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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 8 — Apr. 22, 2013
  • pp: 9915–9922
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Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s optical PDM-OFDM superchannel multicasting by multiple-pump FWM in HNLF

Yuanxiang Chen, Juhao Li, Paikun Zhu, Bingli Guo, Lixin Zhu, Yongqi He, and Zhangyuan Chen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 8, pp. 9915-9922 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.009915


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Abstract

OFDM superchannel that consists of multiple low speed individually-modulated subbands has been proposed for high speed optical transmission and flexible optical networks with multiple data rate accommodation. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of superchannel multicasting and verify it utilizing multiple-pump FWM in highly nonlinear fiber. 400 Gb/s PDM-OFDM superchannel that consists of ten subbands is successfully delivered from one superchannel to up to seven different superchannels with error free operation. Pump power and signal power are also optimized to achieve the optimal multicasting performance.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

In recent years, with the increasing bandwidth requirement of future optical network, optical superchannel has gained great interest for its high spectral efficiency (SE) to transfer large volume data [1

1. X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “Beyond 1-Tb/s superchannel transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arlington, 2011), Paper ThBB1.

4

4. E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Arena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, M. Belmonte, A. Brinciotti, A. L. Porta, S. Abrate, and P. Poggiolini, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper We.7.C.2.

]. The orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) based superchannel, which is highly tolerant to chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD), is emerging as one of the most promising superchannel technology [5

5. A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. OFC2006, Paper PDP39. [CrossRef]

7

7. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. By band multiplexing, a high-speed coherent-optical orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (CO-OFDM) superchannel can consist of some parallel individually-modulated subbands, which greatly reduces the bandwidth requirement for optical and electrical components. Furthermore, the system capacity and spectral efficiency can be doubled by using polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM). 400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s PDM CO-OFDM experiments have been experimentally demonstrated with high spectral efficiency for transmission and networks [8

8. H. Takahashi, K. Takeshima, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “400-Gbit/s optical OFDM transmission over 80 km in 50-GHz frequency grid,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper Tu.3.C.1. [CrossRef]

15

15. C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express 20(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In this paper, we investigate the operating principle of the superchannel multicasting scheme in HNLF and experimentally demonstrate it using 3 co-polarized pumps FWM in HNLF. We successfully convert the OFDM superchannel that consists of 10 PDM quadrature-phase-shift-keying OFDM (PDM-QPSK-OFDM) subbands with total bit rate of 400 Gb/s to seven different superchannels with error free operation. To get the optimal multicasting performance, the pump power and signal power are optimized.

2. Operation principle

For PDM signal multicasting, the two polarizations of the multicasted signal should have similar conversion efficiency. We utilize co-polarized multiple-pump FWM scheme to realize the multicasting of PDM signal. As given by Eq. (16) in [27

27. J. Lu, Z. Dong, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1274–1280 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the polarization sensitivity of the mulitcasted PDM signals is negatively correlated with the frequency spacing between the original signal and the pumps. The performances of both polarizations of the multicasted signals depend on both the frequency spacing and relative polarization angle between the original signal and the pumps. Figure 1(a)
Fig. 1 Operation principle of (a) multiple-pump FWM in HNLF (b) one-to-seven superchannel multicasting in HNLF.
illustrates the operating principle of the multicasting by multiple-pump FWM in HNLF. To generate N + 1 copies of the original PDM signal, M co-polarized pumps are needed, and N is given by
N=(M2)2=M(M1)
(1)
where (M2)2 means every 2 pumps among M pumps will interact with the original signal and produce 2 copies of the original signal. The frequency spacing of the pumps increases exponentially (Δω, 2Δω, 4Δω, 8Δω, …). Take three-pump multicasting scheme for example, as shown in Fig. 1(b). We utilize three-pump FWM in HNLF to realize one-to-seven superchannel multicasting. PDM-OFDM superchannel with center frequency of ωs and 3 co-polarized pumps (pump 1 to pump 3) with frequency of ω1, ω2, ω3 (ω1 < ω2 < ω3 < ωs) are coupled into the HNLF. The original superchannel has a bandwidth of Bs. The frequency relationship of the three pumps and the superchannel are listed below:
ω3ω2=Bs+Bg
(2)
ω2ω1=2(ω3ω2)
(3)
ωsω3>3.5Bs+3Bg
(4)
where Bg represents a guard bandwidth introduced to avoid the FWM idlers that are generated by the pumps to affect the newly generated superchannels. After FWM, six new superchannels with center frequency of ωsω3 + ω1, ωsω2 + ω1, ωsω3 + ω2, ωsω2 + ω3, ωsω1 + ω2 and ωsω1 + ω3 are located at the two sides of the original superchannel. The newly generated superchannels are spectrum non-conjugate to the original superchannels. By adjusting the relative polarization angle between the pumps and the original superchannel, equivalent conversion efficiency can be obtained for the two polarizations of the mulitcasted superchannels. Together with the original superchannel, there are seven superchannels in total. The seven optical OFDM superchannels can be separated from other FWM idlers by subband selecting switch (SBSS) and then transmitted to different destination nodes. To obtain more multicasted superchannels, more pumps are needed to generate more FWM components.

