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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 21, Iss. 9 — May. 6, 2013
  • pp: 11315–11321
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Compact bandwidth-tunable polarization filter based on a plasmonic heterograting

Yuanhai Lin, Tianrui Zhai, Qianli Ma, Hongmei Liu, and Xinping Zhang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 11315-11321 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.011315


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Abstract

A plasmonic heterograting device, consisting of two juxtaposed parallel gratings with different periods, is demonstrated to function as a compact bandwidth-tunable polarization filter. The essential aspect of the structure is that the grating couples into a photonic mode of the substrate. Using this device, a linearly polarized spectrum can be conveniently and selectively picked out from nonpolarized white light. The bandwidth depends on the incident angle and the overlap of the first-order diffraction spectra of the two different grating, and can be freely narrowed. The tuning characteristics of the heterograting are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The unique physical features potentially enable the development of new polarization elements and optical devices.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Plasmonic gratings can flexibly tailor the behavior of light by modifying the propagation direction [1

1. X. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee, and C. T. Chan, “All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(7), 073901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], intensity [2

2. C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Controllable electromagnetic transmission based on dual-metallic grating structures composed of subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111111 (2007). [CrossRef]

], polarization [3

3. F. Romanato, K. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. Wong, “The role of polarization on surface plasmon polariton excitation on metallic gratings in the conical mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111103 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and frequency [4

4. T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(13), 133901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These have extensive applications in sensors [5

5. K. Lin, Y. Lu, J. Chen, R. Zheng, P. Wang, and H. Ming, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18599–18604 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. X. Zhang, X. Ma, F. Dou, P. Zhao, and H. Liu, “A biosensor based on metallic photonic crystals for the detection of specific bioreactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(22), 4219–4227 (2011). [CrossRef]

], polarizers [7

7. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2653–2658 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,8

8. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, L. Wang, J. Song, and G. Zhang, “Optical polarizers based on gold nanowires fabricated using colloidal gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(28), 285202 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], switches [9

9. C. Min, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Ming, T. Ning, Y. Zhou, and G. Yang, “All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 869–871 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. X. Zhang, B. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008). [CrossRef]

], splitters [11

11. H. Caglayan and E. Ozbay, “Surface wave splitter based on metallic gratings with sub-wavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19091–19096 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and filters [12

12. H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15457–15463 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The spectroscopic response of plasmonic diffraction grating is strongly modulated by the Rayleigh anomaly and the particle plasmon resonance of metallic nanowires [13

13. X. Zhang, S. Feng, and T. Zhai, “Energy transfer channels at the diffraction-anomaly in transparent gratings and applications in sensors,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 11(2), 109–114 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Thus, the diffraction of a plasmonic grating is within a selected spectral band with a fixed bandwidth determined by the Rayleigh anomaly, where the efficiency of the TM diffraction (polarized perpendicular to the nanowires) is significantly enhanced with respect to the TE diffraction (parallel to the nanowires) through interaction with the metallic nanowires due to particle plasmon resonance. Two juxtaposed parallel gratings with different periods form a compact device, which is defined as “heterograting”, that shows intriguing physical properties. The diffraction bandwidth of the heterograting, determined by both gratings, is tunable by changing the incidence angle and can be freely narrowed; that is, a tunable narrowband filter can be achieved. Furthermore, this kind of secondary diffraction beam propagates in a different direction and a separate path with respect to the reflected beam in the same device, hence can be picked out conveniently in practical applications.

It should be noted that the polarization device based on plasmonic gratings can be used directly in optical engineering for their high efficiency (>80%) [7

7. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2653–2658 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and high extinction ratio (>145) [8

8. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, L. Wang, J. Song, and G. Zhang, “Optical polarizers based on gold nanowires fabricated using colloidal gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(28), 285202 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In this paper, we report a type of plasmonic heterograting that can be used directly as a bandwidth-tunable polarization filter. This compact device is composed of two gold nanogratings sitting on a transparent glass substrate and is fabricated using a simple solution-processible method [14

14. X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] combined with interference lithography [15

15. V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, “Photonic band gaps and holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 60–64 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The TM polarization can be picked out in a tunable narrowband efficiently and conveniently using this heterograting device. These polarization features can be used to develop new polarization devices.

