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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 9 — May. 6, 2013
  • pp: 10622–10631
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Uniformity of the lasing wavelength of heterogeneously integrated InP microdisk lasers on SOI

P. Mechet, F. Raineri, A. Bazin, Y. Halioua, T. Spuesens, T. J. Karle, P. Regreny, P. Monnier, D. Van Thourhout, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, G. Roelkens, and G. Morthier  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 10622-10631 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.010622


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Abstract

We report a high lasing wavelength uniformity of optically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers processed with electron-beam lithography, heterogeneously integrated with adhesive bonding on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuits and evanescently coupled to an underlying waveguide. We study the continuous wave laser emission coupling out of the SOI via a grating coupler etched at one side of the waveguide, and demonstrate a standard deviation in lasing wavelength of nominally identical devices on the same chip lower than 500pm. The deviation in the diameter of the microdisks as low as a few nanometers makes all-optical signal processing applications requiring cascadability possible.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

The integrated optics community has lately intensively turned its attention to the use of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform for the fabrication of photonic devices. This platform takes advantage of processing know-how from the electronics industry. Indeed, the mature CMOS fabrication technology makes large-scale integration of functional optical devices on SOI possible. Purely passive features on SOI, such as guiding and filtering, have already been demonstrated [1

1. R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and W. R. Stanley, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. However, the parameters of on-chip nanophotonic structures are sensitive to fabrication-induced process variations across the die. Studies have addressed the performance and reliability challenges that arise from this sensitivity to variations [2

2. Z. Li, M. Mohamed, X. Chen, E. Dudley, K. Meng, L. Shang, A. R. Mickelson, R. Joseph, M. Vachharajani, B. Schwartz, and Y. Sun, “Reliability modeling and management of nanophotonic on-chip networks,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 20(1), 98–111 (2012).

,3

3. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. VanVaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, and D. VanThourhout, “Silicon microring resonators,” Lasers & Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Even in tailored process technology, the uniformity of ring resonators closely placed to one another is of the order of 0.5 nm [3

3. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. VanVaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, and D. VanThourhout, “Silicon microring resonators,” Lasers & Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012). [CrossRef]

].

The uniformity of the lasing wavelength of several laser configurations has been investigated in the past in order to demonstrate an accurate control of the semiconductor source wavelength. These results are useful for applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). WDM requires laser sources with wavelengths closely aligned to the passband of demultiplexing optical filters at the receiver end. A common and simple strategy for meeting this demand is the use of wavelength-stabilized discrete sources and passive demultiplexing filters [9

9. M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, D. M. Tennant, B. I. Miller, M. Chien, and K. Feder, “Wavelength uniformity in λ/4 shifted DFB laser array WDM transmitters,” Electron. Lett. 31(20), 1750–1752 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. A 0.59nm standard deviation in the CW lasing wavelength at 20°C has been reported for 1.3-µm AlGaInAs-InP monolithic laser arrays with low-pressure MOVPE grown strained multiple-quantum-well active regions [10

10. C.-C. Lin, M.-C. Wan, H.-H. Liao, and W.-H. Wang, “Highly uniform operation of high-performance 1.3-µm AlGaInAs-InP monolithic laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 590–597 (2000).

]. The uniformity is attributed to the homogeneous growth of MOVPE. A study of the wavelength uniformity of a hundred unmounted 1.3µm distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers has also been reported under 1µs pulsed operation [11

11. T. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, U. Koren, and W. T. Tsang, “Wavelength uniformity of 1.3µm GaInAsP/InP distributed Bragg reflector lasers with hybrid beam/vapour epitaxial growth,” Electron. Lett. 24(13), 822–824 (1988). [CrossRef]

]. A standard deviation in lasing wavelength of 0.27nm has been demonstrated across the wafer, indicating good thickness and compositional uniformity of the crystal growth. A multiple-wavelength distributed feedback laser diode (DFB-LD) array, with precisely controllable wavelengths is a very attractive light source for use in WDM systems. The use of electron-beam lithography for the definition of the grating pitch allows reaching a standard deviation as low as 0.37nm across 2-inch wafers [12

12. Y. Muroya, T. Nakamura, H. Yamada, and T. Torikai, “Precise wavelength control for DFB laser diodes by novel corrugation delineation method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 288–290 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The deviations in threshold current and in maximum output power of DFB lasers coupled to SOI have been reported [13