3. Experiment setup and results

The experiment setup of OFDM superchannel multicasting is depicted in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Experiment setup of (a) OFDM superchannel multicasting (b) superchannel transmitter (c) coherent receiver.
. On the signal branch, a superchannel that consists of 10 subbands with center frequency of 192.56 THz is generated. The bandwidth of the superchannel is 100 GHz with total data rate of 400 Gb/s. The superchannel firstly passes through an optical band-pass filter (OBPF) to filter out the out-of-band noise. On the pump branch, three pumps (pump 1 to 3) with center frequencies of 191.67 THz, 191.91 THz and 192.03 THz are coupled by a polarization maintaining optical coupler (PM-OC) as co-polarized pumps. The corresponding center wavelength of the original superchannel, pump 1, pump 2 and pump 3 are 1558.00 nm, 1565.17 nm, 1563.25 nm and 1562.29 nm, respectively. A guard band of 20 GHz is preserved for the FWM idlers generated by the pumps. To achieve balanced conversion efficiency for both polarizations of the multicasted superchannels, we use a polarization controller (PC) to adjust the polarization state of the pumps. After being amplified by a high-power erbium-doped fiber amplifier (HP-EDFA), the pumps are coupled with the filtered superchannel by an optical coupler (OC) and sent into the HNLF for multicasting. The HNLF has a length of 1 km, a nonlinear coefficient of 10 W−1/km, an attenuation coefficient of 0.939 dB/km, a zero-dispersion wavelength of 1572 nm and a dispersion slope of 0.03 ps/nm2/km. The specs of the HNLF can be optimized to improve multicasting performance. The optimization will be investigated in our future work. After FWM in HNLF, seven OFDM superchannels (superchannel 1 to 7) are generated at the output of the HNLF. After amplification, we apply a Finisar Waveshaper 4000S based on liquid crystals on silicon (LCoS) as the SBSS. Waveshaper 4000S is an arbitrary-shape optical filter and it can provide fine control of filter amplitude. The minimum filtering bandwidth of the waveshaper is 10-GHz and the frequency setting resolution is 1-GHz. The bandwidth of the waveshaper is set to 110 GHz in our experiment. Then the filtered signal is send to the receiver for coherent detection.

The detailed setup of OFDM superchannel transmitter is depicted in Fig. 2(b). We use only one laser with a linewidth of 5 kHz to generate the 400 Gb/s PDM-OFDM superchannel. A Tektronix arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) is used to generate the baseband OFDM signals operating at 10 GSa/s. One odd subband is obtained after the IQ modulator 1. Then we adopt the same scheme in [10

10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, and B. Zhu, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC2010, Paper PDPC2.

] to generate the even subband. The odd subband is split into two streams by 1 × 2 PM-OC. The lower stream passes directly without any change while the upper one passes a frequency shifter, which is realized by driving the IQ modulator 2 with 10 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal. Two phase shifters (PS) are used for adjusting the phase difference between the two arms. Before being combined by 2 × 1 PM-OC, the even and odd subband are delayed by optical patchcords with different length for decorrelation. Then the 2 subbands pass the 5-tone generator, which is realized by driving the intensity modulator with the combination of 20 and 40 GHz RFs. Thus the 10-subband superchannel is generated with a frequency spacing of 10 GHz. The PDM is emulated with a polarization controller (PC), a polarization beam splitter (PBS), a tunable optical delay line and a polarization beam combiner (PBC). The delay of the optical delay line is exactly one OFDM symbol.

