## Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue 9, pp. 11382-11390 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.011382

Acrobat PDF (1119 KB)

### Abstract

With the three-dimensional classical ensemble model, we investigate the correlated electron emission in nonsequential double ionization (NSDI) of argon atoms by few-cycle laser pulses. Our calculations well reproduce the experimentally observed cross-shaped structure in the correlated two-electron momentum spectrum [**3**, 813 (2012)

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 *μ*m,” Phys. Rev. A **27**,2503–2512 (1983) [CrossRef] .

3. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **73**,1227–1230 (1994) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

4. A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys. **7**,428–433 (2011) [CrossRef] .

6. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Revealing the multi-electron effects in sequential double ionization using classical simulations,” Opt. Express **20**,20201–20209 (2012) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

7. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Ne^{n}^{+}ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **84**,447–450 (2000) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

16. C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express **19**,5627–5634 (2011) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

17. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **71**,1994–1997 (1993) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

18. K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A **51**,561–568 (1995) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

19. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **87**,043003 (2001) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

## 2. The classical ensemble model

35. R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express **8**,431–435 (2001) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

36. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **97**,103008 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

37. X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **105**,083001 (2010) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

39. F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **102**,173002 (2009) [CrossRef] [PubMed] .

*i*is the label of the two electrons, and

**E**(

*t*) is the electric field of a 750 nm linearly polarized laser pulse with a 4-cycle sin

^{2}-shaped envelope (corresponding to a full-width at half-maximum of 3.64 fs). The laser intensity is 3×10

^{14}W/cm

^{2}. The potentials

## 3. Results and discussions

_{1}(the left column) and G

_{2}(the right column) of Fig. 3(b). We examine the time evolutions of the longitudinal momenta, coordinate z in polarization direction, energies of two electrons and the momenta in y direction. For the NSDI trajectory in the left column, the first emitted electron is firstly driven to the positive direction by a negative electric field and then is pulled back to the parent ion when the electric field reverses [Fig. 5(b)]. Just after the maximum of the laser electric field, the returning electron recollides with the second electron (green arrows). From Fig. 5(c) we can find that during recollision the returning electron transfers some energy to the second electron and is still free, but the transfer energy is not enough to promote the second electron to the positive energy. At the instant of recollision, the laser electric field is very large and pronouncedly lowers down the Coulomb barrier of the ion along the z-axis. This results in the second electron well located above the suppressed barrier. Immediately the large electric field force drives the second electron to escape over the suppressed barrier, and meantime the second electron quickly obtains enough energy from the electric field to escape away from the ion. In this process the time interval between the emission of the second electron and the recollision is very short (shorter than 0.1T), and thus it is regarded as RCI mechanism. As is well known, the electron emitted in the laser field will obtain a drift momentum from the subsequent electric field. Here, the first electron is forward rescattered with a negative initial momentum and then it obtains a positive drift momentum from the subsequent electric field. The two options cancel each other, resulting in a near-zero final longitudinal momentum of the first electron [see red curve of Fig. 5(a)]. Due to a near-zero initial momentum after recollision and the acceleration from the subsequent electric field, the second electron has a non-zero final momentum [see blue curve of Fig. 5(a)].

27. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A **82**,053402 (2010) [CrossRef] .

*. Once the second electron is excited, the oscillation of its transverse momentum p*

_{y}*becomes intense. After it is ionized its transverse momentum stops oscillating and keeps unchanged [the red curve see Fig. 5(h)]. Finally, as a result of the acceleration of the laser field the second electron obtains a non-zero momentum. For the first electron, the large initial momentum offsets the acceleration of the laser field and finally it has a near-zero longitudinal momentum [see Fig. 5(e)].*

_{y}## 4. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 |

2. | D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

3. | B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

4. | A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys. |

5. | Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

6. | Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Revealing the multi-electron effects in sequential double ionization using classical simulations,” Opt. Express |

7. | R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Ne |

8. | Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature |

9. | N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

10. | A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

11. | W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

12. | Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Lett. |

13. | Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express |

14. | M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

15. | C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A |

16. | C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express |

17. | P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

18. | K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A |

19. | B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

20. | A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

21. | A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

22. | Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. |

23. | J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

24. | Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

25. | Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

26. | D. Ye, X. Liu, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory diagnosis of a fingerlike pattern in the correlated electron momentum distribution in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

27. | Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A |

28. | S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B |

29. | X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

30. | C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T. Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A |

31. | Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B |

32. | Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express |

33. | C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

34. | B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun. |

35. | R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express |

36. | S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

37. | X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

38. | Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A |

39. | F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

40. | J. P. Paquette and J. L. Chaloupka, “Effect of realistic focal conditions on the strong-field ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A |

