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Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 21, Iss. S5 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: A829–A840
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Multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor

Xiaobo Chen, Gregory J. Salamo, Guojian Yang, Yongliang Li, Xianlin Ding, Yan Gao, Quanlin Liu, and Jinghua Guo  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue S5, pp. A829-A840 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.00A829


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Abstract

In the present study, the multiphoton near-infrared downconversion quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, which is currently a hot research topic throughout the world, is reported. The x-ray diffraction spectra, the visible to near-infrared excitation and emission spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes are measured. It is found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has intense two-photon quantum cutting luminescence, and, for the first time, it is found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has strong four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence of 1788 nm 3F43H6 fluorescence of Tm3+ ion. It is also found that the theoretical up-limit of four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency is about 282.12%, which results from both the {1D23F2, 3H63H4} and {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfers.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Since the visible quantum cutting in Eu3+-Gd3+ material was reported by Prof. Wegh and Prof. Meijerink in Science in 1999 [3

3. R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, K. D. Oskam, and A. Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4 : Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science 283(5402), 663–666 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], the importance, application and significance of the quantum cutting phenomenon have been widely recognized [1

1. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

22

22. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. In 2005, Vergeer and Meijerink first reported the second-order near-infrared quantum cutting used for developing solar cells [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Since 2007, near-infrared quantum cutting has become a hot research topic throughout the world, and many top journals have reported a series of interesting quantum cutting phenomena, such as quantum cutting in YbxY1-xPO4:Tb3+ [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

], Ce3+Pr3+Yb3+:SrF2 [9

9. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009). [CrossRef]

,11

11. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and Er3+-Yb3+:Cs3Y2Br9 [15

15. J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, “Efficient visible to infrared quantum cutting through downconversion with the Er3+-Yb3+ couple in Cs3Y2Br9,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151106 (2010). [CrossRef]

] described by Meijerink, Vergeer, and Ende; Tb3+Yb3+:BaF2 [12

12. J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and Yb2+Yb3+:CaAl2O4 [7

7. J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] described by Qiu, Chen and Zhou; Ce3+Yb3+:borate glass [6

6. D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, P. Huang, and F. Y. Weng, “Near-infrared quantum cutting in transparent nanostructured glass ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1884–1886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] described by Chen and Wang; (YbxGd1-x)Al3(BO3)4:Tb and NaYF4:Pr3+Yb3+ [5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. Q. Y. Zhang and X. Y. Huang, “Recent progress in quantum cutting phosphors,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 55(5), 353–427 (2010). [CrossRef]

] described by Zhang and Huang; and Er3+:GdVO4 [8

8. X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] described by our group.

At present, the best development in solar cells should be silicon solar cells [1

1. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

], which have been put into production in many countries around the world. New theories, materials, techniques, designs and products of solar cells have been developed at a very rapid pace. The development of germanium (Ge) solar cells as a new type of solar cells with a narrow band-gap width [1

1. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

8

8. X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] has been especially fast, and has been used in the germanium, silicon-germanium and cascade three-junction solar cells [4

4. B. Bitnar, “Silicon, germanium silicon/germanium photocells for thermo photovoltaics applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S221–S227 (2003). [CrossRef]

,13

13. G. W. Shu, J. Y. Lin, H. T. Jian, J. L. Shen, S. C. Wang, C. L. Chou, W. C. Chou, C. H. Wu, C. H. Chiu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical coupling from InGaAs subcell to InGaP subcell in InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1), A123–A130 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The germanium solar cell has the characteristic advantages of its small band-gap width of germanium of 0.67eV:300K (5404cm−1 = 1850.5nm) [1

1. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

8

8. X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It can absorb almost all near-infrared solar spectra effectively. Therefore, its transmission loss is very small and can almost be neglected [11

11. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. If solar spectra from ultraviolet to visible can be converted to near-infrared in about 1800 nm by quantum cutting, the absorption efficiency of the Ge solar cell would be greatly enhanced. Furthermore, the radiative photon numbers can be very greatly enhanced by multiphoton quantum cutting. The electron–hole pair numbers of the Ge solar cell would also be very greatly enhanced. It is also very possible that the opto-electricity conversion efficiency of the Ge solar cell would be very greatly enhanced, as it may have large acceleration effects for solar cell project research. Our present manuscript provides the first report of the multiphoton quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm:YAG powder phosphor. It is found for the first time that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has strong four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence of 1788 nm 3F43H6 fluorescence of Tm3+ ion. It is also found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has intense two-photon quantum cutting luminescence. In 2002, Trupke and Green theoretically derived that the largest energy efficiency limit of the downconversion quantum cutting solar cell is approximately 40% [22

22. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. It is important to note that this work is based on two-photon quantum cutting, of which the largest quantum cutting efficiency is close to 200%. However, for four-photon quantum cutting, the largest quantum cutting efficiency may approach 400%. Therefore, it is entirely possible for the largest energy efficiency limit of the downconversion quantum cutting solar cell to exceed 40%, thus reaching a higher value for four-photon quantum cutting solar cell. It is valuable to aid in probing the third-generation solar cell proposed by Green [20

20. M. A. Green, Third Generation Photovoltaics: Advanced Solar Energy Conversion (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

].

2. Experimental samples and experimental devices

The samples used in our experiment are (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. The Tm:YAG powder samples were prepared by a solid-state reaction. The starting materials were high-purity Y2O3 (99.99%), Al2O3 (99.99%), and Tm2O3 (99.99%). The raw powders were weighted according to the stoichiometric compositions. Then it was sintered at 1600°C for 2 h in a furnace in air.

The experimental equipment used was the Fluorescence Spectrometer FL3-2iHR, produced by the Horiba-JY Company(America, Japan, and France). The pumping light source is a Xe lamp. The visible detector used was an R2658p photomultiplier, which has a very high rate of sensitivity in the range of 250 to 1000 nm. The infrared detector used was a Solid State Indium Antimony detector DSS-IS020L, which has a high rate of sensitivity in the range of 1000 to 5000 nm. The monochromator is a high-precision monochromator with a resolution of 0.1nm. The direction of the excitation light is perpendicular to the direction of fluorescence reception. For all of the experimental results, two experimental curves within one figure can be compared directly already in fluorescence intensity.

3. X-ray diffraction spectra and absorption spectrum

Figure 1
Fig. 1 XRD pattern of the (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor sample.
shows the representative XRD patterns of the (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for lattice parameter refinements were collected on a Philips (Holland) X’Pert PW-3040 diffractometer (45 kV × 40mA) with Cu Kα radiation (λ = 0.15406 nm) in the range of 2θ = 10–80. It can be seen that all diffraction peaks can be well-assigned to the reported data of YAG(PDF#04-008-3458). Figure 2
Fig. 2 The absorption spectrum of the (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor sample.
shows the absorption spectrum of the (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, which is measured by UV-3100 spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Japan).

4. Experimental excitation spectra

First, the visible excitation spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor in the wavelength range of 300-710 nm, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 800 nm, are measured, as shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The visible excitation spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 800 nm.
. It is found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has three group of excitation spectra signal peaks from ultraviolet to visible, the main peaks of which are positioned at 357.0, 459.0 and 680.0 nm, respectively. It is easy to recognize that these are the 3H61D2, 3H61G4, and 3H63F3 absorption transitions of Tm3+ ion [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

]. In the figure, the small 415.5 nm peak is noise. The small 658.0 nm peak is the 3H63F2 absorption transitions of Tm3+ ion. B is the excitation spectrum signal of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. A*10 is the amplified excitation spectrum signal of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, which is amplified by 10 times. The 357.0 nm 3H61D2, 459.0 nm 3H61G4 and 680.0 nm 3H63F3 excitation spectra signal intensities of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are larger than those of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 by 21.00, 72.50 and 122.88 times, respectively.

Sequentially, the excitation spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor in the wavelength range of 300-850 nm, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 1788 nm near-infrared wavelength, are measured, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The excitation spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 1788 nm near-infrared wavelength.
. It is found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has four groups of excitation spectra signal peaks from 300 to 850 nm, the main peaks of which are positioned at 357.0, 460.5, 680.0 and 781.0 nm, respectively. It is easy to recognize that they are the 3H61D2, 3H61G4, 3H63F3, and 3H63H4 absorption transitions of the Tm3+ ion [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

]. A is the excitation spectrum signal of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, and B is the excitation spectrum signal of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. The 357.0 nm 3H61D2, 460.5 nm 3H61G4 and 680.0 nm 3H63F3 excitation spectra signal intensities of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are larger than those of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 by 15.87, 11.81 and 6.68 times, respectively. It entirely achieves the signal intensity reverse. Near-infrared fluorescence signal intensity is thus greatly enhanced.

