## Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics |

Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue S3, pp. A515-A527 (2013)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.00A515

Acrobat PDF (2384 KB)

### Abstract

In this paper, we present the design, analysis, and experimental results on the integration of 2D photonic crystals in thin film photovoltaic solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon. We introduce an analytical approach based on time domain coupled mode theory to investigate the impact of the photon lifetime and anisotropy of the optical resonances on the absorption efficiency. Specific design rules are derived from this analysis. We also show that, due to the specific properties of the photonic crystal resonances, the angular acceptance of such solar cells is particularly high. Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis simulations show that the absorption in the a-Si:H active layers, integrated from 300 to 750nm, is only decreased from 65.7% to 60% while the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 55°. Experimental results confirm the stability of the incident light absorption in the patterned stack, for angles of incidence up to 50°.

© 2013 OSA

## 1. Introduction

1. A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B **30**(1), 13–20 (2013). [CrossRef]

2. Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. **109**(17), 173901 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express **15**(25), 16986–17000 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. R. Bouffaron, L. Escoubas, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, F. Flory, G. Berginc, and P. Masclet, “Enhanced antireflecting properties of micro-structured top-flat pyramids,” Opt. Express **16**(23), 19304–19309 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small **6**(9), 984–987 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. **9**(3), 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. M. Despeisse, C. Battaglia, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, M. Charrière, P. Cuony, S. Hänni, L. Löfgren, F. Meillaud, G. Parascandolo, T. Söderström, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of thin film silicon solar cells on highly textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A **208**(8), 1863–1868 (2011). [CrossRef]

9. M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. **12**(6), 2894–2900 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. C. Seassal, Y. Park, A. Fave, E. Drouard, E. Fourmond, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Photonic crystal assisted ultra-thin silicon photovoltaic solar cell,” Proc. SPIE **7002**, 700207, 700207-8 (2008). [CrossRef]

13. S. Zanotto, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern,” Opt. Express **18**(5), 4260–4274 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt. **14**(2), 024011 (2012). [CrossRef]

15. G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. **108**(12), 123102 (2010). [CrossRef]

## 2. Design and basic properties of a-Si:H based photonic crystal assisted solar cells

*L*, and the holes diameter,

*D*, of the PhC leads to an integrated absorption of 82% in the whole stack, between 300 and 720nm. This value, which is limited to 65.7% if only the useful part of the absorption, namely the one in a-Si:H is considered, is reached for

*L*= 380nm, and

*D*= 237.5nm. Figure 1(b) displays the corresponding absorption spectra for the 2D PhC patterned solar cell and a reference constituted of the same but unpatterned stack, including layers with the same thicknesses. It should be highlighted that this does not correspond to the final optimum for two main reasons. First, only a square lattice of air holes has been considered and second,

*L*and

*D*are the sole parameters which have been varied in a range limited by fabrication constraints,

*L*was tuned in the 200-800nm range, while

*D*was varied in order to explore the full range of surfacic air filling fraction from 0 to 1. Still, at this stage, it should be mentioned that this corresponds to a substantial increase with regards to the unpatterned structure, where the absorption in a-Si:H is only of 51.7%. Moreover, the integrated absorption achieved for a PhC solar cell is quite stable with regards to technological uncertainties, since it is only reduced by 1% when

*L*or

*D*are tuned by 5% from the above-mentioned parameters.

## 3. Light trapping and absorption in thin film semiconductor solar cell: a physical insight

14. G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt. **14**(2), 024011 (2012). [CrossRef]

17. Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express **18**(S3Suppl 3), A366–A380 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19. Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. **107**(41), 17491–17496 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. **111**(12), 123114 (2012). [CrossRef]

*a*is the amplitude of the field in the mode,

*ω*is the resonant frequency of the mode,

_{0}*τ*is the decay time of losses due to external coupling (in s),

_{e}*τ*is the decay time of losses due to absorption, and

_{0}*S*is the field amplitude of the incident light. This differential equation has to be coupled with the equations that apply to the coupling with the reflected and transmitted light:where

_{+1}*S*is the field amplitude of the reflected light,

_{-1}*S*is the field amplitude of the transmitted light,

_{-2}*κ*is the coupling coefficient associated with the incident light and

_{1}*κ*is the coupling coefficient associated with the transmitted light. This is represented in Fig. 2(a), together with a schematic view of the photonic membrane (Fig. 2(b)).

