=μ'|Eout3|2=12μ'μ2E04+12μ'μ2D1(t)2E02+12μ'μ2D2(t)2E02+μ'μ2E03cos(ωRF1t)+μ'μ2E03cos(ωRF2t)+μ'μ2E02cos[(ωRF1ωRF2)t]
(4)
where μ'is the responsivity of the ED. In Eq. (4), the high-frequency (>4ωRF1) components are not considered due to the limited bandwidth of the ED output. Besides, a direct current (DC) block can be used to eliminate the DC components (the first three terms). Furthermore, the last term with a frequency of ωRF1ωRF2is negligible since it has much smaller power compared with the other two IF signals with frequencies of ωRF1 andωRF2. As a result, only the forth and fifth terms of Eq. (4) are considered. A second-stage down-conversion is realized by mixing the IF signals with the low-frequency IF clock (ωRF1or ωRF2). It is noted that if proper frequencies are chosen for ωRF1and ωRF2, both the IF clocks (ωRF1and ωRF2) could be extracted from the downstream RF clock (4ωRF1). For example, if ωRF1 = 12 GHz and ωRF2 = 8 GHz, the two IF clocks can be generated from the received 48-GHz RF clock using factor-four and factor-six frequency dividers, respectively. In that case, no clock sources are required in the user-terminal, which eliminate the clock synchronization and reduce the system cost.

3. Experimental setup and results

We perform an experiment to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme, with a setup shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the proposed 60-GHz multiband RoF system, (a)-(d) correspond to the optical spectra shown in Fig. 3.
. In the central station (CS), a CW light originated from a tunable laser with a wavelength of 1553.6 nm is fed into a single-drive MZM. Two streams of 1-Gbit/s pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) data with a word length of 231-1 are mixed with 8-GHz and 12-GHz IF clocks. The output of the mixers are combined and amplified to drive the MZM biased at the quadrature point of the transmission curve. An optical multiband SCM signal (Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 Optical spectra taken at different positions as indicated in Fig. 2. Spectral resolution: 0.02 nm. (a) Multiband optical SCM signal (green line) and the pass-band of the optical filter (purple line), (b) generated SSB signal after the filter, (c) output of MZM-2 (green line) and the pass-band of the 33/66 IL (purple line), and (d) output of the 33/66 IL.
) is obtained at the output of the MZM, which is fed into a periodic band-pass filter to generate a SSB signal (Fig. 3(b)). The SSB signal is up-converted by a second MZM, biased at the peak of the transmission curve and driven by an amplified 12-GHz IF clock. The spectrum of the up-converted signal is shown in Fig. 3(c), whose unwanted bands are suppressed by a 33/66 interleaver (IL). After the IL, we achieve a four-tone signal (Fig. 3(d)), where tone-1 and tone-2 are un-modulated carriers, tone-3 and tone-4 are modulated with data-1 and data-2, respectively. The frequency spaces between tone-1 and tone-2, tone-3, tone-4 are 48 GHz, 56 GHz and 60-GHz, respectively. The optical signal is amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to reach a power of 6 dBm and then transmitted to the BS through 50-km single mode fiber (SMF).

At the BS, a high-speed PD (u2t XPDV 2020R) is used to detect the coming signal, whose spectrum is illustrated in Fig. 3(d). The beating of the un-modulated tone-1 and tone-2 generates a 48-GHz RF clock. The 56-GHz and 60-GHz multiband MMW signals are obtained through the beatings of tone-1 and tone-3 (tone-1 and tone-4). The electrical spectrum of the PD output is depicted in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Electrical spectrum after the PD detection, (b) IF band and (d) baseband eye diagrams for the 56-GHz signal, (c) IF band and (e) baseband eye diagrams for the 60-GHz signal.
, which is input to a power amplifier (Narda West NW 06-0023). A pair of rectangular horn antennas (Ducommun ARH-1525-62) with a gain of 25 dBi at the range of 45-75 GHz are employed to broadcast and receive the wireless signals. After transmission over 10-ft wireless link, at the user-terminal, the wireless signals, including 48-GHz RF clock, 56-GHz and 60-GHz multiband MMW signals, are fed into an envelope detector (ED). Down-conversions are realized through the beatings of the 48-GHz clock and the multiband signals consisting of 56-GHz and 60-GHz MMW. After the ED, we obtain two IF signals with frequencies at 8-GHz and 12-GHz, whose eye diagrams are shown in Fig. 4(b) and 4(c). A second-stage down-conversion is realized by mixing the IF signals with 8-GHz or 12-GHz IF clock. After the IF mixing, a low-pass filter is employed to select the baseband signal for performance testing. It is noted that both the 8-GHz and 12-GHz IF clocks can be achieved through the de-multiplication of the 48-GHz clock. Consequently, no clock sources are needed in the user-terminal, thus greatly reducing the system cost. In practical experiment implementation, due to the lack of frequency dividers, an additional clock source is used to down-convert the 8-GHz and 12-GHz IF signals to baseband, with eye diagrams shown in Fig. 4(d) and 4(e), respectively.