5. Experimental luminescence spectra

First, the visible luminescence spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are measured. The 357.0 nm 3H61D2 excitation peak of Tm:YAG powder phosphor is selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the luminescence spectra of 418-700 and 700-1000 nm, as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The luminescence spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, when the 357.0 nm 3H61D2 excitation peak is selected as the excitation wavelength.
. It is found that there is a strong luminescence peak at (454.5, 460.0 nm), a small peak at (485.0, 493.5 nm), a small peak at (660.5, 670.0 nm), and a middle-sized peak at (759.0, 785.0, 801.0 nm) for the Tm:YAG powder phosphor. It is easy to recognize that these are the luminescence transitions of 1D23F4, 1G43H6, 1G43F4, and 3H43H6 [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

]. In the figure, B is the luminescence spectrum signal of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. A*10 is the amplified luminescence spectrum signal of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, which is amplified by 10 times. The 454.5 nm 1D23F4, 460.0 nm 1D23F4, 485.0 nm 1G43H6, 660.5 nm 1G43F4, 785.0 nm 3H43H6, and 801.0 nm 3H43H6 luminescence spectra signal intensities of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are larger than those of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 by 27.12, 39.25, 21.20, 29.92, 31.02 and 19.15 times, respectively.

The 680.0nm 3H63F3 excitation peak of Tm:YAG powder phosphor is selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the luminescence spectra of 750-1000 nm, as shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The luminescence spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, when the 680.0 nm 3H63F3 excitation peak is selected as the excitation wavelength.
. It is found that there is a middle luminescence peak at (785.0, 798.0, 804.0 nm) of 3H43H6 fluorescence for the Tm:YAG powder phosphor. In Fig. 6, B is the luminescence spectrum signal of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. A*10 is the amplified luminescence spectrum signal of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, which is amplified by 10 times. The 785.0 nm 3H43H6, 798.0 nm3H43H6, and 804.0 nm3H43H6 luminescence spectra signal intensities of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are larger than those of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 by 153.02, 143.10 and 125.00 times, respectively.

Then, the infrared luminescence spectra of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are measured. In the same manner, the 357.0 nm 3H61D2 excitation peak of Tm:YAG powder phosphor is also selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the infrared luminescence spectra of 1200-2800 nm, as shown in Fig. 5. It is found that there is a group of strong (1788.0, 1908.0, 2018.0 nm) luminescence peaks for (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor. It is easy to recognize that it is 3F43H6 luminescence transition [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

]. In the figure, A and B are the luminescence spectrum signals of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor respectively. The 1788.0 nm 3F43H6 and 2018.0 nm 3F43H6 luminescence spectra signal intensities of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor are larger than those of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor by 17.30 and 29.11 times, respectively. It entirely achieves the signal intensity reverse. The near-infrared luminescence signal intensity of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor is much larger than that of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 .

The 680.0 nm 3H63F3 excitation peak of Tm:YAG powder phosphor is also selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the luminescence spectra of 1200-2800 nm, as shown in Fig. 6. It is found that (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor has three groups of small luminescence peaks positioned at 1478.0 nm, (1750.0, 2022.0 nm), and 2352.0 nm. It is easy to recognize that these are the 3H43F4, 3F43H6, and 3H43H5 luminescence transitions [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

]. Meanwhile, it is found that the (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor has only one group of strong 3F43H6 luminescence peaks positioned at (1788.0, 1898.0, 2018.0 nm). That is, when the concentration of Tm3+ ion of Tm:YAG is enhanced from 0.5 to 20%, the luminescence of the 3F4 energy level is enhanced by 7.62 times, while the luminescence of the 3H4 energy level is greatly reduced.