The detailed setup of OFDM superchannel receiver is depicted in Fig. 2(c). At the receiver, an OBPF with a bandwidth of 0.4 nm is used to remove out-of-band ASE noise and multiple subbands are sent into the coherent receiver at a time. The filtered signal is sent into a 90 degree hybrid afterwards to interfere with a local oscillator (LO). The LO is a tunable laser with the linewidth of 100 kHz. 4 balanced detectors (BD) are used to detect the polarization diverse signals. The electrical signals after the BDs pass electrical low-pass filters with a bandwidth of 7.2 GHz to select only one subband. Then the signals are sampled by a real-time digital storage oscilloscope (Tektronix DPO72004B) operating at 50 GSa/s and then processed offline.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 Optical spectra for (a) two subband after 2 × 1 PMC (b) 400 Gb/s superchannel (c) input of the HNLF (d) output of the HNLF.
shows the spectra of the 2 subbands after 2 × 1 PM-OC. After 5-tone generator and PDM emulator, the optical spectra of 400 Gb/s PDM-OFDM superchannel is shown in Fig. 3(b). It consists of 10 OFDM subbands, each of which is PDM-QPSK modulated. The optical spectra at the input of the HNLF is shown in Fig. 3(c). The optical spectra at the output of the HNLF is shown in Fig. 3(d) and it consists of 7 superchannels and other FWM idlers. The optical signal noise ratio (OSNR) of the 6 newly generated superchannels ranges from 16 dB to 20 dB while the superchannel 4 has an OSNR of about 32 dB. The average conversion efficiency of the 6 newly generated superchannels is −21 dB. While efforts have been made to achieve equivalent conversion efficiency for all the 6 newly generated superchannels by adjusting the power of the pumps, there’s still 3~4 dB difference among the 6 superchannels due to the different phase mismatching. The FWM idlers generated by the pumps are accurately located in the guard band between the adjacent superchannnels and they can be filtered out by SBSS. The seven superchannels after the waveshaper are shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Optical spectra of the seven superchannels after the waveshaper.
-4(g), respectively.

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) Q-factor performance of all the subbands (b) BER performance versus OSNR.
shows the Q-factor performances of the multicasted superchannels. To evaluate the performance of the multicasting functionality, the back-to-back (BTB) Q-factors of all 10 subbands at transmitter are measured as reference. We adjust the polarization state of the pumps and observe a maximum Q-factor fluctuation of 2 dB for both polarizations of the multicasted superchannels. The polarization state of the pumps is adjusted until the two polarizations of the multicasted signal have similar multicasting performance. We can see the subbands have similar performances in each superchannel. Among the 6 newly generated superchannels, no obvious difference is observed in Q-factor performance measurement even though 3~4 dB difference exists in conversion efficiency. This is because the multicasted superchannels that are spectrally located closer to the pumps with high conversion efficiency also suffer from stronger interference produced by other superchannels and the pumps. Compared with the BTB case, superchannel 4 suffers a Q-factor penalty of 1.7 dB while the other 6 superchannels have similar performances with 3.3 dB Q-factor penalty. The bit-error rate (BER) performances of the seven superchannels are measured, as shown in Fig. 5(b). We measure the 3rd subband of each superchannel as reference. It is observed that, at FEC BER limit of 10−3 for standard 7% FEC coding, the OSNR penalty of the 6 newly generated superchannels is about 2.3 dB while superchannel 4 only suffers an OSNR penalty of 0.8 dB.

We also investigate multicasting performance optimization by adjusting the power of the pumps and the original superchannel. We measure the Q-factor performance of the 3rd subband in superchannel 1 and 5. In Fig. 6(a)
Fig. 6 (a) Q-factor performance versus input signal power (b) Q-factor performance versus input pump power.
, the power of the original OFDM superchannel increases from 3.5 dBm to 15.5 dBm while the total pump power is fixed at 19 dBm. From the results, we can see the optimal input signal power is about 8 dBm. It is because the lower signal power will reduce the OSNR of the multicasting superchannel and thus degrade the Q-factor performance, while the higher signal power causes strong crosstalk and it will also degrade the Q-factor performance. In Fig. 6(b), the signal power is fixed at 8 dBm while the total pump power increases from 15 dBm to 24 dBm. The optimal pump power is about 19.5 dBm. The lower pump power will degrade the Q-factor performance due to the lower OSNR while the higher pump power will intensify the Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effects and degrade the Q-factor performance.

4. Conclusions

OFDM superchannel multicasting by multi-pump FWM in HNLF is discussed in this paper. We experimentally demonstrate the one-to-seven multicasting on 400 Gb/s OFDM superchannel using 3 co-polarized pumps with error free operation. The newly generated 6 superchannels have the similar performance with Q-factor penalty of 3.3 dB while the original superchannel suffers 1.7 dB Q-factor penalty. Multicasting performance optimization is also investigated by adjusting signal power and pump power. The optimal signal power is 8 dBm and optimal pump power is 19.5 dBm.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, No. 2010CB328201 and 2010CB328202), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 60907030, No. 61275071, No.60736003, and No. 60931160439), and the National Hi-tech Research and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA01A106).

