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Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 21, Iss. S5 — Sep. 9, 2013
  • pp: A864–A871
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Dual-wavelength GaN-based LEDs grown on truncated hexagonal pyramids formed by selective-area regrowth on Si-implanted GaN templates

Ming-Lun Lee, Yu-Hsiang Yeh, Shang-Ju Tu, P.C. Chen, Ming-Jui Wu, Wei-Chih Lai, and Jinn-Kong Sheu  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 21, Issue S5, pp. A864-A871 (2013)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.00A864


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Abstract

GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with micro truncated hexagonal pyramid (THP) array were grown on selective-area Si-implanted GaN (SIG) templates. The GaN epitaxial layer regrown on the SIG templates exhibited selective growth and subsequent lateral growth to form the THP array. The observed selective-area growth was attributed to the different crystal structures between the Si-implanted and implantation-free regions. Consequently, LEDs grown on the GaN THP array emitted broad electroluminescence spectra with multiple peaks. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence revealed that the broad spectra originated from different areas within each THP. Transmission electron microscopy showed the GaN-based epitaxial layers, including InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells regrown at different growth rates (or with different In content in the InGaN wells) between the semi-polar and c-face planes of each THP.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

2. Experiments

3. Results and discussions

Photographs of the LED wafer with the THP arrays (THP LEDs) under different injection currents are shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Typical images taken from the THP LEDs under different current injection (b) typical EL spectra of the THP LEDs driven under different currents.
. The indium balls were attached on the wafer to serve as the n- and p-type contact electrodes. The emitted light clearly changed from green to blue when the current was increased from 5 mA to 100 mA. The electroluminescence spectra of the THP LEDs driven under different currents are shown in Fig. 4(b). At a relatively low current of 5 mA, the THP LEDs produced broad spectra that peaked at approximately 500 nm (green peak).

4. Conclusions

In summary, we have demonstrated the selective-area regrowth of Si-implanted GaN template layers to form the truncated hexagonal pyramid arrays for achieving non-planar InGaN/GaN MQWs in GaN-based LEDs. Contrary to the conventional designs that use a dielectric layer as the mask layer, the Si-implanted GaN template featuring a planar surface and the low-resistivity mask layer could prevent devices from high resistance. On the other hand, EL and CL measurements showed that the broad emission spectra with multiple peaks could be achieved using a set of MQWs grown at fixed conditions. The broad emission spectra were due to the spatial variation of the well thicknesses and the In content in MQWs on the semi-polar facets or c-planes.

Acknowledgment

We thank the National Science Council for funding this study under contract Nos. NSC-101-2221-E-218-012-MY3, NSC-101-2221-E-006-171-MY3, NSC-100-2112-M-006-011-MY3 and NSC-100-3113-E-006-015.

References and links

1.

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(16), 2532–2534 (2001). [CrossRef]

4.

M. Ueda, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Additive color mixture of emission from InGaN/GaN quantum wells on structure-controlled GaN microfacets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171907 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

H. Fang, Z. J. Yang, Y. Wang, T. Dai, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, T. J. Yu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Analysis of mass transport mechanism in InGaN epitaxy on ridge shaped selective area growth GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 014908 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1204–1206 (1997). [CrossRef]

7.

J. Park, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, and R. D. Dupuis, “Selective-area and lateral epitaxial overgrowth of III–N materials by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(3), 333–335 (1998). [CrossRef]

8.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(7), 1201–1203 (2002). [CrossRef]

9.

J. E. Greenspan, C. Blaauw, B. Emmerstorfer, R. W. Glew, and I. Shih, “Analysis of a time-dependent supply mechanism in selective area growth by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth 248, 405–410 (2003). [CrossRef]

10.

Y. Tomita, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Selective area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy of InN, GaN and InGaN covering whole composition range,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(10), 2809–2812 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 160–163 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 121002 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multi-quantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241111 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

M. Funato, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, S. Nishiura, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express 1(1), 011106 (2008). [CrossRef]

15.

C. Y. Cho, I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, S. J. Park, D. R. Jung, and K. W. Kwon, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on microfacets for white-light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241109 (2008). [CrossRef]

16.