6. Experimental fluorescence lifetime measurement results

The fluorescence lifetime of the 460.0 and 800.0 nm visible fluorescence of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 powder phosphor, as shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The fluorescence lifetime of the 800.0 nm (left) and 460.0 nm (right) visible fluorescence of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 (red) and (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 (blue) powder phosphor, when excited by 680.0 nm (left) and 368.0 nm (right) pulsed light respectively.
, are measured by the Fluorescence Spectrometer FL3-2iHR, produced by the Horiba-JY Company. In the measurements, the pumping sources are the 360 nm NanoLED semiconductor quasi-laser and pulse Xe lamp. All fluorescence lifetime values of 460.0 and 800.0 nm fluorescences are fit from the measured fluorescence lifetime curves [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The fit method is tail fit. The original point is set after equipment response. It is found from the measurements that the fluorescence lifetime values of 460.0 and 800.0 nm of (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 are τA(460nm) = 10.97μs and τA(800nm) = 115.2μs. It is also found that those of (B) (Y0.995Tm0.005)3Al5O12 are τB(460nm) = 28.32μs and τB(800nm) = 459.8μs.

According to well-known infrared quantum cutting literature, the theoretical energy transfer efficiency of the Tm3+ ion caused by cross-relaxation energy transfer is determined by Eq. (1) [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

]:
ηtr,x%Tm1Ix%TmdtI0.5%Tmdt.
(1)
where I denotes intensity, and x%Tm represents the Tm3+ concentration. In Eq. (1), it is assumed that the energy transfer between the Tm3+ ions is very small when x = 0.5%, which can represent the case of non-energy transfer.

Therefore it can be calculated that the theoretical energy transfer efficiencies of the 460.0 and 800.0 nm fluorescences are ηtr,20%Tm(460nm)=61.26% and ηtr,20%Tm(800nm)=74.95%, respectively.

7. Analysis

It is well known that energy transfer theories have been developed by Forster, Dexter and Kushida [1

1. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

,2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957). [CrossRef]

]. These theories are based on several interaction models between the donor and acceptor, just like dipolar-dipolar interaction or wave function overlap exchange interaction. Their commonality lies in the fact that they both require resonance between the transitions of the donor and acceptor. That is to say, the cross-energy transfer can be strong only when the emission spectrum of the donor and the excitation spectrum of the acceptor overlap. The entire concept of quantum cutting is based on these theories [1

1. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

,2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

21

21. D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957). [CrossRef]

]. The process and efficiency of quantum cutting of Tm:YAG are analyzed below by discussing the energy transfer processes.

The schematic diagram of energy level structure and quantum cutting process are shown in Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The schematic diagram of energy level structure and quantum cutting process.
.

The main quantum cutting downconversion processes originating from 3H4 energy level are as follows:

When the 3H4, 3F3, and 3F2 energy levels are excited, many populations of Tm3+ ion may be populated at the 3H4 energy level, because of the rapid multiphonon non-radiative relaxation from 3F3 and 3F2 energy levels to 3H4. It can be found that Tm3+ ion possesses a very effective {3H43F4, 3H63F4} CR1:ETr31-ETa01 cross-energy transfer process. Although its theoretical transition mismatch + 1195 cm−1 is large, its reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1275,0.1311,0.2113) and (0.5375,0.7261,0.2382) of Tm3+ ion are extremely large [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross energy transfer rate of {3H43F4, 3H63F4} CR1:ETr31-ETa01 is also very large. For high-concentration Tm3+-doped YAG powder phosphor, the population of 3H4 energy level may directly transfers to the first excited state 3F4 energy level mainly through the {3H43F4, 3H63F4} CR1:ETr31-ETa01 cross-energy transfer process. It results in the very effective two-photon near-infrared quantum cutting of the 3F43H6 fluorescence.

Therefore the two-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency of 1788.0 nm 3F43H6 fluorescence when the 3F3 energy level is excited by 680.0nm light can be expressed as follows:
ηCR,x%Tm(3H4)=η3H4·[1ηtr,x%Tm(3H4)]+2η3F4ηtr,x%Tm(3H4),
(2)
where ηCR,x%Tm(3H4) is the two-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency, ηtr,x%Tm(3H4) is the energy transfer efficiency of CR1:ETr31-ETa01 cross-energy transfer, η3H4andη3F4 are the luminescent efficiencies of the 3H4 and 3F4 energy levels of Tm3+ ion, respectively. We assume that η3H4=η3F4=1, as is assumed in most near-infrared quantum cutting literatures [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the theoretical up-limit of the two-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency of Tm3+ ion induced by CR1:ETr31-ETa01 {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer can be expressed as follows:

ηCR,x%Tm(3H4)=1+ηtr,x%Tm(3H4).
(2b)

It is easy to calculate that ηCR,20%Tm(3H4)=ηCR,20%Tm(680nm)=174.95%.