We measure bit-error-ratio (BER) performance of the 60-GHz MMW signal with and without the presence of the 56-GHz MMW signal after 10-ft wireless transmission. The 60-GHz signal in the multiband case needs ~2.5 dB more power than the one in single-band case. In addition, the power penalty from the 50-km SMF transmission is ~1 dB for the single-band case, while the penalty is 2 dB for the multiband case, which can be attributed to the interference of the 56-GHz MMW signal. Error-free performances are achieved for all conditions. Figures 5(b)
Fig. 5 (a) BER curves of the 60-GHz signal with and without the presence of the 56-GHz signal, baseband eye diagrams for the 60-GHz signal (b) with the presence of the 56-GHz signal, and (c) without the presence of the 56-GHz signal.
and 5(c) show the eye diagrams of the 60-GHz signal with and without the presence of the 56-GHz signal, respectively.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

This work was supported in part by NSFC (61077052/61125504/61235007), MoE (20110073110012), and Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (11530700400). This work was also supported in part by NSF I/UCRC Center for Optical Wireless Applications (COWA).

References and links

1.

W.-J. Jiang, C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, L.-Y. Wang He, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous generation and transmission of 60-GHz wireless and baseband wireline signals with uplink transmission using an RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1099–1101 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Chowdhury, J. Yu, H. Chien, M. Huang, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “Spectrally efficient simultaneous delivery of 112Gbps baseband wireline and 60 GHz MM-Wave carrying 10Gbps optical wireless signal in radio-over-fiber WDM-PON access systems,” in Proceeding of ECOC2007, 4.5.1.

4.

H. C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, Y. T. Hsueh, Z. Jia, S. Fan, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A novel 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber with independent 10-Gbps wired and wireless services on a single wavelength using PolMUX and wavelength-reuse techniques,” in Proceeding of OFC2009, OTuB7.

5.

A. Stöhr, A. Akrout, R. Buß, B. Charbonnier, F. Dijk, A. Enard, S. Fedderwitz, D. Jäger, M. Huchard, F. Lecoche, J. Marti, R. Sambaraju, A. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiß, “60 GHz radio-over-fiber technologies for broadband wireless services,” J. Opt. Netw. 8(5), 471–487 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Zhang, X. Hu, P. Cao, and Y. Su, “A 60-GHz RoF system in WDM-PON with reduced number of modulators and low-cost electronics,” in Proceeding of PGC2010, conf10a420.

7.

IEEE 802.15.3cWorking Group Homepage. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html

8.

G. Anastasi, E. Borgia, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Performance Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Networks (MWN 2003), May 19, 2003.

9.

H. D. Wireless, \texttrademark 1.0 Specification. [Online]. Available: http://www.wirelesshd.org/

10.

High Rate 60 GHz PHY, MAC and HDMI PAL, Standard ECMA-387, Dec. 2008, under ballot in JTC 1 as ISO/IEC DIS 13156.

11.

Z. Jia, Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband signal generation and dispersion-tolerant transmission based on photonic frequency tripling technology for 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. T. Hsueh, Z. Jia, J. Yu, S. H. Fan, and G. K. Chang, “A novel bidirectional 60-GHz radio-over-fiber scheme with multiband signal generation using a single intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(18), 1338–1340 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(21), 2311–2313 (2006). [CrossRef]

14.

K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(12), 3194–3202 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

A. Chowdhury, H. C. Chien, and G. K. Chang, “Demonstration of simultaneous all-optical up-conversion of gigabit wireless services at 60-GHz and 64-GHz in converged optical wireless system carried by single wavelength lightwave,” in Proceeding of OFC2010, OWQ5.

16.

L. Zhang, S. H. Fan, C. Liu, M. Zhu, X. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Su, and G. K. Chang, “A cost-effective multi-gigabit 60-GHz wireless over optical fiber access system based on a novel frequency quintupling technique,” in Proceeding of Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series2012, WB1.2.

17.