2. Fabrication of plasmonic heterogratings

The plasmonic heterograting is fabricated using a solution-processible method [14

14. X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The photoresist (PR) mask grating is first produced by interference lithography as shown in Figs. 1(a)
Fig. 1 Schematic of the fabrication procedure of the plasmonic heterograting device. (a) One half of the PR film is exposed to a two-beam interference pattern with an included angle α1, forming a grating with period Λ1, and (b) the other half is exposed with a different angle α2, forming a grating (Λ2). A baffle is used to shield the appropriate half of the film from unnecessary exposure as shown in the inset. (c) The solution of the colloidal gold nanoparticles (100 mg/ml) is spin-coated onto the PR heterograting. (d) The plasmonic heterograting is formed by annealing. The grating ridge width is w; thicknesses of grating, ITO, and glass substrate are h, d1, and d2, respectively.
and 1(b). The S1805 photoresist (Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials Ltd.) is spin-coated (2000 rpm) onto a 180-nm (d1)-thick indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate of area 20 mm × 20 mm and thickness 1 mm (d2), forming a high-quality thin film about 200-nm (h) thick. One-half of the film is exposed to a two-beam interference pattern with included angle α1 between the two incident beams (Fig. 1(a)), and the other half is exposed with a different angle α2 (Fig. 1(b)). The two-step exposure produces two adjacent gratings with different periods (Λ1 and Λ2), forming a PR mask of heterograting. A baffle, consisting of two flaps (A and B) which can move freely up and down, is employed to shield the underlying half of the PR film from unnecessary exposure. The trick here is that the exposure dose of the secondary exposure is larger than that of the first. Thus, the second grating will erase the first one in the overlapping region, enabling excellent connection between the two gratings. A continuous wave laser at 325 nm (Klmmon Kohn Co. Ltd.; Model: IK3301R-G) is used as the UV light source. Next, a colloid of gold nanoparticles [16

16. M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998). [CrossRef]

] in p-xylene solvent with a concentration of 100 mg/ml is spin-coated (1800 rpm) onto the PR mask (Fig. 1(c)). Figure 1(d) illustrates the annealing process to form the plasmonic heterograting; in brief, the sample is heated to 400°C for 20 min in a muffle furnace and then cooled to room temperature.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 (a) Photograph identifying the two period-differing halves of the plasmonic heterograting device. Scale bar, 20 mm. (b) SEM image of the interface of the plasmonic heterograting marked by a square in (a). Scale bar, 1 μm. Λ1 = 420 nm; Λ2 = 480 nm.
shows a photograph (left) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) image (right) of the plasmonic heterograting device. The blue and aurantium areas in the photograph identify the two period-differing halves of the heterograting. The SEM image of the interface between the two halves shows excellent connection.

3. Spectroscopic and tuning properties of the compact polarization filters

Figure 3 demonstrates the difference between a plasmonic grating and the plasmonic heterograting as an optical filter; note the ITO layer is not included because of its extreme thinness with respect to the glass substrate. The bandwidth of the diffraction of a grating is determined by the Rayleigh anomaly, described by the formula:
Λsinθ+nΛ=λ
(1)
where Λ is the grating period, θ incidence angle, n refractive index of the environment, and λ diffraction wavelength.