13. S. Srinivasan, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, J. Peters, B. Kaye, and J. E. Bowers, “Design of phase-shifted hybrid silicon distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9255–9261 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A strong effort on optimizing the lasing uniformity has been carried out in the field of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL’s) [14

14. W. Yuen, G. S. Li, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(2), 422–428 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. VCSELs make useful light sources in WDM systems because of their two-dimensional array configuration, single-mode operation, and precisely controlled lasing wavelength. Uniform 1.5mW light output of monolithically integrated four-wavelength VCSEL arrays fabricated by mask molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) was achieved under CW operation at room temperature [15

15. H. Saito, I. Ogura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Uniform CW operation of multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by mask molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1118–1120 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. A standard deviation in lasing wavelength ranging from 0.27 to 0.38nm for 5 x 6 arrays of four-wavelength VCSEL units (10 x 12 VCSEL’s) lasing between 927.4nm and 942.9nm has been demonstrated. This standard deviation can be explained by the natural nonuniformity of MBE thickness over the wafer. A hybrid integration technique based on flip-chip has also been proposed. In this case, each VCSEL is individually prepared by MBE growth and is arrayed by flip-chip bonding.

Uniformity in lasing wavelength has not yet been reported for heterogeneously integrated laser diodes. In this work, we study the room temperature and continuous wave laser emission of InP-based microdisk lasers, fabricated using electron-beam lithography, heterogeneously integrated and evanescently coupled to SOI waveguides. The microdisks are optically pumped from the waveguide or from the top surface. The laser emission is then collected with an optical fiber out of grating couplers etched at the edges of the silicon waveguide. We report the first investigation of the lasing wavelength uniformity of microdisk lasers integrated on the same SOI die. We demonstrate that nominally identical devices lase within a range of 500pm from one another.

2. Device design and fabrication: a hybrid III-V microdisk laser heterogeneously integrated on silicon on insulator waveguides circuitry

The layout of an SOI-integrated microdisk laser is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the sample. (a) Microdisk laser structure coupled to underlying waveguide. (b) Array of nominally identical microdisk lasers.
. A microdisk is etched into an InP-based film that has a chosen thickness, and that is bonded onto a patterned and planarized SOI waveguide structure. The InP etch is complete. The disk edge is laterally aligned to an underlying SOI wire waveguide.

Two optical levels can be identified in Fig. 1(a). The lowest level consists of narrow single mode SOI waveguides embedded in SiO2 (with a sweep in width and a height of 220nm). The upper level consists of a 583nm thick InP-based membrane with an InP-based tunnel junction and three embedded InAsP quantum wells (QWs) emitting around 1530nm. The two levels are separated by a thin transparent layer (140nm) of a low refractive index material (n = 1.54 for divinylsiloxane-bis-benzocyclobutene (DVS-BCB)) and 100nm of Al2O3 (n = 1.7), allowing evanescent coupling to the underlying waveguide. The goal of processing a device bonded on an Al2O3 layer is to improve the heat dissipation from the structure, since the thermal conductivity of sputtered Al2O3 is significantly larger than that of DVS-BCB and close to 2 W.m−1.K−1 [17

17. S. M. Lee, D. G. Cahill, and T. H. Allen, “Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(1), 253–257 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], while that of DVS-BCB is close to 0.3 W.m−1.K−1. The designed microdisk lasers have a diameter between 6 and 7.5µm. For the fabricated sample under study, the design of the passive level consists of 5 sections of nominally identical waveguides with a given width w, as depicted on Fig. 1(b). The smallest value of w is 300nm. w increases with a 50nm-step from one section to another. The largest waveguide width on the sample is then 500nm. The offset between the edge of the microdisk and the edge of the waveguide is kept constant within one section.

From several cross-sections performed with Focused-Ion-Beam (FIB), we can conclude that the DVS-BCB bonding thickness is uniform on the sample. The total thickness above the waveguide is 235nm everywhere on the sample. It is then possible to compare nominally identical devices, as the offset of the devices within one section as well as the total bonding thickness are fixed.