_{2}*ζ*can be infinite, as encountered in many devices involving a back reflector, but can also be adjusted within a sole absorbing layer by introducing a specific nano-patterning, for instance a double-layer 2D PhC [22

22. S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express **18**(6), 5691–5706 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. L. Li, K.-Q. Peng, B. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Hu, X.-L. Wu, and S.-T. Lee, “Broadband optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanofunnel arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **100**(22), 223902 (2012). [CrossRef]

*ω*) detuned from the mode resonant frequency (

*ω*) by

_{0}*ω*-

*ω*= δ

_{0}*ω*:Starting from the above equations and introducing the expression of the field amplitude in the mode and of

*ζ*, the reflection (

*r*) and transmission (

*t*) coefficients in field, can be expressed as follows:From Eq. (6), it is then possible to get the reflection (

*R*) and transmission (

*T*) coefficients in energy, as well as the resulting absorption (

*A =*1

*-R-T*) as in (7);

*τ*/

_{e}*τ*ratio and of

_{0}*ζ*on the width and on the highest achievable value of the absorption peak corresponding to the mode considered, and finally to determine the coupling conditions which maximize the integrated absorption of this isolated mode.

*R*, (

*T*-1) and

*A*correspond to Lorentzian functions with a full width at half maximum (FWHM, denoted

*Γ*) defined as:

*τ*decreases. Conversely, the value of

_{0}*Γ*is constant when the absorption losses are small compared to the external ones. As shown in [20

20. R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. **111**(12), 123114 (2012). [CrossRef]

*k*being the extinction coefficient of the material considered proportional to

*τ*

_{0}^{−1},

*γ*a coupling coefficient and

*Q*=

_{e}*ω*. It can be noticed that due to the symmetry of Eq. (8) with respect to the parameters

_{0}τ_{e}*τ*and

_{0}*τ*, the same curve as in Fig. 3 would be obtained by expressing the FWHM in

_{e}*τ*units.

_{0}*δω*= 0. After modifying Eq. (7) accordingly, one can compute

*R*,

_{δω = 0}*T*and

_{δω = 0}*A*as a function of

_{δω = 0}*τ*/

_{0}*τ*for different

_{e}*ζ*values (see Fig. 4(a)) or the other way around, i.e. as a function of

*ζ*for different

*τ*/

_{e}*τ*ratios (see Fig. 4(b)).

_{0}*ζ*and 1/

*ζ*. This results from the destructive interferences occurring between the transmitted and the reemitted waves since the mode is supposed to be at its resonance. For the symmetric membrane (

*ζ*= 1), it can be observed that a total reflection is obtained when the absorption losses are negligible. The value of the reflection is progressively decreasing when the coupling anisotropy increases.

*ζ*(such as 10

^{−2}) are associated with a high transmission (

*T*close to the unity whatever the

_{δω = 0}*τ*/

_{e}*τ*ratio, see for instance Fig. 4(b)), since the front side coupling of the mode is weak and almost no energy can be injected in it, leading to both a low absorption and a low reflection. When the

_{0}*τ*/

_{0}*τ*ratio matches exactly the critical coupling conditions (

_{e}*τ*/

_{0}*τ*= 1), the transmission equals 25% for the symmetric membrane (same value as the one of the reflection) but tends to zero if

_{e}*ζ*>10, which means that back side coupling can be neglected and that the absorption is then completely determined by the

*R*value.

_{δω = 0}*ζ*and of the

*τ*ratio. It should be first emphasized that a maximum absorption is obtained when the intrinsic losses counterbalance the external ones, in other words, when the critical coupling conditions are fulfilled [14

_{0}/τ_{e}14. G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt. **14**(2), 024011 (2012). [CrossRef]

*τ*= 1), the maximal absorption of the symmetric membrane is 50%. This value can be exceeded by increasing

_{0}/τ_{e}*ζ*. Indeed, after introducing a strong coupling anisotropy (for instance

*ζ*= 10

^{2}), a quasi-total absorption is achieved. Thus, it can be concluded that at the resonant frequency of the mode, a total absorption of the incoming light is possible provided that the best conditions on the coupling anisotropy (

*ζ*close to 10

^{2}) and on the

*τ*ratio (

_{0}/τ_{e}*τ*= 1) are both achieved.

_{0}/τ_{e}*A*for a targeted and single wavelength. Once again, it is possible to compute this integrated absorption (

_{δω = 0}*A*) by considering the general expression of the integral of Lorentzian functions.

_{int}*A*is then defined by

_{int}*A*and

_{δω = 0}*Γ*, which depend directly on the coupling parameters

*ζ*and

*τ*/

_{0}*τ*as seen previously.