For the grating with a period of Λ1 shown in Fig. 3(a), the Raleigh anomaly at the grating-air interface satisfies condition: Λ1sinθ1+Λ1=λ1. λ1 sets the lower limit of the bandwidth of the diffraction. The Raleigh anomaly at the grating-silica interface satisfies condition: Λ1sinθ1+nsΛ1=λ2, where ns = 1.5 at 600 nm is the refractive index of the silica substrate. If λ2 denotes the upper limit of the bandwidth, the spectral band for the first-order diffraction is then defined by λ1<λ<λ2. The diffracted beam couples into the substrate and is diffracted secondarily by the same grating. Thus, the diffraction spectra for the first and the second time have the same fixed bandwidth

Δλ=λ2λ1=(ns1)Λ1
(2)

For the heterograting shown in Fig. 3(b), the diffraction bandwidths of the two gratings become different. The diffraction bandwidth for the grating with period Λ1 is defined by λ1<λ<λ2 as discussed above. For the diffraction bandwidth of the grating with period Λ2, the Raleigh anomaly at the grating-air interface satisfies condition: Λ2sinθ4+Λ2=λ3, with λ3 denoting the lower limit of the bandwidth. The Raleigh anomaly at the grating-silica interface satisfies condition: Λ2sinθ4+nsΛ2=λ4, with λ4 denoting the upper limit of the bandwidth. Therefore, the spectral band is defined by λ3<λ<λ4, i.e., the bandwidth of the heterograting can be defined as
Δλ=min(λ2,λ4)max(λ1,λ3),
(3)
tunable by the incidence angle and the period ratio of the heterograting (Λ21). This aspect shall be discussed in detail later.

For practical applications, the diffracted beam (beam ⑥ in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d)) with TM polarization should be distinguished from the reflected beam (beam ③ in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d)), guaranteeing that it can conveniently be picked out. The displacement of the diffracted beam in the substrate (red line in Fig. 3(b)) is calculated by d2tgθ3, which is larger than the thickness of the substrate d2, since θ3 is larger than 45° due to the total reflection process, indicating that the separation between the two gratings of the heterograting is comparable to d2 without deteriorating the performance of the device. The secondary diffraction angle (θ4) also can be controlled by varying the grating period Λ2. Thus, the separation between beams ③ and ⑥ can be adjusted by changing the thickness of the transparent substrate and the periods of the heterograting. Moreover, the separation between the reflected and the diffracted beams is bigger in the heterograting (beams ③ and ⑥ in Fig. 3(d)) than that in the conventional grating (beams ③ and ④ in Fig. 3(c)).

In the experiment, a nonpolarized white light from a tungsten halogen lamp (HL-2000) impinges on the surface of the plasmonic device at incidence angle θ1. The sample is mounted on a rotating stage enabling the measurement of the angle-resolved tuning property of the device as shown in the inset in Fig. 4(d)
Fig. 4 The tunable spectral response of the plasmonic heterograting at different incidence angles from (a) theory and (c) experiment. (Here, Λ1 = 420 nm, Λ2 = 540 nm, and Λ21≈1.29.) The spectral response at different period ratios from (b) theory and (d) experiment. The incidence angle θ1 is 10°. The grey zones indicate the bandwidth of the device; the blue/red hashed zone denotes the diffraction bandwidth of the grating with a period of Λ12. The colors and spectral positions of the double-arrows in (a)/(b) correspond directly to the spectra in (c)/(d). The panels above (a) and (b) show the rotation axis and the measuring setup, respectively. F denotes the fiber optic spectrometer, L denotes the lens, B is the baffle, S is the sample, and R is the rotating stage.
. The axis of rotation is parallel to the grating orientation. Almost all energy of the secondary diffraction beam is collected by the detection fiber of the spectrometer, where a lens with diameter 10 mm and a focal length of about 50 mm has focused the studied light beam into the fiber (F) with an diameter of 600 μm as shown in the inset in Fig. 4. Light-propagation tailoring by the plasmonic device is demonstrated in Figs. 3(c) and 3(d); there, the color of the secondary diffraction of the plasmonic heterograting (⑥) is purer than that of the plasmonic grating (④). Furthermore, the secondary diffraction angle (θ4) and the reflection angle (θ1) are different in the plasmonic heterograting, meaning that the secondarily diffracted beam can be observed more conveniently than from the single-period grating.

