## Impact of power allocation strategies in long-haul few-mode fiber transmission systems |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 10801-10809 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.010801

Acrobat PDF (1678 KB)

### Abstract

We report for the first time on the limitations in the operational power range of few-mode fiber based transmission systems, employing 28Gbaud quadrature phase shift keying transponders, over 1,600km. It is demonstrated that if an additional mode is used on a preexisting few-mode transmission link, and allowed to optimize its performance, it will have a significant impact on the pre-existing mode. In particular, we show that for low mode coupling strengths (weak coupling regime), the newly added variable power mode does not considerably impact the fixed power existing mode, with performance penalties less than 2dB (in Q-factor). On the other hand, as mode coupling strength is increased (strong coupling regime), the individual launch power optimization significantly degrades the system performance, with penalties up to ~6dB. Our results further suggest that mutual power optimization, of both fixed power and variable power modes, reduces power allocation related penalties to less than 3dB, for any given coupling strength, for both high and low differential mode delays.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

3. E. Ip, N. Bai, Y. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, S. Bickham, H. Tam, C. Lu, M. Li, S. Ten, A. P. T. Lau, V. Tse, G. Peng, C. Montero, X. Prieto, and G. Li, “88x3x112-Gb/s WDM transmission over 50-km of three-Mode fiber with inline multimode fiber amplifier,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Th.13.C.2, (2011).

5. S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, PDP5C.5, (2012).

6. A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express **20**(11), 11673–11678 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express **20**(11), 11673–11678 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Simulation model

^{th}mode. Also,

## 3. Results and discussions

_{01}and LP

_{21}, in the high DMD fiber and LP

_{02}and LP

_{21}in the low DMD fiber, respectively).

12. G. Rademacher, S. Warm, and K. Petermann, “Analytical description of cross-modal nonlinear interaction in mode multiplexed multmode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(21), 1929–1932 (2012). [CrossRef]

19. S. Mumtaz, R. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Reduction of nonlinear penalties due to linear coupling in multicore optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(18), 1574–1576 (2012). [CrossRef]

_{optimal}of slow mode and Q-factor (slow mode) at individual P

_{optimal}of fast mode, 2) Q2_HighDMD, representing performance penalty for fixed power mode (or slow mode) in case of mutual launch power optimization for fixed power mode and variable power mode (or fast mode). It is calculated by subtracting Q-factor (slow mode) at individual P

_{optimal}of slow mode and Q-factor (slow mode) at mutual P

_{optimal}of slow and fast modes, 3) Q3_HighDMD, representing performance penalty for variable power mode (or fast mode) in case of mutual launch power optimization for fixed power mode (or slow mode) and variable power mode. It is calculated by subtracting Q-factor (fast mode) at individual P

_{optimal}of fast mode and Q-factor (fast mode) at mutual P

_{optimal}of fast and slow modes. Similar approach is taken in Fig. 6(b) for low DMD fiber (corresponding penalties are Q1_LowDMD, Q2_LowDMD and Q3_LowDMD). As shown in Fig. 5, the penalties reported are predominantly influenced by intra mode nonlinearity and linear crosstalk, however, intra mode nonlinear effects have a non-negligible impact (Fig. 4(b)). It can be observed that, as the mode coupling strength is increased, the Q-penalties monotonically increase, in particular for the fixed power mode, irrespective of the DMD (Fig. 6(a) and Fig. 6(b)) or approach to power control. Interestingly, the performance of the variable power mode is not degraded significantly, with penalties below 1.5dB for any given scenario. At this transmission reach, the performance of a fixed power channel is severely degraded for coupling strength beyond few percentiles. This behavior can be attributed to increasing inter mode coupling with mode coupling strength, owing to the increasing power of the variable power mode. Figure 6(a) shows that at 10% mode coupling efficiency Q-penalties of ~5.5 dB (Q1_HighDMD), ~3.5 dB (Q2_HighDMD), and ~1.5 dB (Q3_HighDMD) are observed. These results clearly show that even though the impact of launch power allocation strategy is not extreme for low mode coupling values (<~2dB up to mode coupling strength of 2.5%), it significantly degrades the transmission performance with increasing mode coupling strength. with the mutual power optimization strategy offering lower overall penalties.

## 4. Conclusions

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | R. Essiambre and A. Mecozzi, “Capacity limits in single mode fiber and scaling for spatial multiplexing,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OW3D.1, (2012). |

2. | P. J. Winzer, “Energy-efficient optical transport capacity scaling through spatial multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

3. | E. Ip, N. Bai, Y. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, S. Bickham, H. Tam, C. Lu, M. Li, S. Ten, A. P. T. Lau, V. Tse, G. Peng, C. Montero, X. Prieto, and G. Li, “88x3x112-Gb/s WDM transmission over 50-km of three-Mode fiber with inline multimode fiber amplifier,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Th.13.C.2, (2011). |

4. | T. Hayashi, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Multi-core fibers for high capacity transmission,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OTu1D.4, (2012). |

5. | S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, PDP5C.5, (2012). |

6. | A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express |

7. | M. Salsi, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Nonlinear effects in mode-division-multiplexed transmission over few-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