J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, C. J. Kao, L. S. Yeh, C. C. Lee, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Characterization of Si implants in p-type GaN,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(4A4), 767–772 (2002). [CrossRef]

17.

J. C. Zolper, H. H. Tan, J. S. Williams, J. Zou, D. J. H. Cockayne, S. J. Pearton, M. H. Crawford, and R. F. Karlicek, “Electrical and structural analysis of high-dose Si implantation in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(20), 2729–2731 (1997). [CrossRef]

18.

J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.23Ga0.77N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 22(10), 460–462 (2001). [CrossRef]

19.

J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(10A10), 1400–1402 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth 221(1-4), 316–326 (2000). [CrossRef]

21.

N. Gmeinwieser, K. Engl, P. Gottfriedsen, U. T. Schwarz, J. Zweck, W. Wegscheider, S. Miller, H.-J. Lugauer, A. Leber, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, “Correlation of strain, wing tilt, dislocation density, and photoluminescence in epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN on SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(7), 3666–3672 (2004). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Hoffmann, H. Siegle, A. Kaschner, L. Eckey, C. Thomsen, J. Christen, F. Bertram, M. Schmidt, K. Hiramatsu, S. Kitamura, and N. Sawaki, “Local strain distribution of hexagonal GaN pyramids,” J. Cryst. Growth 189-190, 630–633 (1998). [CrossRef]

23.

Q. K. K. Liu, A. Hoffmann, H. Siegle, A. Kaschner, C. Thomsen, J. Christen, and F. Bertram, “Stress analysis of selective epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3122–3124 (1999). [CrossRef]

24.

T. Detchprohm, K. Hiramatsu, N. Sawaki, and I. Akasaki, “The homoepitaxy of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 137(1-2), 170–174 (1994). [CrossRef]

25.

M. Funato, T. Kotani, T. Kondou, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Tailored emission color synthesis using microfacet quantum wells consisting of nitride semiconductors without phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261920 (2006). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(310.3840) Thin films : Materials and process characterization
(310.4925) Thin films : Other properties (stress, chemical, etc.)
(310.6845) Thin films : Thin film devices and applications

ToC Category:
Light-Emitting Diodes

History
Original Manuscript: May 31, 2013
Revised Manuscript: July 9, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: August 5, 2013
Published: August 15, 2013

Citation
Ming-Lun Lee, Yu-Hsiang Yeh, Shang-Ju Tu, P.C. Chen, Ming-Jui Wu, Wei-Chih Lai, and Jinn-Kong Sheu, "Dual-wavelength GaN-based LEDs grown on truncated hexagonal pyramids formed by selective-area regrowth on Si-implanted GaN templates," Opt. Express 21, A864-A871 (2013)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-21-S5-A864