The secondary-diffraction bandwidth of the heterograting device, defined as in Eq. (3), can be tuned by changing the incidence angle and the period ratio as marked by the grey zones in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), respectively. From Fig. 4(a), λ1 and λ2 set the lower and upper limits of the bandwidth (Δλ=λ2λ1=(ns1)Λ1=210nm) for the grating with period Λ1, whereas λ3 and λ4 set the lower and the upper limits of the bandwidth (Δλ=λ4λ3=(ns1)Λ2=270nm) for the grating with period Λ2. The bandwidth for the heterograting is determined from the overlap of these two grey zones, which can be tuned from (ns1)Λ1 to zero. The spectroscopic characterization of the plasmonic device is measured using a spectrometer (Maya 2000 Pro, Ocean Optics). Figure 4(c) gives the incidence-angle dependence of the tuning of the output spectrum of the heterograting device, for setting shown in Fig. 4(a). For a fixed incidence angle, the bandwidth of the device can be tuned by changing the period ratio of the heterograting as indicated in Fig. 4(b).

For a thorough understanding of the spectroscopic characteristics of the heterograting, we demonstrate the tuning of the secondary diffraction bandwidth (beam ⑥ in Figs. 3(b) and 3(d)) as a function of the incidence angle and the period ratio of the heterograting based on Eqs. (1) and (3). Figure 5
Fig. 5 (a) The standard bandwidth of the heterograting as a function of the incidence angle and the period ratio calculated by Eqs. (1) and (3). The color bar represents the value of the standard bandwidth (Δλ1). The horizontal/vertical white line indicates the case shown in Fig. 4(a)/(b).
shows the standard bandwidth (defined by Δλ1) of the heterograting as a function of the incidence angle and the period ratio, calculated based on Eqs. (1) and (3). The color bar codes the standard bandwidth. The horizontal and vertical white lines mark the respective cases shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b). Thus, a greater difference between the two periods yields a smaller maximum for the bandwidth. Also, the bandwidth of the heterograting device can be adjusted continuously by changing the incidence angle. These features enable the development of new polarization elements.

5. Conclusions

We introduced a type of plasmonic heterograting that can be directly used as a compact bandwidth-tunable polarization filter. The bandwidth of the filter depends on the overlap of the first- and second diffraction and on the incidence angle of light. The bandwidth can be adjusted flexibly and continuously. Moreover, because of the difference in the reflection and diffraction angles, and the interaction with the gold nanowires through particle plasmon resonance, the TM-polarized output coupling of the heterograting can be picked out conveniently and efficiently. These features, which are quite different from the single-period device, can be exploited in developing new optical devices.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the 973 Program (2013CB922404), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11104007, and 11274031) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (1132004, 413308), the Beijing Educational Commission (KM201210005034) and Beijing Nova Program (2012009) for the financial support.

References and links

1.

X. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee, and C. T. Chan, “All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(7), 073901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Controllable electromagnetic transmission based on dual-metallic grating structures composed of subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111111 (2007). [CrossRef]

3.

F. Romanato, K. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. Wong, “The role of polarization on surface plasmon polariton excitation on metallic gratings in the conical mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111103 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(13), 133901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

K. Lin, Y. Lu, J. Chen, R. Zheng, P. Wang, and H. Ming, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18599–18604 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

X. Zhang, X. Ma, F. Dou, P. Zhao, and H. Liu, “A biosensor based on metallic photonic crystals for the detection of specific bioreactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(22), 4219–4227 (2011). [CrossRef]

7.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2653–2658 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, L. Wang, J. Song, and G. Zhang, “Optical polarizers based on gold nanowires fabricated using colloidal gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 19(28), 285202 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. Min, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Ming, T. Ning, Y. Zhou, and G. Yang, “All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 869–871 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

X. Zhang, B. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4455–4459 (2008). [CrossRef]

11.

H. Caglayan and E. Ozbay, “Surface wave splitter based on metallic gratings with sub-wavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19091–19096 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15457–15463 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

X. Zhang, S. Feng, and T. Zhai, “Energy transfer channels at the diffraction-anomaly in transparent gratings and applications in sensors,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 11(2), 109–114 (2013). [CrossRef]

14.