3. Laser demonstration by optical pumping through the SOI waveguide

The microdisks are studied under optical pumping at room temperature using the experimental setup depicted in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical pumping of a microdisk through the underlying Si waveguide.
[19

19. Y. Halioua, T. Karle, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, G. Roelkens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Hybrid InP-based photonic crystal lasers on silicon on insulator wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201119 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

For the first experiment, laser emission from the microdisks is explored using a modulated laser diode as pump source. The pump delivers 50ns long pulses every 740ns. The wavelength of operation is set at 1.18µm where the InGaAsP QW barrier material is absorptive and where silicon is transparent in order to maximize the pumping efficiency. The pump is coupled from an optical fiber to the SOI waveguide via one of the two gratings etched at each side of the waveguide. These gratings were originally optimized for operation at 1.55µm. By setting the angle between the fiber and the sample at 12° and by using p polarization, it is possible to couple the pump light at 1.18µm into the TM mode of the SOI waveguide. The pump light is absorbed in the III-V layer through evanescent coupling to the microdisk. Of course, the alignment of the waveguide with respect to the microdisk is of primary importance to ensure maximum efficiency of the optical pumping. Above threshold, the laser emission from the microdisk is coupled to the TE mode of the waveguide, and is collected at the other grating by a fiber positioned at 10° angle in order to maximize the collection at 1.55µm. The laser emission is analyzed using a spectrometer equipped with a cooled array of InGaAs detectors. We plot on Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) S-shape curve of a 7-µm diameter microdisk laser optically pumped through the waveguide at 1.18µm (log-log scale). (b) Measured lasing spectrum of the microdisk under 30pJ of pump energy.
, in log-log scale, the laser emission output power of a 7-µm diameter microdisk as a function of the pump pulse energy effectively coupled to the SOI waveguide. The resulting curve has a classic S-shape from which a threshold of about 3.9pJ is deduced (2.36 × 107 pump photons).

These results indicate that microdisk lasers can be pumped effectively from the silicon waveguide layer, which can in some cases simplify the fabrication process. We plot in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode competition in 7-µm diameter microdisk laser optically pumped through the waveguide at 1.18µm.
the spectral position of the emission peak of this 7-µm diameter microdisk as a function of the pumping energy above threshold. At the point where the carrier level gets clamped, the peak lasing wavelength also gets clamped at a value of 1567.4nm. For higher pump pulse energies, mode competition with another radial, azimuthal or vertical mode due to heat generation in the structure results in CW lasing operation at 1574.7nm.

For some all-optical signal processing applications, the lasing wavelength of cascaded microdisks must be aligned to each other. Therefore, in the remainder of this paper, we will evaluate the spread in emission wavelength between nominally identical devices.

4. Study of the deviation in lasing wavelength of nominally identical microdisk lasers on the same chip

Microdisks with nominally identical designs and coupled to waveguides with the same width are studied under optical pumping. The setup for this second experiment is schematically depicted in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic of optical pumping of a microdisk laser from the top surface.
. The CW light of a laser emitting at 980nm is focused on the top surface of the microdisks using a single-mode fiber under a 10° angle. The light emitted from the microdisk lasers couples to the TE mode of the underlying waveguide. Another fiber positioned above one grating coupler collects the laser emission of the microdisks also under a 10° angle. Working at constant pump power for every device of every section, the spectrum of each microdisk above threshold is recorded on an optical spectrum analyzer with a 100-pm resolution.

Table 1

Table 1. Standard deviation in lasing wavelength of microdisk lasers on the same die.

table-icon
View This Table
is a summary of the results for 5 different sections on the same sample. For instance, a standard deviation of 0.37nm on the lasing wavelength of 9 nominally identical 7.5-µm diameter microdisks and coupled to 450-nm wide waveguides is measured. The spectra from the microdisk lasers are plotted together on Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectra of 9 nominally identical microdisk lasers processed with electron-beam lithography and optically pumped at 980nm. The standard deviation in peak lasing wavelength is 0.37nm.
. From this characterization, we demonstrate that a standard deviation in lasing wavelength of nominally identical devices on the same chip lower than 500pm is achievable.

Under electrical pumping, a maximal tuning efficiency of the lasing wavelength of 7.5-µm diameter microdisk lasers of 0.35nm/mW has been achieved by electrically heating a III-V semiconductor arc closely located to the microdisk cavity [20

20. L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A Thermally Tunable III–V Compound Semiconductor Microdisk Laser Integrated on Silicon-on-Insulator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. This device is used for compensating wavelength variations resulting from fabrication. Such a technology could very well be implemented to compensate the standard deviation characterized in this paper, with low additional power consumption.