References and links

1.

X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “Beyond 1-Tb/s superchannel transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arlington, 2011), Paper ThBB1.

2.

J. Yu, Z. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Xia, S. Shi, C. Ge, W. Zhou, N. Chi, and Y. Shao, “Generation, transmission and coherent detection of 11.2 Tb/s (112x100Gb/s) single source optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC2011, Paper PDPA6.

3.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Terabit superchannels for high spectral efficiency transmission,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper Tu.3.C.5. [CrossRef]

4.

E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Arena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, M. Belmonte, A. Brinciotti, A. L. Porta, S. Abrate, and P. Poggiolini, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper We.7.C.2.

5.

A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. OFC2006, Paper PDP39. [CrossRef]

6.

J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(3), 189–204 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

H. Takahashi, K. Takeshima, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “400-Gbit/s optical OFDM transmission over 80 km in 50-GHz frequency grid,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper Tu.3.C.1. [CrossRef]

9.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s superchannels using multi-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM,” in Proc. OECC2010, Paper 8B3–4.

10.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, and B. Zhu, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC2010, Paper PDPC2.

11.

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber with subwavelength bandwidth access,” Opt. Express 17(11), 9421–9427 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

R. Dischler and F. Buchali, “Transmission of 1.2 Tb/s continuous waveband PDM-OFDM-FDM signal with spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz over 400 km of SSMF,” in Proc. OFC2009, paper PDPC2.

13.

Q. Yang, S. You, G. Shen, Z. He, M. Luo, Z. Yang, S. Yu, and W. Shieh, “Experimental demonstration of Tb/s optical transport network based on CO-OFDM superchannel with heterogeneous ROADM nodes supporting single-fiber bidirectional communications,” in Proc. OFC2012, Paper JTh2A.47. [CrossRef]

14.

Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express 20(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

X. Zhang, J. Wei, and C. Qiao, “On fundamental issues in IP over WDM multicast,” in Proceedings of Int. Conf. Computer, Communications and Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Boston, 1999), pp.84–90.

17.

C. Y. Li, P. K. A. Wai, X. C. Yuan, and V. O. K. Li, “Multicasting in deflection-routed all-optical packet-switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2002), pp.2842–2846.

18.

R. K. Pankaj, “Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 7(3), 414–424 (1999). [CrossRef]

19.

G. N. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Netw. 17(1), 60–65 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

D. Wang, T.-H. Cheng, Y.-K. Yeo, Y. Wang, Z. Xu, J. Liu, and G. Xiao, “Optical wavelength multicasting based on four wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber with reduced polarization sensitivity,” in Proc. OFC2010, Paper JWA47.

21.

G. W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “DPSK multicast using multiple-pump FWM in Bismuths highly nonlinear fiber with high multicast efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21964–21970 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

M. Pu, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, J. M. Hvam, and K. Yvind, “One-to-six WDM multicasting of DPSK signals based on dual-pump four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24448–24453 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

C. S. Bres, A. O. J. Wiberg, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, and S. Radic, “320 Gb/s RZ-DPSK data multicasting in self seeded parametric mixer,” in Proc. OFC2011, Paper OThC7.

24.

Z. Chen, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, A. Yi, Y. Guo, and J. H. Lee, “One-to-Nine multicasting of RZ-DPSK based on cascaded four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear fiber without stimulated brillouin scattering suppression,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(20), 1882–1885 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

D. Wang, T.-H. Cheng, Y.-K. Yeo, Y. Wang, Z. Xu, and G. Xiao, “7×10-Gbit/s all-optical wavelength multicast based on cross-gain modulation and cascaded four-wave mixing effects in an SOA using single pump laser source, ” in Proc. OFC2011, Paper JWA40.

26.

O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. Wang, J. Wang, I. Fazal, J.-Y. Yang, X. Wu, and A. E. Willner, “Experimental demonstration of 8-fold multicasting of a 100 Gb/s polarization-multiplexed OOK signal using highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proc. OFC2010, Paper OWP8.

27.