**OCIS Codes**

(020.4180) Atomic and molecular physics : Multiphoton processes

(260.3230) Physical optics : Ionization

(270.6620) Quantum optics : Strong-field processes

**ToC Category:**

Atomic and Molecular Physics

**History**

Original Manuscript: March 13, 2013

Revised Manuscript: April 23, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: April 23, 2013

Published: May 2, 2013

**Citation**

Cheng Huang, Yueming Zhou, Qingbin Zhang, and Peixiang Lu, "Contribution of recollision ionization to the cross-shaped structure in nonsequential double ionization," Opt. Express **21**, 11382-11390 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-9-11382

Sort: Year | Journal | Reset

### References

- A. l’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorption in rare gases at 0.53 μm,” Phys. Rev. A27,2503–2512 (1983). [CrossRef]
- D. N. Fittingoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.69,2642–2645 (1992). [CrossRef]
- B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K.C. Kulander, “Precision Measurement of Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.73,1227–1230 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Döner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nature Phys.7,428–433 (2011). [CrossRef]
- Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109,053004 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Revealing the multi-electron effects in sequential double ionization using classical simulations,” Opt. Express20,20201–20209 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,447–450 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature405,658–661 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- N. Camus, B. Fischer, M. Kremer, V. Sharma, A. Rudenko, B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, M. F. Kling, T. Pfeifer, J. Ullrich, and R. Moshammer, “Attosecond correlated dynamics of two electrons passing through a transition state,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108,073003 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Becker and F. H. M. Faisal, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84,3546–3549 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. Becker, X. Liu, P. Jo Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “Theories of photoelectron correlation in laser-driven multiple atomic ionization,” Rev. Mod. Phys.84,1011–1043 (2012). [CrossRef]
- Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Control the revisit time of the electron wave packet,” Opt. Lett.36,2758–2760 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Zhou, C. Huang, A. Tong, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization by orthogonal two-color laser pulses,” Opt. Express19,2301–2308 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of Helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85,4707–4710 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A70,043406 (2004). [CrossRef]
- C. Huang, Y. Zhou, A. Tong, Q. Liao, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “The effect of molecular alignment on correlated electron dynamics in nonsequential double ionization,” Opt. Express19,5627–5634 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71,1994–1997 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, “Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization,” Phys. Rev. A51,561–568 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett.87,043003 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263002 (2007). [CrossRef]
- A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99,263003 (2007). [CrossRef]
- Q. Liao, Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Multiphoton rabi oscillations of correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” New J. Phys.14,013001 (2012). [CrossRef]
- J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K.D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,133001 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Liu, S. Tschuch, A. Rudenko, M. Dürr, M. Siegel, U. Morgner, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization of Ar below the recollision threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,053001 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Z. Chen, Y. Liang, and C. D. Lin, “Quantum theory of recollisional (e, 2e) process in strong field nonsequential double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104,253201 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Ye, X. Liu, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory diagnosis of a fingerlike pattern in the correlated electron momentum distribution in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101,233003 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A82,053402 (2010). [CrossRef]
- S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. WPlantinga, “Anticorrelated electrons from weak recollisions in nonsequential double ionization,” J. Phys. B41,211002 (2008). [CrossRef]
- X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optic-cycle limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93,263001 (2004). [CrossRef]
- C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, T. Shaaran, and M. T. Nygren, “Time-delayed nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses: Importance of the carrier-envelope phase,” Phys. Rev. A86,053405 (2012). [CrossRef]
- Q. Liao, P. Lu, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and Z. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B41,125601 (2008). [CrossRef]
- Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. Zhang, W. Hong, and P. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express18,632–638 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Ruiz, L. Plaja, L. Roso, and A. Becker, “Ab initio calculation of the double ionization of helium in a few-cycle laser pulse beyond the one-dimensional approximation,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96,053001 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B. Bergues, M. Kübel, N. G. Johnson, B. Fischer, N. Camus, K. J. Betsch, O. Herrwerth, A. Senftleben, A. M. Sayler, T. Rathje, T. Pfeifer, I. Ben-Itzhak, R. R. Jones, G. G. Paulus, F. Krausz, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, and M. F. Kling, “Attosecond tracing of correlated electron-emission in non-sequential double ionization,” Nature Commun.3,813 (2012). [CrossRef]
- R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly, and S. L. Haan, “Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field double-ionization,” Opt. Express8,431–435 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97,103008 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Elliptical polarization and probability of double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105,083001 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A84,023405 (2011). [CrossRef]
- F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Strong field double ionization: the phase space perspective,” Phys. Rev. Lett.102,173002 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. P. Paquette and J. L. Chaloupka, “Effect of realistic focal conditions on the strong-field ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A79,043410 (2009). [CrossRef]

## Cited By |
Alert me when this paper is cited |

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article | Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.