_{e}*A*was calculated and plotted in Fig. 5 as a function of

_{int}*τ*/

_{0}*τ*, for different values of

_{e}*ζ*. It can be noticed that increasing

*ξ*from 10

^{−2}to 10

^{2}enables to significantly increase the integrated absorption, regardless of the coupling regime considered. Moreover, for a given value of

*ζ*, two distinct domains can be defined as regards the

*τ*/

_{e}*τ*ratio, with a transition occurring around the critical coupling conditions. More precisely,

_{0}*A*rises as

_{int}*τ*/

_{e}*τ*decreases and eventually converges towards an optimal value when the external losses are dominating. As it was highlighted in [19

_{0}19. Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. **107**(41), 17491–17496 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*N*non-overlapping modes enables to calculate the total integrated absorption

*A*:

_{int,tot}*L*= 450nm, and 146nm wide air slits. Its absorption spectrum is simulated using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations, considering normal incidence illumination, with a Transverse Magnetic (TM) polarization. The spectrum, plotted in Fig. 6, exhibits a single peak which corresponds to a resonant mode of the PhC, with a quality factor of 30, as determined with a harmonic inversion code [24

24. V. Mandelshtam, “Fdm: the filter diagonalization method for data processing in nmr experiments,” Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson **38**(2Spec.), 159–196 (2001). [CrossRef]

*Q*, defined as

_{c}*n*/2

*κ*, where

*n*is the refractive index of the absorbing material, is also indicated on the graph. One can note that the quality factor of the resonant mode is almost equal to

*Q*at the corresponding wavelength, 640nm. This explains that around 50% absorption is achieved at this wavelength. One should note that even for a vertically symmetric membrane, the absorption reached in this spectral region is not limited to 50% due to an additive absorption law [20

_{c}20. R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. **111**(12), 123114 (2012). [CrossRef]

*L*and air slit width) are optimized. This leads to

*L*= 597nm, and

*D*= 197nm. The corresponding absorption spectrum is also shown in Fig. 6; the integrated absorption is increased from 19.6% to 36.7%. It clearly appears on the spectrum that this increase can be accounted for by the creation of two additional resonances surrounding the previous one. While the resonances located at around 607nm and 637nm correspond to critical coupling conditions, it should be noted that the one at 671nm lies in its over-coupling regime (

*Q*= 80 at

_{c}*λ*= 671nm, to be compared to the value of 20, computed in the case of this PhC structure). This results in a broad absorption enhancement close to the a-Si:H bandgap.

25. A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **100**(18), 181110 (2012). [CrossRef]

27. K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. **11**(12), 1017–1022 (2012). [PubMed]

28. A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light-trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express **20**(S2Suppl 2), A224–A244 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30. C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **101**(10), 103901 (2012). [CrossRef]

*Q*) factors. The optimization process then tends to select such densely packed modes, close to the critical coupling conditions; this leads to a higher integrated absorption.

## 4. Angular acceptance of a-Si:H based photonic crystal assisted solar cells

*L*= 300nm, and holes diameter of 240nm [15

15. G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. **108**(12), 123102 (2010). [CrossRef]

*L*= 380nm, and

*D*= 237.5nm). In this second situation, similar results are obtained: a slight absorption increase from 0 to 10° for the patterned stack and a higher absorption at every angle in the case of the PhC, compared to the unpatterned reference. However, it turns out that the absorption increase is lower in this stack, compared to the sole patterned a-Si:H layer. The reason is that the presence of the back electrode and of the top ITO layer lead to a substantial absorption increase of the unpatterned stack. Still, the integrated absorption in a-Si:H is only decreased from 65.7% to 60%, while the angle of incidence is increased up to 55°.

**14**(2), 024011 (2012). [CrossRef]

*L*= 600nm, and

*D*= 350nm. The spectra measured at angles of incidence

*α*between 10 and 50° exhibit a relatively stable behavior. Indeed, there is no global decrease of the overall integrated absorption as underlined in Fig. 8(b). More precisely, it clearly appears that the wavelength of the resonant modes is tuned for increasing angles, and that there is a compensation phenomenon between the peaks which appear or disappear with a changing angle of incidence.