8. | N. MacSuibhne, R. Watts, S. Sygletos, F. C. G. Gunning, L. GrüNernielsen, and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear pulse distortion in few-mode fiber,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’12, Th.2.F.5, (2012). |

9. | J. M. Kahn, K. Ho, and M. B. Shemirani, “Mode coupling effects in multi-mode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OW3D.3, (2012). |

10. | J. Vuong, P. Ramantanis, A. Seck, D. Bendimerad, and Y. Frignac, “Understanding discrete linear mode coupling in few-mode fiber transmission systems,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Tu5B2, (2011). |

11. | P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Tu5C7, (2011). |

12. | G. Rademacher, S. Warm, and K. Petermann, “Analytical description of cross-modal nonlinear interaction in mode multiplexed multmode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

13. | D. Marcuse, |

14. | F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

15. | G. Agrawal, |

16. | F. Gardner, “A BPSK/QPSK timing-error detector for sampled receivers,” IEEE Commun. Mag. |

17. | S. Savory, “Digital signal processing for coherent systems,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OTh3C.7, (2012). |

18. | D. v. d Borne, C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ-DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’107, 7.2.3, (2007). |

19. | S. Mumtaz, R. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Reduction of nonlinear penalties due to linear coupling in multicore optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

20. | X. Chen, J. E. Hurley, M.-J. Li, and R. S. Vodhanel, “Effects of multipath interference (MPI) on the performance of transmission systems using Fabry-Perot lasers and short bend insensitive jumper fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘09, NWC5, (2009). |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications

(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers

(060.4256) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, network optimization

**ToC Category:**

Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

**History**

Original Manuscript: October 3, 2012

Revised Manuscript: December 3, 2012

Manuscript Accepted: December 22, 2012

Published: April 25, 2013

**Citation**

Danish Rafique, Stylianos Sygletos, and Andrew D. Ellis, "Impact of power allocation strategies in long-haul few-mode fiber transmission systems," Opt. Express **21**, 10801-10809 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-10801

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### References

- R. Essiambre and A. Mecozzi, “Capacity limits in single mode fiber and scaling for spatial multiplexing,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OW3D.1, (2012).
- P. J. Winzer, “Energy-efficient optical transport capacity scaling through spatial multiplexing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 851–853 (2011). [CrossRef]
- E. Ip, N. Bai, Y. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, S. Bickham, H. Tam, C. Lu, M. Li, S. Ten, A. P. T. Lau, V. Tse, G. Peng, C. Montero, X. Prieto, and G. Li, “88x3x112-Gb/s WDM transmission over 50-km of three-Mode fiber with inline multimode fiber amplifier,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Th.13.C.2, (2011).
- T. Hayashi, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Multi-core fibers for high capacity transmission,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OTu1D.4, (2012).
- S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Mode-multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, PDP5C.5, (2012).
- A. Mecozzi, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Nonlinear propagation in multi-mode fibers in the strong coupling regime,” Opt. Express20(11), 11673–11678 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Salsi, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “Nonlinear effects in mode-division-multiplexed transmission over few-mode optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(18), 1316–1318 (2011). [CrossRef]
- N. MacSuibhne, R. Watts, S. Sygletos, F. C. G. Gunning, L. GrüNernielsen, and A. D. Ellis, “Nonlinear pulse distortion in few-mode fiber,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’12, Th.2.F.5, (2012).
- J. M. Kahn, K. Ho, and M. B. Shemirani, “Mode coupling effects in multi-mode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OW3D.3, (2012).
- J. Vuong, P. Ramantanis, A. Seck, D. Bendimerad, and Y. Frignac, “Understanding discrete linear mode coupling in few-mode fiber transmission systems,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Tu5B2, (2011).
- P. Sillard, M. Bigot-Astruc, D. Boivin, H. Maerten, and L. Provost, “Few-mode fiber for uncoupled mode-division multiplexing transmissions,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’11, Tu5C7, (2011).
- G. Rademacher, S. Warm, and K. Petermann, “Analytical description of cross-modal nonlinear interaction in mode multiplexed multmode fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(21), 1929–1932 (2012). [CrossRef]
- D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides chapters 3&5, (New York: Academic, 1974).
- F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 240–242 (2012). [CrossRef]
- G. Agrawal, Applications of nonlinear Fibre Optics chapter 2, (Academic Press, 2001).
- F. Gardner, “A BPSK/QPSK timing-error detector for sampled receivers,” IEEE Commun. Mag.34, 423–429 (1986).
- S. Savory, “Digital signal processing for coherent systems,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘12, OTh3C.7, (2012).
- D. v. d Borne, C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, C. Schulien, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUXNRZ-DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours,” European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC’107, 7.2.3, (2007).
- S. Mumtaz, R. Essiambre, and G. P. Agrawal, “Reduction of nonlinear penalties due to linear coupling in multicore optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(18), 1574–1576 (2012). [CrossRef]
- X. Chen, J. E. Hurley, M.-J. Li, and R. S. Vodhanel, “Effects of multipath interference (MPI) on the performance of transmission systems using Fabry-Perot lasers and short bend insensitive jumper fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC ‘09, NWC5, (2009).

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