The main quantum-cutting downconversion processes originating from 1D2 energy level are as follows:

When the 1D2 energy level is excited, many population of Tm3+ ion may populated at the 1D2 energy level because 1D2 energy level is a metastable energy state. It can be found that the Tm3+ ion possesses an effective {1D21G4, 3H63F4} CR9:ETr76-ETa01 cross-energy transfer process. Although its theoretical transition mismatch + 1051 cm−1 is large, the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1874,0.1799,0.0022) and (0.5375,0.7261,0.2382) of the Tm3+ ion are very large as well [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1D21G4, 3H63F4} CR9:ETr76-ETa01 is also large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses a very effective {1D23F2, 3H63H4} CR10:ETr75-ETa03 cross-energy transfer process. Its theoretical transition mismatch + 377 cm−1 is small, and the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.0643,0.3065,0) and (0.2357,0.1081,0.5916) of the Tm3+ ion are very large [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1D23F2, 3H63H4} CR10:ETr75-ETa03 is very large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses an effective {1D23F3, 3H63H4} CR11:ETr74-ETa03 cross-energy transfer process. Its theoretical transition mismatch + 991 cm−1 is moderate, and the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1633,0.0687,0) and (0.2357,0.1081,0.5916) of Tm3+ ion are large [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1D23F3, 3H63H4} CR11:ETr74-ETa03 is large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses an effective {1D23H4, 3H63F3} CR12:ETr73-ETa04 cross-energy transfer process. Its theoretical transition mismatch + 991 cm−1 is moderate, and its reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1248,0.0096,0.2280) and (0,0.3164,0.8413) of Tm3+ ion are large [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1D23H4, 3H63F3} CR12:ETr73-ETa04 is large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses an effective {1D23H4, 3H63F2} CR13:ETr73-ETa05 cross-energy transfer process. Its theoretical transition mismatch + 377 cm−1 is small, but the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1248,0.0096,0.2280) and (0,0,0.2550) of Tm3+ ion are moderate [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1D23H4, 3H63F2} CR13:ETr73-ETa05 is large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses a very weak {1D23H5, 3H61G4} CR14:ETr72-ETa06 cross-energy transfer process. Its theoretical transition mismatch −1427 cm−1 is very large, and its reduced matrix elements U2 (0,0.0011,0.0193) and (0.0483,0.0748,0.0125) of Tm3+ ion are small [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1D23H5, 3H61G4} CR14:ETr72-ETa06 is very small.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses a weak {1D23F4, 3H61G4} CR15:ETr71-ETa06 cross-energy transfer process. Its theoretical transition mismatch + 1051 cm−1 is very large, its reduced matrix elements U2 (0.5680,0.0928,0.0230) and (0.0483,0.0748,0.0125) of Tm3+ ion are moderate [16

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

,18

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

], therefore the cross energy transfer rate of {1D23F4, 3H61G4} CR15:ETr71-ETa06 is small.

In conclusion, for high-concentration Tm3+-doped YAG powder phosphor, the population of the 1D2 energy level may directly transfer to the lower energy level mainly through the {1D23F2, 3H63H4} CR10:ETr75-ETa03 cross-energy transfer process, i.e. one population of the 1D2 energy level may very effectively lead to two populations of the 3H4 energy level through {1D23F2, 3H63H4} CR10:ETr75-ETa03 cross-energy transfer process. Then it may also very effectively lead to four populations of the 3F4 energy level through CR1:ETr31-ETa01{3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer process consequently. It results in the effective four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting of the 3F43H6 fluorescence of Tm3+ ion.

