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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 9 — May. 6, 2013
  • pp: 10502–10510
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Wide-angle near infrared polarizer with extremely high extinction ratio

X. L. Liu, B. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 10502-10510 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.010502


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Abstract

An infrared polarizer is designed with a predicted extremely high extinction ratio exceeding 3 × 1016 and transmittance higher than 89% for one polarization in the wavelength region from 1.6 to 2.3 µm. Moreover, the performance does not start to deteriorate until 60° tilting angle. The wide-angle high transmission is attributed to the excitation of magnetic polaritons and suitable LC circuit models, which could predict the resonance wavelengths quantitatively, are developed to better understand the underlying mechanisms. The proposed structure can be tuned by controlling the geometrical parameters for different potential applications such as polarizers, beamsplitters, filters, and transparent electrodes.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Polarizers play an important role in optical devices and systems, such as the Faraday isolators, modulators, fiber-optic networks, as well as imaging and laser systems. High-efficiency near-infrared polarizers are especially important for laser systems and optical communications. Compared with conventional bulky polarizers, such as calcite prisms and pile of plates, which are difficult to integrate with other components, wire-grid polarizers can be used to produce compact and integrated optical devices. Anodization and elctrodeposition [1

1. Y. T. Pang, G. W. Meng, Q. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Silver nanowire array infrared polarizers,” Nanotechnology 14(1), 20–24 (2003). [CrossRef]

], e-beam lithography [2

2. L. Zhou and W. Liu, “Broadband polarizing beam splitter with an embedded metal-wire nanograting,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1434–1436 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 3

3. Y.-B. Chen, B. J. Lee, and Z. M. Zhang, “Infrared radiative properties of submicron metallic slit arrays,” J. Heat Transf.- Trans. ASME 130(8), 082404 (2008). [CrossRef]

], interference lithography [4

4. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. David, and H. Sigg, “Bilayer Al wire-grids as broadband and high-performance polarizers,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2323–2334 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-14-6-2323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and nanoimprint lithography [5

5. S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005). [CrossRef]

, 6

6. L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, “Large flexible nanowire grid visible polarizer made by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 063111 (2007). [CrossRef]

] have already been used to fabricate wire-grid polarizers applicable to the near-infrared region. The performance of a polarizer can be characterized by a high transmittance for one polarization and very low transmittance for another polarization. Appropriate lateral shift is suggested to enhance the transmission of double-layer periodic gratings at certain wavelength region [4

4. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. David, and H. Sigg, “Bilayer Al wire-grids as broadband and high-performance polarizers,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2323–2334 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-14-6-2323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 7

7. F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Anomalous terahertz transmission through double-layer metal hole arrays by coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165408 (2005). [CrossRef]

10

10. H. B. Chan, Z. Marcet, K. Woo, D. B. Tanner, D. W. Carr, J. E. Bower, R. A. Cirelli, E. Ferry, F. Klemens, J. Miner, C. S. Pai, and J. A. Taylor, “Optical transmission through double-layer metallic subwavelength slit arrays,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 516–518 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Chan et al. [10

10. H. B. Chan, Z. Marcet, K. Woo, D. B. Tanner, D. W. Carr, J. E. Bower, R. A. Cirelli, E. Ferry, F. Klemens, J. Miner, C. S. Pai, and J. A. Taylor, “Optical transmission through double-layer metallic subwavelength slit arrays,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 516–518 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] experimentally demonstrated an extraordinary transmission for transverse magnetic (TM) waves in a double-layer grating nanostructure. Yang and Lu [11

11. Z. Y. Yang and Y. F. Lu, “Broadband nanowire-grid polarizers in ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared regions,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9510–9519 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-15-9510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] designed an extra-broadband polarizer by incorporating dual-layer aluminum grating on both sides of the CaF2 substrate. This structure was predicted to have an extinction ratio, the ratio of transmittance for TM waves to that of TE (electric field is perpendicular to the incidence plane) waves, exceeding 107 and transmission over 64% in the wavelength (λ) region from 0.3 to 5 μm. The highest extinction ratio was predicted to be 109 at λ = 5 μm [11

11. Z. Y. Yang and Y. F. Lu, “Broadband nanowire-grid polarizers in ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared regions,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9510–9519 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-15-9510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Peltzer et al. [12

12. J. J. Peltzer, P. D. Flammer, T. E. Furtak, R. T. Collins, and R. E. Hollingsworth, “Ultra-high extinction ratio micropolarizers using plasmonic lenses,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18072–18079 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-19-18072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] designed and fabricated a near-infrared polarizer with a theoretically predicted extinction ratio as high as 1011 in a narrow spectral region.