## 5. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B |

2. | Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

3. | P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express |

4. | R. Bouffaron, L. Escoubas, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, F. Flory, G. Berginc, and P. Masclet, “Enhanced antireflecting properties of micro-structured top-flat pyramids,” Opt. Express |

5. | Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small |

6. | H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. |

7. | M. Despeisse, C. Battaglia, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, M. Charrière, P. Cuony, S. Hänni, L. Löfgren, F. Meillaud, G. Parascandolo, T. Söderström, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of thin film silicon solar cells on highly textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A |

8. | C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano |

9. | M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett. |

10. | C. Seassal, Y. Park, A. Fave, E. Drouard, E. Fourmond, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, “Photonic crystal assisted ultra-thin silicon photovoltaic solar cell,” Proc. SPIE |

11. | D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J.-J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

12. | Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. El Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express |

13. | S. Zanotto, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern,” Opt. Express |

14. | G. Gomard, X. Meng, E. Drouard, K. E. Hajjam, E. Gerelli, R. Peretti, A. Fave, R. Orobtchouk, M. Lemiti, and C. Seassal, “Light harvesting by planar photonic crystals in solar cells: the case of amorphous silicon,” J. Opt. |

15. | G. Gomard, E. Drouard, X. Letartre, X. Meng, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, E. Garcia-Caurel, and C. Seassal, “Two-dimensional photonic crystal for absorption enhancement in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. |

16. | H. A. Haus, |

17. | Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of light trapping in grating structures,” Opt. Express |

18. | Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Nanophotonic light-trapping theory for solar cells,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. |

19. | Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |

20. | R. Peretti, G. Gomard, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and E. Drouard, “Modal approach for tailoring the absorption in a photonic crystal membrane,” J. Appl. Phys. |

21. | C. Manolatou, M. Khan, S. Fan, P. Villeneuve, H. Haus, and J. Joannopoulos, “Coupling of modes analysis of resonant channel add-drop filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. |

22. | S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, and P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express |

23. | L. Li, K.-Q. Peng, B. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Hu, X.-L. Wu, and S.-T. Lee, “Broadband optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanofunnel arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

24. | V. Mandelshtam, “Fdm: the filter diagonalization method for data processing in nmr experiments,” Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson |

25. | A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

26. | E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, and T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B |

27. | K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, and D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nat. Mater. |

28. | A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, and L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light-trapping versus Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns,” Opt. Express |

29. | X. Meng, V. Depauw, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, C. Trompoukis, E. Drouard, C. Jamois, A. Fave, F. Dross, I. Gordon, and C. Seassal, “Design, fabrication and optical characterization of photonic crystal assisted thin film monocrystalline-silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express |

30. | C. Trompoukis, O. El Daif, V. Depauw, I. Gordon, and J. Poortmans, “Photonic assisted light trapping integrated in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells by nanoimprint lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

31. | K. Sakoda, |

**OCIS Codes**

(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic

(350.6050) Other areas of optics : Solar energy

(050.5298) Diffraction and gratings : Photonic crystals

**ToC Category:**

Light Trapping in Solar Cells

**History**

Original Manuscript: February 4, 2013

Revised Manuscript: March 17, 2013

Manuscript Accepted: March 18, 2013

Published: April 22, 2013

**Virtual Issues**

Renewable Energy and the Environment (2013) *Optics Express*

**Citation**

Guillaume Gomard, Romain Peretti, Emmanuel Drouard, Xianqin Meng, and Christian Seassal, "Photonic crystals and optical mode engineering for thin film photovoltaics," Opt. Express **21**, A515-A527 (2013)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-S3-A515

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### References

- A. Naqavi, F.-J. Haug, C. Battaglia, H. P. Herzig, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B30(1), 13–20 (2013). [CrossRef]
- Z. Yu, A. Raman, and S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(17), 173901 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express15(25), 16986–17000 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- R. Bouffaron, L. Escoubas, J. J. Simon, P. Torchio, F. Flory, G. Berginc, and P. Masclet, “Enhanced antireflecting properties of micro-structured top-flat pyramids,” Opt. Express16(23), 19304–19309 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater.9(3), 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Despeisse, C. Battaglia, M. Boccard, G. Bugnon, M. Charrière, P. Cuony, S. Hänni, L. Löfgren, F. Meillaud, G. Parascandolo, T. Söderström, and C. Ballif, “Optimization of thin film silicon solar cells on highly textured substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi A208(8), 1863–1868 (2011). [CrossRef]
- C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, and C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: Can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano6(3), 2790–2797 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. G. Deceglie, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, and H. A. Atwater, “Design of nanostructured solar cells using coupled optical and electrical modeling,” Nano Lett.12(6), 2894–2900 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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