Using the same setup as depicted on Fig. 6, we then study the pump power needed to obtain lasing devices on seven 7.5-µm diameter microdisks belonging to the same section (waveguide width of 500nm). Figure 9
Fig. 9 Laser threshold (LT) and mode hopping threshold (MHT) in nominally identical microdisk lasers under increasing pump power.
shows that mode hopping occurs between a mode at 1574.3nm and a mode at 1600.7nm when the pump power is increased because of heat generation in the structure. Six of the seven microdisk lasers start lasing around 1574.5nm with a standard deviation in pump power of 1.73dBm. As the pump power increases, single-mode operation around 1600.7nm is triggered in the six lasers with a standard deviation in pump power of 2.25dBm. Laser 7 is already lasing at 1600.2nm under low pump power, and remains lasing at this wavelength for higher pump powers.

5. Conclusion and discussion

In conclusion, we demonstrated optically pumped InP-based microdisks integrated on SOI and processed with electron-beam lithography. Detection of electron-beam alignment markers has allowed the very accurate definition of microdisk lasers with respect to Si wire waveguides. The achievable and reproducible standard deviation in their peak lasing wavelengths is lower than 500pm on the same chip, thanks to optimizations of the technology. The resulting hybrid structure combines advantages of both the III-V and the SOI platforms, offering the possibility to collect light from the SOI and also enabling optical pumping of the lasers through the very same passive circuit. We demonstrated a very accurate control of the lasing wavelength of the microdisk lasers, for a given offset of the microdisk versus the SOI waveguide and for a given microdisk diameter. One of the important design parameters for these structures remains the coupling between the access waveguide and the microdisk. Two solutions to control the emitted wavelength of a laser independently from its pump conditions have been proposed and demonstrated in microdisk lasers in [21

21. F. Mandorlo, P. R. Romeo, N. Olivier, L. Ferrier, R. Orobtchouk, X. Letartre, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “Controlled multi-wavelength emission in full CMOS compatible micro-lasers for on-chip interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3073–3080 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The processing optimizations presented here also make the fabrication of complex functionalities for all-optical signal processing possible. Identical gates or logic blocks requiring cascaded microdisk lasers on the same chip can be concatenated without losing signal integrity.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Rémy Braive for the ICP etching of the microdisk lasers, the FP7-ICT European Projects HISTORIC and WADIMOS, and Liesbet Van Landschoot for the FIB cross-sections and the measurements with SEM.

References and links

1.

R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and W. R. Stanley, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE 96(2), 230–247 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

Z. Li, M. Mohamed, X. Chen, E. Dudley, K. Meng, L. Shang, A. R. Mickelson, R. Joseph, M. Vachharajani, B. Schwartz, and Y. Sun, “Reliability modeling and management of nanophotonic on-chip networks,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst. 20(1), 98–111 (2012).

3.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. VanVaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, and D. VanThourhout, “Silicon microring resonators,” Lasers & Photonics Reviews 6(1), 47–73 (2012). [CrossRef]

4.

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40µA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 36(9), 790–791 (2000). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Spuesens, L. Liu, T. de Vries, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, and D. Van Thourhout,T. L. Koch and M. Paniccia, eds., “Improved design of an InP-based microdisk laser heterogeneously integrated with SOI,” in Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, T. L. Koch and M. Paniccia, ed. (San Francisco, Calif., 2009), pp. 202. [CrossRef]

7.

L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 182–187 (2010). [CrossRef]

8.

. Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1345–1347 (2008). [CrossRef]

9.

M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, D. M. Tennant, B. I. Miller, M. Chien, and K. Feder, “Wavelength uniformity in λ/4 shifted DFB laser array WDM transmitters,” Electron. Lett. 31(20), 1750–1752 (1995). [CrossRef]

10.

C.-C. Lin, M.-C. Wan, H.-H. Liao, and W.-H. Wang, “Highly uniform operation of high-performance 1.3-µm AlGaInAs-InP monolithic laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 590–597 (2000).

11.

T. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, U. Koren, and W. T. Tsang, “Wavelength uniformity of 1.3µm GaInAsP/InP distributed Bragg reflector lasers with hybrid beam/vapour epitaxial growth,” Electron. Lett. 24(13), 822–824 (1988). [CrossRef]

12.

Y. Muroya, T. Nakamura, H. Yamada, and T. Torikai, “Precise wavelength control for DFB laser diodes by novel corrugation delineation method,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(3), 288–290 (1997). [CrossRef]

13.

S. Srinivasan, A. W. Fang, D. Liang, J. Peters, B. Kaye, and J. E. Bowers, “Design of phase-shifted hybrid silicon distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9255–9261 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

W. Yuen, G. S. Li, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3(2), 422–428 (1997). [CrossRef]

15.

H. Saito, I. Ogura, and Y. Sugimoto, “Uniform CW operation of multiple-wavelength vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by mask molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1118–1120 (1996). [CrossRef]

16.