In this work, a design of a broadband polarizer with high transmittance (near 90%) and extremely high extinction ratio (exceeding 1016) for 1.6 μm < λ < 2.3 μm is proposed. The device can also act as a polarization beamsplitter. Furthermore, the performance does not degrade until a tilting angle of 60° is reached. Magnetic (plasmon) polaritons (MPs) are used to elucidate the extraordinary transmission in a relatively broad spectral region.

2. High transmission and extinction ratio

The structure proposed here is based on a one-dimensional (1D) double-layer structure, which is periodic along the x direction and extends to infinity in the y direction, as shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 The proposed nanostructure and its performance as an IR polarizer: (a) Schematic of a period of the double-layer grating; (b) Spectral transmittance for TM waves and the extinction ratio at normal incidence; (c) Contour plot of the transmittance as a function of the wavelength and angle of incidence for TM waves. The parameters used for the calculation are P = 500 nm, tm = 400 nm, ts = 30 nm, and Wg = 150 nm.
. A thin SiO2 (glass) spacer is sandwiched between two identical silver gratings, which are shifted laterally by half the period. In other words, the centerlines of the ridges in the top grating coincide with those of the slits in the bottom grating. The structure is characterized with a base set of parameters given in the following: the period P = 500 nm, spacer thickness ts = 30 nm, Ag grating thickness tm = 400 nm, and slit width Wg = 150 nm. Radiation is incident from air at an incidence angle of θi. The analysis is based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method using a commercial package (Lumerical Solutions, Inc.) and the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) algorithm [9

9. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Effect of magnetic polaritons on the radiative properties of double-layer nanoslit arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(12), 2595–2604 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).

].

The dielectric function of Ag as a function of the angular frequency ω is obtained using the Drude model: εAg(ω)=εωp2/(ω2iγω) with a scattering rate γ=2.7×1013rad/s, plasma frequency ωp=1.39×1016rad/s, and a high-frequency constant ε=3.4 [14

14. M. F. Modest, Radiative Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

]. For SiO2, the refraction index is taken as 1.43 with negligible loss in the considered wavelength region from 1 to 3 μm [15

15. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic Press, 1998).

].

Figure 1(c) displays the transmittance contour as a function of the wavelength and incidence angle. Note that the plane of incidence is always perpendicular to the y-axis to avoid conical refraction when depolarization can occur [13

13. B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).

]. It can be seen that the transmittance is still high until the incidence angle exceeds 60°. It should be noted that the transmittance for TE waves (not shown) remains to be extremely low at oblique incidence. That means the polarizer has a large angle tolerance, which makes it useful not only for well collimated beams, but also for diverging and converging beams. The two peaks approach each other with increasing incident angles and finally merge together when the incidence angle exceeds 25°.

For practical applications, the proposed structure may be fabricated onto a suitable substrate material such as SiO2 or CaF2. If the slit region is filled with a dielectric rather than air, the fabrication process will not be too difficult because similar structures have been fabricated by others [10

10. H. B. Chan, Z. Marcet, K. Woo, D. B. Tanner, D. W. Carr, J. E. Bower, R. A. Cirelli, E. Ferry, F. Klemens, J. Miner, C. S. Pai, and J. A. Taylor, “Optical transmission through double-layer metallic subwavelength slit arrays,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 516–518 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 12

12. J. J. Peltzer, P. D. Flammer, T. E. Furtak, R. T. Collins, and R. E. Hollingsworth, “Ultra-high extinction ratio micropolarizers using plasmonic lenses,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18072–18079 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-19-18072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 18

18. W.-D. Li, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21098–21108 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-21-21098. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. High performance is still expected when the slit region is filled with a dielectric material, although some tuning of the parameters is necessary for wavelength selection. Moreover, the dielectric in the silt region (different from the material used as the spacer) could be removed by wet etching in the final step if necessary. Attention is now turned to the underlying mechanisms that give rise to the high and broadband transmission for TM waves.