Therefore the four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiencies of the 1788.0 nm 3F43H6 fluorescence when the 1D2 energy level is excited by 357.0 nm can be expressed as follows:
ηCR,x%Tm(1D2)={η1D2·[1ηtr,x%Tm(1D2)]+2η3H4ηtr,x%Tm(1D2)}·{[η3H4·[1ηtr,x%Tm(3H4)]+2η3F4ηtr,x%Tm(3H4)},
(3)
where ηCR,x%Tm(1D2) is the four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency, ηtr,x%Tm(1D2) is the energy transfer efficiency of the CR10:ETr75-ETa03 cross-energy transfer, and η1D2,η3H4andη3F4 are the luminescent efficiencies of the 1D2, 3H4 and 3F4 energy levels of Tm3+ ion respectively. We assume that η1D2=η3H4=η3F4=1, as is also assumed in most near-infrared quantum cutting literatures [2

2. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

,5

5. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, the theoretical up-limit of the four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency of the Tm3+ ion induced both by CR10:ETr75-ETa03 {1D23F2, 3H63H4} and CR1:ETr31-ETa01 {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfers can be expressed as follows:

ηCR,x%Tm(1D2)=[1+ηtr,x%Tm(1D2)]·[1+ηtr,x%Tm(3H4)].
(3b)

It is then easy to calculate that ηCR,20%Tm(1D2)=ηCR,20%Tm(357nm)=282.12%.

It can be found from Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 that compared to the absorption spectrum of Fig. 2 and visible excitation spectrum of Fig. 3, the action of 357.0nm peak in infrared excitation spectrum of Fig. 4 is very effective. It illustrates that the excitation of 1D2 energy level can result in very strong 1788.0nm 3F43H6 luminescence, which is a very effective quantum cutting.

It is obviously that the (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor has very higher quantum cutting efficiency. The reason for high quantum cutting efficiency is partly due to the cross-energy transfer processes in (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor is first-order energy transfer mechanisms, which generally have a much higher probability (typically a factor of 103) to occur than second-order mechanisms, emphasized by Meijerink [11

11. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Because emission wavelength of the 3F43H6 fluorescence of Tm3+ ion of (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor is 1788 nm, it is resonant entirely with the band-gap width Eg of germanium of 1850.5 nm, 5404 cm−1 (0.67 eV:300 K). The resonant energy transfer from Tm3+ ion to germanium would be very effective. It is very valuable to enhance the efficiency of Ge solar cell by the multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting of (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor.

The further work is to look for suitable sensitizer to enhance the absorption efficiency both in the strong absorption intensity and broad absorption wavelength range.

8. Conclusion

In the present manuscript, the x-ray diffraction spectra, visible to near-infrared excitation and emission spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes have been measured. It is found that (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor possesses intense two-photon quantum cutting luminescence resulting from the CR1:ETr31-ETa01{3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer. It is found that its theoretical up-limit of the two-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency is approximately 174.95%. Moreover, it is found for the first time that (A) (Y0.800Tm0.200)3Al5O12 powder phosphor has strong four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence of 1788 nm 3F43H6 fluorescence of Tm3+ ion, which results both from the {1D23F2, 3H63H4} and {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfers. It is found also that the theoretical up-limit of the four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency is approximately 282.12%. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that the near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency exceeding 200% has been reported.

Acknowledgments

This project was supported mainly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China through grant 10674019 and by the significant project of Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (212-105560GK). The author thanks very much for the help of Academician Prof. Jingkui Liang, Academician Prof. Bingkun Zhou, Prof. Luan Chen, Dr. Yu Ye, Prof. Nan Xiao, Prof. Yujie Zhu, Prof. Zhiyong Tang, Prof. Dacheng Ma, Prof. Shangyu Gao, Prof. Qihuang Gong, Prof. D. Wu, and Prof. Daoheng Sun.

References and links

1.

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. den Hertog, J. P. J. M. van der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]

3.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, K. D. Oskam, and A. Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4 : Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science 283(5402), 663–666 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

B. Bitnar, “Silicon, germanium silicon/germanium photocells for thermo photovoltaics applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S221–S227 (2003). [CrossRef]

5.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, Y. L. Yu, P. Huang, and F. Y. Weng, “Near-infrared quantum cutting in transparent nanostructured glass ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1884–1886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009). [CrossRef]

10.

S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. X. Chen, J. R. Qiu, S. Ye, and X. Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]

13.