N. C. Frateschi and A. F. J. Levi, “Resonant modes and laser spectrum of microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(22), 2932–2934 (1995). [CrossRef]

17.

S. M. Lee, D. G. Cahill, and T. H. Allen, “Thermal conductivity of sputtered oxide films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 52(1), 253–257 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

T. J. Karle, Y. Halioua, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, G. Roelkens, F. van Laere, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Raj, “Heterogeneous integration and precise alignment of InP-based photonic crystal lasers to complementary metal-oxide semiconductor fabricated silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(6), 063103 (2010). [CrossRef]

19.

Y. Halioua, T. Karle, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, G. Roelkens, and D. Van Thourhout, “Hybrid InP-based photonic crystal lasers on silicon on insulator wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201119 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

L. Liu, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, P. Regreny, and P. Rojo-Romeo, “A Thermally Tunable III–V Compound Semiconductor Microdisk Laser Integrated on Silicon-on-Insulator Circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1270–1272 (2010). [CrossRef]

21.

F. Mandorlo, P. R. Romeo, N. Olivier, L. Ferrier, R. Orobtchouk, X. Letartre, J. M. Fedeli, and P. Viktorovitch, “Controlled multi-wavelength emission in full CMOS compatible micro-lasers for on-chip interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(19), 3073–3080 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3460) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(230.1150) Optical devices : All-optical devices

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 25, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 15, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 17, 2013
Published: April 24, 2013

Citation
P. Mechet, F. Raineri, A. Bazin, Y. Halioua, T. Spuesens, T. J. Karle, P. Regreny, P. Monnier, D. Van Thourhout, I. Sagnes, R. Raj, G. Roelkens, and G. Morthier, "Uniformity of the lasing wavelength of heterogeneously integrated InP microdisk lasers on SOI," Opt. Express 21, 10622-10631 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-10622


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References

  1. R. G. Beausoleil, P. J. Kuekes, G. S. Snider, S.-Y. Wang, and W. R. Stanley, “Nanoelectronic and nanophotonic interconnect,” Proc. IEEE96(2), 230–247 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Li, M. Mohamed, X. Chen, E. Dudley, K. Meng, L. Shang, A. R. Mickelson, R. Joseph, M. Vachharajani, B. Schwartz, and Y. Sun, “Reliability modeling and management of nanophotonic on-chip networks,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst.20(1), 98–111 (2012).
  3. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. VanVaerenbergh, K. DeVos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, and D. VanThourhout, “Silicon microring resonators,” Lasers & Photonics Reviews6(1), 47–73 (2012). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express15(11), 6744–6749 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Fujita, R. Ushigome, and T. Baba, “Continuous wave lasing in GaInAsP microdisk injection laser with threshold current of 40µA,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.36(9), 790–791 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. T. Spuesens, L. Liu, T. de Vries, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, and D. Van Thourhout,T. L. Koch and M. Paniccia, eds., “Improved design of an InP-based microdisk laser heterogeneously integrated with SOI,” in Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, T. L. Koch and M. Paniccia, ed. (San Francisco, Calif., 2009), pp. 202. [CrossRef]
  7. L. Liu, R. Kumar, K. Huybrechts, T. Spuesens, G. Roelkens, E.-J. Geluk, T. de Vries, P. Regreny, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, and G. Morthier, “An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics4(3), 182–187 (2010). [CrossRef]
  8. . Van Campenhout, L. Liu, P. Rojo Romeo, D. Van Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “A compact SOI-integrated multiwavelength laser source based on cascaded InP microdisks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(16), 1345–1347 (2008). [CrossRef]
  9. M. G. Young, T. L. Koch, U. Koren, D. M. Tennant, B. I. Miller, M. Chien, and K. Feder, “Wavelength uniformity in λ/4 shifted DFB laser array WDM transmitters,” Electron. Lett.31(20), 1750–1752 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. C.-C. Lin, M.-C. Wan, H.-H. Liao, and W.-H. Wang, “Highly uniform operation of high-performance 1.3-µm AlGaInAs-InP monolithic laser arrays,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.36(5), 590–597 (2000).
  11. T. L. Koch, P. J. Corvini, U. Koren, and W. T. Tsang, “Wavelength uniformity of 1.3µm GaInAsP/InP distributed Bragg reflector lasers with hybrid beam/vapour epitaxial growth,” Electron. Lett.24(13), 822–824 (1988). [CrossRef]
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