3. LC circuit models and magnetic polaritons

Extraordinary transmission through double-layer gratings with or without lateral shift has been investigated by many researchers [4

4. Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. David, and H. Sigg, “Bilayer Al wire-grids as broadband and high-performance polarizers,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2323–2334 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-14-6-2323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 8

8. C. Cheng, J. Chen, D.-J. Shi, Q.-Y. Wu, F.-F. Ren, J. Xu, Y.-X. Fan, J. Ding, and H.-T. Wang, “Physical mechanism of extraordinary electromagnetic transmission in dual-metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075406 (2008). [CrossRef]

, 11

11. Z. Y. Yang and Y. F. Lu, “Broadband nanowire-grid polarizers in ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared regions,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9510–9519 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-15-9510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. S. Xie, H. Li, S. Fu, H. Xu, X. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “The extraordinary optical transmission through double-layer gold slit arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4017–4024 (2010). [CrossRef]

22

22. L. Y. Deng, J. H. Teng, L. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Liu, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Extremely high extinction ratio terahertz broadband polarizer using bilayer subwavelength metal wire-grid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011101 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Different mechanisms were used to explain this phenomenon, such as coupled surface plasmons, waveguide modes, or Fabry-Perot resonances. Recently, Huang and Peng [23

23. X.-R. Huang and R.-W. Peng, “General mechanism involved in subwavelength optics of conducting microstructures: charge-oscillation-induced light emission and interference,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(4), 718–729 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] put forward a general charge-oscillation theory to explain the extraordinary transmission through various sub-wavelength decorated metallic structures. Nonetheless, few of them could predict the location of the transmission peak quantitatively. Here, the two transmission peaks are attributed to magnetic polaritons (MPs) which refer to the coupling between the external electromagnetic waves and the induced current loop in a micro/nanostructure [9

9. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Effect of magnetic polaritons on the radiative properties of double-layer nanoslit arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(12), 2595–2604 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Wavelength-selective and diffuse emitter enhanced by magnetic polaritons for thermophotovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 063902 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Two simple inductor-capacitor (LC) circuit models are developed after carefully analyzing the magnetic field distribution and current density vectors in the near-field regime to quantitatively predict the locations of the transmission peaks P1 and P2, respectively, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The enhancement of the magnetic field and current loop when the MPs are excited and the simple LC circuit models: (a,b) Contour plots of the dimensionless field distribution |Hy/H0|2 for P1 and P2, respectively. The arrows indicate the directions of the current flow; (c,d) LC models for P1 and P2, respectively, based on the magnetic field and current density distributions.
.

For the first peak (P1), the dimensionless field distribution is shown in Fig. 2(a) with color denoting |Hy/H0|2 and arrows representing the current density vectors. Here, H0 is the amplitude of the magnetic field for the incident wave. There exists strong field enhancement in the slit and the SiO2 spacer region but not in the overlapping area between the top and bottom gratings. Following the current density vectors distribution, a LC model shown in Fig. 2(c) is developed to predict the resonance wavelength for P1. Note that the field distributions in the top and bottom slits are almost the same due to the structure symmetry, so that only one LC circuit either in the top or bottom slit region is needed to predict the resonance wavelength (or frequency). The simple LC circuit model assumes that MPs are localized without coupling to each other. The inductances are given as follows:
L1=Le,1=Wgε0ωp2δl
(1)
L2=L2=Le,2+Lm,2=(P2Wg)4ε0ωp2δl+μ0(P2Wg)ts8l
(2)
L3=Le,3+Lm,3=tmε0ωp2δl+μ0Wgtm2l
(3)
where μ0and ε0are the permeability and permittivity of vacuum, respectively, and l is the structure thickness in the y direction. Here, Le,1, Le,2, and Le,3 are the kinetic inductances that account for the contribution of drifting electrons, while Lm,2 and Lm,3 are the mutual inductances between parallel plates [9

9. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Effect of magnetic polaritons on the radiative properties of double-layer nanoslit arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(12), 2595–2604 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Wavelength-selective and diffuse emitter enhanced by magnetic polaritons for thermophotovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 063902 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. It is assumed that all induced electric current in the metal flows within a penetration depth defined as δ=λ/4πκ, where κ is the extinction coefficient of Ag [25

25. Z. M. Zhang, Nano/Microscale Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, 2007).

]. In Fig. 2(c), Cg1 and Cs are the parallel-plate capacitances of the gap (slit) and spacer, respectively, and are given as
Cg1=c1ε0tmlWgandCs=c2ε0εd(P2Wg)l4ts
(4)
where εd is the permittivity of SiO2. The coefficients c1 and c2 take into account the nonuniform charge distribution and are often treated as adjusting parameters [9

9. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Effect of magnetic polaritons on the radiative properties of double-layer nanoslit arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(12), 2595–2604 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 24

24. L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Wavelength-selective and diffuse emitter enhanced by magnetic polaritons for thermophotovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 063902 (2012). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. B. Zhao, L. P. Wang, Y. Shuai, and Z. M. Zhang, “Thermophotovoltaic emitters based on a two-dimensional grating/thin-film nanostructure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (submitted to) (2013).