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References

  1. Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys.94(4), 2167–2172 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. I. Ozden, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, T. Takeuchi, and M. Krames, “A dual-wavelength indium gallium nitride quantum well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(16), 2532–2534 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ueda, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Additive color mixture of emission from InGaN/GaN quantum wells on structure-controlled GaN microfacets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(17), 171907 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Fang, Z. J. Yang, Y. Wang, T. Dai, L. W. Sang, L. B. Zhao, T. J. Yu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Analysis of mass transport mechanism in InGaN epitaxy on ridge shaped selective area growth GaN by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014908 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kapolnek, S. Keller, R. Vetury, R. D. Underwood, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Anisotropic epitaxial lateral growth in GaN selective area epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(9), 1204–1206 (1997). [CrossRef]
  7. J. Park, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, and R. D. Dupuis, “Selective-area and lateral epitaxial overgrowth of III–N materials by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(3), 333–335 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Threading dislocation reduction via laterally overgrown nonpolar (11-20) a-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(7), 1201–1203 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Greenspan, C. Blaauw, B. Emmerstorfer, R. W. Glew, and I. Shih, “Analysis of a time-dependent supply mechanism in selective area growth by MOCVD,” J. Cryst. Growth248, 405–410 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Tomita, T. Shioda, M. Sugiyama, Y. Shimogaki, and Y. Nakano, “Selective area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy of InN, GaN and InGaN covering whole composition range,” J. Cryst. Growth311(10), 2809–2812 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. W. H. Goh, G. Patriarche, P. L. Bonanno, S. Gautier, T. Moudakir, M. Abid, G. Orsal, A. A. Sirenko, Z. H. Cai, A. Martinez, A. Ramdane, L. Le Gratiet, D. Troadec, A. Soltani, and A. Ougazzaden, “Structural and optical properties of nanodots, nanowires, and multi-quantum wells of III-nitride grown by MOVPE nano-selective area growth,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 160–163 (2011). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Liu, A. Satka, L. K. Jagadamma, P. R. Edwards, D. Allsopp, R. W. Martin, P. Shields, J. Kovac, F. Uherek, and W. Wang, “Light emission from InGaN quantum wells grown on the facets of closely spaced GaN nano-pyramids formed by nano-imprinting,” Appl. Phys. Express2(12), 121002 (2009). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kim, J. Kim, M. S. Yang, S. Lee, Y. Park, U. I. Chung, and Y. Cho, “Highly efficient yellow photoluminescence from {11–22} InGaN multi-quantum-well grown on nanoscale pyramid structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(24), 241111 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Funato, T. Kondou, K. Hayashi, S. Nishiura, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Monolithic polychromatic light-emitting diodes based on InGaN microfacet quantum wells toward tailor-made solid-state lighting,” Appl. Phys. Express1(1), 011106 (2008). [CrossRef]
  15. C. Y. Cho, I. K. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, S. J. Park, D. R. Jung, and K. W. Kwon, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on microfacets for white-light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(24), 241109 (2008). [CrossRef]
  16. J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. J. Tun, C. J. Kao, L. S. Yeh, C. C. Lee, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Characterization of Si implants in p-type GaN,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(4A4), 767–772 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. J. C. Zolper, H. H. Tan, J. S. Williams, J. Zou, D. J. H. Cockayne, S. J. Pearton, M. H. Crawford, and R. F. Karlicek, “Electrical and structural analysis of high-dose Si implantation in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(20), 2729–2731 (1997). [CrossRef]
  18. J. K. Sheu, J. M. Tsai, S. C. Shei, W. C. Lai, T. C. Wen, C. H. Kou, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and G. C. Chi, “Low-operation voltage of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with Si-doped In0.23Ga0.77N/GaN short-period superlattice tunneling contact layer,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.22(10), 460–462 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. J. K. Sheu, S. J. Tu, M. L. Lee, Y. H. Yeh, C. C. Yang, F. W. Huang, W. C. Lai, C. W. Chen, and G. C. Chi, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with embedded voids formed on Si-implanted GaN layers,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.32(10A10), 1400–1402 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Hiramatsu, K. Nishiyama, M. Onishi, H. Mizutani, M. Narukawa, A. Motogaito, H. Miyake, Y. Iyechika, and T. Maeda, “Fabrication and characterization of low defect density GaN using facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (FACELO),” J. Cryst. Growth221(1-4), 316–326 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. N. Gmeinwieser, K. Engl, P. Gottfriedsen, U. T. Schwarz, J. Zweck, W. Wegscheider, S. Miller, H.-J. Lugauer, A. Leber, A. Weimar, A. Lell, and V. Härle, “Correlation of strain, wing tilt, dislocation density, and photoluminescence in epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN on SiC substrates,” J. Appl. Phys.96(7), 3666–3672 (2004). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Hoffmann, H. Siegle, A. Kaschner, L. Eckey, C. Thomsen, J. Christen, F. Bertram, M. Schmidt, K. Hiramatsu, S. Kitamura, and N. Sawaki, “Local strain distribution of hexagonal GaN pyramids,” J. Cryst. Growth189-190, 630–633 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. Q. K. K. Liu, A. Hoffmann, H. Siegle, A. Kaschner, C. Thomsen, J. Christen, and F. Bertram, “Stress analysis of selective epitaxial growth of GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett.74(21), 3122–3124 (1999). [CrossRef]
  24. T. Detchprohm, K. Hiramatsu, N. Sawaki, and I. Akasaki, “The homoepitaxy of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using GaN substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth137(1-2), 170–174 (1994). [CrossRef]
  25. M. Funato, T. Kotani, T. Kondou, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Tailored emission color synthesis using microfacet quantum wells consisting of nitride semiconductors without phosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(26), 261920 (2006). [CrossRef]

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