G. W. Shu, J. Y. Lin, H. T. Jian, J. L. Shen, S. C. Wang, C. L. Chou, W. C. Chou, C. H. Wu, C. H. Chiu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical coupling from InGaAs subcell to InGaP subcell in InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1), A123–A130 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

Q. Y. Zhang and X. Y. Huang, “Recent progress in quantum cutting phosphors,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 55(5), 353–427 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

J. J. Eilers, D. Biner, J. T. van Wijngaarden, K. Kramer, H. U. Gudel, and A. Meijerink, “Efficient visible to infrared quantum cutting through downconversion with the Er3+-Yb3+ couple in Cs3Y2Br9,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151106 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

17.

Z. J. Liu, L. Y. Yang, N. Dai, Y. Chu, Q. Q. Chen, and J. Y. Li, “Intense ultra-broadband down-conversion in co-doped oxide glass by multipolar interaction process,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12635–12642 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

19.

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948). [CrossRef]

20.

M. A. Green, Third Generation Photovoltaics: Advanced Solar Energy Conversion (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

21.

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957). [CrossRef]

22.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(160.5690) Materials : Rare-earth-doped materials
(250.5230) Optoelectronics : Photoluminescence
(260.2160) Physical optics : Energy transfer
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
(300.6410) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, multiphoton
(300.6440) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, optogalvanic

ToC Category:
Energy Transfer

History
Original Manuscript: July 8, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 27, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: July 28, 2013
Published: August 7, 2013

Citation
Xiaobo Chen, Gregory J. Salamo, Guojian Yang, Yongliang Li, Xianlin Ding, Yan Gao, Quanlin Liu, and Jinghua Guo, "Multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor," Opt. Express 21, A829-A840 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-S5-A829


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References

  1. B. S.  Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. P.  Vergeer, T. J. H.  Vlugt, M. H. F.  Kox, M. I.  den Hertog, J. P. J. M.  van der Eerden, A.  Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005). [CrossRef]
  3. R. T.  Wegh, H.  Donker, K. D.  Oskam, A.  Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4 : Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science 283(5402), 663–666 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B.  Bitnar, “Silicon, germanium silicon/germanium photocells for thermo photovoltaics applications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(5), S221–S227 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. X. Y.  Huang, S. Y.  Han, W.  Huang, X. G.  Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Q.  Chen, Y. S.  Wang, Y. L.  Yu, P.  Huang, F. Y.  Weng, “Near-infrared quantum cutting in transparent nanostructured glass ceramics,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1884–1886 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. J.  Zhou, Y.  Teng, X. F.  Liu, S.  Ye, X. Q.  Xu, Z. J.  Ma, J. R.  Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. B.  Chen, J. G.  Wu, X. L.  Xu, Y. Z.  Zhang, N.  Sawanobori, C. L.  Zhang, Q. H.  Pan, G. J.  Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. M.  van der Ende, L.  Aarts, A.  Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009). [CrossRef]
  10. S. V.  Eliseeva, J. C. G.  Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. M.  van der Ende, L.  Aarts, A.  Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. X.  Chen, J. R.  Qiu, S.  Ye, X.  Wang, “Cooperative quantum cutting of nano-crystalline BaF2: Tb3+, Yb3+ in oxyfluoride glass ceramics,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 25(6), 2078–2080 (2008). [CrossRef]
  13. G. W.  Shu, J. Y.  Lin, H. T.  Jian, J. L.  Shen, S. C.  Wang, C. L.  Chou, W. C.  Chou, C. H.  Wu, C. H.  Chiu, H. C.  Kuo, “Optical coupling from InGaAs subcell to InGaP subcell in InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1), A123–A130 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Y.  Zhang, X. Y.  Huang, “Recent progress in quantum cutting phosphors,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 55(5), 353–427 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. J. J.  Eilers, D.  Biner, J. T.  van Wijngaarden, K.  Kramer, H. U.  Gudel, A.  Meijerink, “Efficient visible to infrared quantum cutting through downconversion with the Er3+-Yb3+ couple in Cs3Y2Br9,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 151106 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).
  17. Z. J.  Liu, L. Y.  Yang, N.  Dai, Y.  Chu, Q. Q.  Chen, J. Y.  Li, “Intense ultra-broadband down-conversion in co-doped oxide glass by multipolar interaction process,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12635–12642 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).
  19. T.  Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948). [CrossRef]
  20. M. A. Green, Third Generation Photovoltaics: Advanced Solar Energy Conversion (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  21. D. L.  Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957). [CrossRef]
  22. T.  Trupke, M. A.  Green, P.  Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002). [CrossRef]

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