]. In the present study, good agreement between the resonance wavelengths calculated by the rigorous numerical solutions and the LC model are obtained using c1 = c2 = 0.6. It can be seen from Fig. 2(a) that the field and current density in the slit region are nonuniform. The charge distribution is also nonuniform since charges tend to accumulate around the corner. Similarly, the field and charge distributions are nonuniform in the overlapping area between the top and bottom gratings, although not shown in Fig. 2(a). The MP resonance condition in this LC circuit can be determined by zeroing the total impedance, and then the (angular) resonant frequency is obtained as follows.

ωp1=(2Cs+1Cg1)1L1+2L2+2L2+2L3
(5)

ωp2=1Cg2(L1+2L3)
(7)

The resonance wavelengths predicted by the LC models are 1.674 μm (P1) and 2.298 μm (P2), which agree well with the values of 1.685 μm (P1) and 2.195 μm (P2) obtained by numerical simulations. It should be noted that the maximum absorptance in the high transmittance band is only 3.2%; therefore, the strong field confinement mainly helps light to penetrate through this structure. The LC models not only provide a physical interpretation of the extraordinary transmission, but also allow quantitative predictions of the geometric effect on the resonance condition as discussed in the following.

4. Performance tunability

Figure 3(b) shows that when the spacer thickness ts is reduced, P1 will redshift but P2 will blueshift and they will degenerate into one peak when ts < 20 nm. For P1, the spacer capacitance Cs increases with decreasing ts, so that the resonance wavelength will increase. For P2, on the other hand, Cg2 decreases with decreasing ts due to the second term, so that the resonance wavelength will also decrease. When ts exceeds 50 nm, the LC model predictions start to deviate from the full-wave simulation. In this case, near-field coupling between the top and bottom grating becomes weak. Furthermore, the field distributions may largely deviate from those for the base parameters, resulting in a breaking down of the LC circuit models.

To study the scaling effect, both the slit width Wg and the period P are changed, while their ratio is fixed to be 0.3. When the structure is scaled down, a broader high transmission region is obtained as shown in Fig. 3(c). On the other hand, the two peaks merge when P > 600 nm. The LC models agree reasonably well with the full-wave results, except when the period is less than 300 nm. For very small P, the penetration depth in Ag may become comparable with the width of the ridge, so that the field for different periods may couple with each other.

5. Concluding remarks

A design of broadband polarizers in the near infrared region is proposed with both good transmission and extremely high extinction ratio. The good performance holds until 60°. MPs are responsible for the high transmission and two simple LC models are developed to predict resonant transmission peaks quantitatively. The geometric parameters, such as grating thickness, spacer thickness, and period could be tuned for different applications. This work will benefit the design of high-performance polarizers, beamsplitters, filters, and transparent electrodes.

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CBET-1235975 (XLL) and the Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-06ER46343 (BZ and ZMZ).

References and links

1.

Y. T. Pang, G. W. Meng, Q. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Silver nanowire array infrared polarizers,” Nanotechnology 14(1), 20–24 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

L. Zhou and W. Liu, “Broadband polarizing beam splitter with an embedded metal-wire nanograting,” Opt. Lett. 30(12), 1434–1436 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

Y.-B. Chen, B. J. Lee, and Z. M. Zhang, “Infrared radiative properties of submicron metallic slit arrays,” J. Heat Transf.- Trans. ASME 130(8), 082404 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, C. David, and H. Sigg, “Bilayer Al wire-grids as broadband and high-performance polarizers,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2323–2334 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=OE-14-6-2323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

S.-W. Ahn, K.-D. Lee, J.-S. Kim, S. H. Kim, J.-D. Park, S.-H. Lee, and P.-W. Yoon, “Fabrication of a 50 nm half-pitch wire grid polarizer using nanoimprint lithography,” Nanotechnology 16(9), 1874–1877 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Chen, J. J. Wang, F. Walters, X. Deng, M. Buonanno, S. Tai, and X. Liu, “Large flexible nanowire grid visible polarizer made by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(6), 063111 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Anomalous terahertz transmission through double-layer metal hole arrays by coupling of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165408 (2005). [CrossRef]