J. Lu, Z. Dong, L. Chen, and J. Yu, “Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing for polarization multiplexing signal in high-nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1274–1280 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(060.4255) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, multicast

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: January 2, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 3, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 8, 2013
Published: April 15, 2013

Citation
Yuanxiang Chen, Juhao Li, Paikun Zhu, Bingli Guo, Lixin Zhu, Yongqi He, and Zhangyuan Chen, "Experimental demonstration of 400 Gb/s optical PDM-OFDM superchannel multicasting by multiple-pump FWM in HNLF," Opt. Express 21, 9915-9922 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-8-9915


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References

  1. X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “Beyond 1-Tb/s superchannel transmission,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Arlington, 2011), Paper ThBB1.
  2. J. Yu, Z. Dong, X. Xiao, Y. Xia, S. Shi, C. Ge, W. Zhou, N. Chi, and Y. Shao, “Generation, transmission and coherent detection of 11.2 Tb/s (112x100Gb/s) single source optical OFDM superchannel,” in Proc. OFC2011, Paper PDPA6.
  3. S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Terabit superchannels for high spectral efficiency transmission,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper Tu.3.C.5. [CrossRef]
  4. E. Torrengo, R. Cigliutti, G. Bosco, G. Gavioli, A. Alaimo, A. Arena, V. Curri, F. Forghieri, S. Piciaccia, M. Belmonte, A. Brinciotti, A. L. Porta, S. Abrate, and P. Poggiolini, “Transoceanic PM-QPSK terabit superchannel transmission experiments at baud-rate subcarrier spacing,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper We.7.C.2.
  5. A. J. Lowery, L. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing for adaptive dispersion compensation in long haul WDM systems,” in Proc. OFC2006, Paper PDP39. [CrossRef]
  6. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for Optical Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 189–204 (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Takahashi, K. Takeshima, I. Morita, and H. Tanaka, “400-Gbit/s optical OFDM transmission over 80 km in 50-GHz frequency grid,” in Proc. ECOC2010, Paper Tu.3.C.1. [CrossRef]
  9. S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “400-Gb/s and 1-Tb/s superchannels using multi-carrier no-guard-interval coherent OFDM,” in Proc. OECC2010, Paper 8B3–4.
  10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, and B. Zhu, “Transmission of a 448-Gb/s reduced-guard-interval CO-OFDM signal with a 60-GHz optical bandwidth over 2000 km of ULAF and five 80-GHz-grid ROADMs,” in Proc. OFC2010, Paper PDPC2.
  11. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, and W. Shieh, “1-Tb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 600-km SSMF fiber with subwavelength bandwidth access,” Opt. Express17(11), 9421–9427 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Dischler and F. Buchali, “Transmission of 1.2 Tb/s continuous waveband PDM-OFDM-FDM signal with spectral efficiency of 3.3 bit/s/Hz over 400 km of SSMF,” in Proc. OFC2009, paper PDPC2.
  13. Q. Yang, S. You, G. Shen, Z. He, M. Luo, Z. Yang, S. Yu, and W. Shieh, “Experimental demonstration of Tb/s optical transport network based on CO-OFDM superchannel with heterogeneous ROADM nodes supporting single-fiber bidirectional communications,” in Proc. OFC2012, Paper JTh2A.47. [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express20(3), 2379–2385 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF,” Opt. Express20(2), 787–793 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. Zhang, J. Wei, and C. Qiao, “On fundamental issues in IP over WDM multicast,” in Proceedings of Int. Conf. Computer, Communications and Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Boston, 1999), pp.84–90.
  17. C. Y. Li, P. K. A. Wai, X. C. Yuan, and V. O. K. Li, “Multicasting in deflection-routed all-optical packet-switched networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Taipei, 2002), pp.2842–2846.
  18. R. K. Pankaj, “Wavelength requirements for multicasting in all-optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.7(3), 414–424 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. G. N. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: Rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Netw.17(1), 60–65 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. D. Wang, T.-H. Cheng, Y.-K. Yeo, Y. Wang, Z. Xu, J. Liu, and G. Xiao, “Optical wavelength multicasting based on four wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber with reduced polarization sensitivity,” in Proc. OFC2010, Paper JWA47.
  21. G. W. Lu, K. S. Abedin, and T. Miyazaki, “DPSK multicast using multiple-pump FWM in Bismuths highly nonlinear fiber with high multicast efficiency,” Opt. Express16(26), 21964–21970 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Pu, H. Hu, H. Ji, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, P. Jeppesen, J. M. Hvam, and K. Yvind, “One-to-six WDM multicasting of DPSK signals based on dual-pump four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express19(24), 24448–24453 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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