J. Liu, L. Zhang, S. H. Fan, C. Guo, S. He, and G. K. Chang, “A novel architecture for peer-to-peer interconnect in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber access networks,” Prog. Electromag. Res. 126, 139–148 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.4080) Fiber optics and optical communications : Modulation
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: October 25, 2012
Revised Manuscript: December 30, 2012
Manuscript Accepted: December 31, 2012
Published: April 15, 2013

Citation
Liang Zhang, Ming Zhu, Chenhui Ye, Shu-Hao Fan, Cheng Liu, Xiaofeng Hu, Pan Cao, Qingjiang Chang, Yikai Su, and Gee-Kung Chang, "Generation and transmission of multiband and multi-gigabit 60-GHz MMW signals in an RoF system with frequency quintupling technique," Opt. Express 21, 9899-9905 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-8-9899


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References

  1. W.-J. Jiang, C.-T. Lin, P.-T. Shih, L.-Y. Wang He, J. Chen, and S. Chi, “Simultaneous generation and transmission of 60-GHz wireless and baseband wireline signals with uplink transmission using an RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1099–1101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, and G. K. Chang, “Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(11), 3452–3471 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Chowdhury, J. Yu, H. Chien, M. Huang, T. Wang, and G. K. Chang, “Spectrally efficient simultaneous delivery of 112Gbps baseband wireline and 60 GHz MM-Wave carrying 10Gbps optical wireless signal in radio-over-fiber WDM-PON access systems,” in Proceeding of ECOC2007, 4.5.1.
  4. H. C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, Y. T. Hsueh, Z. Jia, S. Fan, J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A novel 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber with independent 10-Gbps wired and wireless services on a single wavelength using PolMUX and wavelength-reuse techniques,” in Proceeding of OFC2009, OTuB7.
  5. A. Stöhr, A. Akrout, R. Buß, B. Charbonnier, F. Dijk, A. Enard, S. Fedderwitz, D. Jäger, M. Huchard, F. Lecoche, J. Marti, R. Sambaraju, A. Steffan, A. Umbach, and M. Weiß, “60 GHz radio-over-fiber technologies for broadband wireless services,” J. Opt. Netw.8(5), 471–487 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Zhang, X. Hu, P. Cao, and Y. Su, “A 60-GHz RoF system in WDM-PON with reduced number of modulators and low-cost electronics,” in Proceeding of PGC2010, conf10a420.
  7. IEEE 802.15.3cWorking Group Homepage. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG3c.html
  8. G. Anastasi, E. Borgia, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, “IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks: Performance Measurements,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Networks (MWN 2003), May 19, 2003.
  9. H. D. Wireless, \texttrademark 1.0 Specification. [Online]. Available: http://www.wirelesshd.org/
  10. High Rate 60 GHz PHY, MAC and HDMI PAL, Standard ECMA-387, Dec. 2008, under ballot in JTC 1 as ISO/IEC DIS 13156.
  11. Z. Jia, Y.-T. Hsueh, A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, J. A. Buck, and G.-K. Chang, “Multiband signal generation and dispersion-tolerant transmission based on photonic frequency tripling technology for 60-GHz radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(17), 1470–1472 (2008). [CrossRef]
  12. Y. T. Hsueh, Z. Jia, J. Yu, S. H. Fan, and G. K. Chang, “A novel bidirectional 60-GHz radio-over-fiber scheme with multiband signal generation using a single intensity modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1338–1340 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, and R. Waterhouse, “Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(21), 2311–2313 (2006). [CrossRef]
  14. K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, and K. Kitayama, “Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength,” J. Lightwave Technol.21(12), 3194–3202 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. A. Chowdhury, H. C. Chien, and G. K. Chang, “Demonstration of simultaneous all-optical up-conversion of gigabit wireless services at 60-GHz and 64-GHz in converged optical wireless system carried by single wavelength lightwave,” in Proceeding of OFC2010, OWQ5.
  16. L. Zhang, S. H. Fan, C. Liu, M. Zhu, X. Hu, Z. Li, Y. Su, and G. K. Chang, “A cost-effective multi-gigabit 60-GHz wireless over optical fiber access system based on a novel frequency quintupling technique,” in Proceeding of Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series2012, WB1.2.
  17. J. Liu, L. Zhang, S. H. Fan, C. Guo, S. He, and G. K. Chang, “A novel architecture for peer-to-peer interconnect in millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber access networks,” Prog. Electromag. Res.126, 139–148 (2012). [CrossRef]

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