8.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, D.-J. Shi, Q.-Y. Wu, F.-F. Ren, J. Xu, Y.-X. Fan, J. Ding, and H.-T. Wang, “Physical mechanism of extraordinary electromagnetic transmission in dual-metallic grating structures,” Phys. Rev. B 78(7), 075406 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Effect of magnetic polaritons on the radiative properties of double-layer nanoslit arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(12), 2595–2604 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

H. B. Chan, Z. Marcet, K. Woo, D. B. Tanner, D. W. Carr, J. E. Bower, R. A. Cirelli, E. Ferry, F. Klemens, J. Miner, C. S. Pai, and J. A. Taylor, “Optical transmission through double-layer metallic subwavelength slit arrays,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 516–518 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

Z. Y. Yang and Y. F. Lu, “Broadband nanowire-grid polarizers in ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared regions,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9510–9519 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-15-15-9510. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. J. Peltzer, P. D. Flammer, T. E. Furtak, R. T. Collins, and R. E. Hollingsworth, “Ultra-high extinction ratio micropolarizers using plasmonic lenses,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18072–18079 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-19-18072. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

B. J. Lee, Y.-B. Chen, and Z. M. Zhang, “Transmission enhancement through nanoscale metallic slit arrays from the visible to mid-infrared,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 5, 201–213 (2008).

14.

M. F. Modest, Radiative Heat Transfer, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

15.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic Press, 1998).

16.

Z. M. Zhang, T. R. Gentile, A. L. Migdall, and R. U. Datla, “Transmittance measurements for filters of optical density between one and ten,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 8889–8895 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

G. Kang, Y. Fang, I. Vartiainen, Q. Tan, and Y. Wang, “Achromatic polarization splitting effect of metallic gratings with sub-50 nm wide slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211104 (2012). [CrossRef]

18.

W.-D. Li, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks,” Opt. Express 19(21), 21098–21108 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-19-21-21098. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

S. Xie, H. Li, S. Fu, H. Xu, X. Zhou, and Z. Liu, “The extraordinary optical transmission through double-layer gold slit arrays,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4017–4024 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

Z. Ye, Y. Peng, T. Zhai, Y. Zhou, and D. Liu, “Surface plasmon-mediated transmission in double-layer metallic grating polarizers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(3), 502–507 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

L. Y. Deng, J. H. Teng, L. Zhang, Q. Y. Wu, H. Liu, X. H. Zhang, and S. J. Chua, “Extremely high extinction ratio terahertz broadband polarizer using bilayer subwavelength metal wire-grid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011101 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

X.-R. Huang and R.-W. Peng, “General mechanism involved in subwavelength optics of conducting microstructures: charge-oscillation-induced light emission and interference,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(4), 718–729 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

L. P. Wang and Z. M. Zhang, “Wavelength-selective and diffuse emitter enhanced by magnetic polaritons for thermophotovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(6), 063902 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

Z. M. Zhang, Nano/Microscale Heat Transfer (McGraw-Hill, 2007).

26.

B. Zhao, L. P. Wang, Y. Shuai, and Z. M. Zhang, “Thermophotovoltaic emitters based on a two-dimensional grating/thin-film nanostructure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (submitted to) (2013).

27.

Y. Cui and S. He, “Enhancing extraordinary transmission of light through a metallic nanoslit with a nanocavity antenna,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 16–18 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(050.2770) Diffraction and gratings : Gratings
(120.7000) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Transmission
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
(240.5420) Optics at surfaces : Polaritons

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

History
Original Manuscript: March 6, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 13, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 14, 2013
Published: April 23, 2013

Citation
X. L. Liu, B. Zhao, and Z. M. Zhang, "Wide-angle near infrared polarizer with extremely high extinction ratio," Opt. Express 21, 10502-10510 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-10502


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References

  1. Y. T. Pang, G. W. Meng, Q. Fang, and L. D. Zhang, “Silver nanowire array infrared polarizers,” Nanotechnology14(1), 20–24 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. L. Zhou and W. Liu, “Broadband polarizing beam splitter with an embedded metal-wire nanograting,” Opt. Lett.30(12), 1434–1436 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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