X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 651–655 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, “Photonic band gaps and holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 60–64 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir 14(1), 17–30 (1998). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(120.2440) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Filters
(230.1950) Optical devices : Diffraction gratings
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Instrumentation, Measurement, and Metrology

History
Original Manuscript: March 7, 2013
Revised Manuscript: April 26, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: April 29, 2013
Published: May 1, 2013

Citation
Yuanhai Lin, Tianrui Zhai, Qianli Ma, Hongmei Liu, and Xinping Zhang, "Compact bandwidth-tunable polarization filter based on a plasmonic heterograting," Opt. Express 21, 11315-11321 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-11315


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References

  1. X. Fan, G. P. Wang, J. C. W. Lee, and C. T. Chan, “All-angle broadband negative refraction of metal waveguide arrays in the visible range: theoretical analysis and numerical demonstration,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(7), 073901 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Cheng, J. Chen, Q. Y. Wu, F. F. Ren, J. Xu, Y. X. Fan, and H. T. Wang, “Controllable electromagnetic transmission based on dual-metallic grating structures composed of subwavelength slits,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(11), 111111 (2007). [CrossRef]
  3. F. Romanato, K. Lee, G. Ruffato, and C. Wong, “The role of polarization on surface plasmon polariton excitation on metallic gratings in the conical mounting,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 111103 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Utikal, T. Zentgraf, T. Paul, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, M. Lippitz, and H. Giessen, “Towards the origin of the nonlinear response in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(13), 133901 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Lin, Y. Lu, J. Chen, R. Zheng, P. Wang, and H. Ming, “Surface plasmon resonance hydrogen sensor based on metallic grating with high sensitivity,” Opt. Express16(23), 18599–18604 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Zhang, X. Ma, F. Dou, P. Zhao, and H. Liu, “A biosensor based on metallic photonic crystals for the detection of specific bioreactions,” Adv. Funct. Mater.21(22), 4219–4227 (2011). [CrossRef]
  7. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, and L. Wang, “Band-selective optical polarizer based on gold-nanowire plasmonic diffraction gratings,” Nano Lett.8(9), 2653–2658 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Zhang, H. Liu, J. Tian, Y. Song, L. Wang, J. Song, and G. Zhang, “Optical polarizers based on gold nanowires fabricated using colloidal gold nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology19(28), 285202 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Min, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Deng, Y. Lu, H. Ming, T. Ning, Y. Zhou, and G. Yang, “All-optical switching in subwavelength metallic grating structure containing nonlinear optical materials,” Opt. Lett.33(8), 869–871 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Zhang, B. Sun, J. M. Hodgkiss, and R. H. Friend, “Tunable ultrafast optical switching via waveguided gold nanowires,” Adv. Mater.20(23), 4455–4459 (2008). [CrossRef]
  11. H. Caglayan and E. Ozbay, “Surface wave splitter based on metallic gratings with sub-wavelength aperture,” Opt. Express16(23), 19091–19096 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. S. Lee, Y. T. Yoon, S. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Color filter based on a subwavelength patterned metal grating,” Opt. Express15(23), 15457–15463 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. X. Zhang, S. Feng, and T. Zhai, “Energy transfer channels at the diffraction-anomaly in transparent gratings and applications in sensors,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl.11(2), 109–114 (2013). [CrossRef]
  14. X. Zhang, B. Sun, R. H. Friend, H. Guo, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, “Metallic photonic crystals based on solution-processible gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.6(4), 651–655 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, “Photonic band gaps and holography,” J. Appl. Phys.82(1), 60–64 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Hostetler, J. E. Wingate, C. J. Zhong, J. E. Harris, R. W. Vachet, M. R. Clark, J. D. Londono, S. J. Green, J. J. Stokes, G. D. Wignall, G. L. Glish, M. D. Porter, N. D. Evans, and R. W. Murray, “Alkanethiolate gold cluster molecules with core diameters from 1.5 to 5.2 nm: core and monolayer properties as a function of core size,” Langmuir14(1), 17–30 (1998). [CrossRef]

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