OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 11 — Jun. 2, 2014
  • pp: 13125–13137
« Show journal navigation

Tunable microwave generation of a monolithic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser

Yen-Hua Lo, Yu-Chang Wu, Shun-Chieh Hsu, Yi-Chia Hwang, Bai-Ci Chen, and Chien-Chung Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 11, pp. 13125-13137 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.013125


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (2848 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

The dynamic behavior of a monolithic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser was fully investigated and mapped. The combination of different driving currents for master and slave lasers can generate a wide range of different operational modes, from single mode, period 1 to chaos. Both the optical and microwave spectrum were recorded and analyzed. The detected single mode signal can continuously cover from 15GHz to 50GHz, limited by photodetector bandwidth. The measured optical four-wave-mixing pattern indicates that a 70GHz signal can be generated by this device. By applying rate equation analysis, the important laser parameters can be extracted from the spectrum. The extracted relaxation resonant frequency is found to be 8.96GHz. With the full operational map at hand, the suitable current combination can be applied to the device for proper applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Previously, we reported a design to incorporate nano-scale distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) into the two-section DFB lasers to achieve continuous frequency tuning of microwave signals up to 25GHz [27

27. C.-Y. Chien, Y.-H. Lo, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Hsu, H.-R. Tseng, and C.-C. Lin, “Compact photonic integrated chip for tunable microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(5), 490–493 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. In our prior work, most of the microwave signals were generated due to the four-wave mixing effect caused by nonlinear refractive index change in the laser gain medium [28

28. K. Inoue, T. Mukai, and T. Saitoh, “Nearly degenerate four‐wave mixing in a traveling‐wave semiconductor laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(14), 1051–1053 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper, a detailed investigation on the operation of such devices is performed. The combination of different driving currents was fully tested and corresponding optical and microwave behaviors are analyzed. Different regimes of operations can be mapped and we could identify suitable driving currents for different applications.

2. Device fabrication

The device was grown on a n-type InP substrate by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) technique. A grating designed for 1550nm was first patterned by E-beam lithography. The active region is formed by multiple InGaAsP quantum wells. Mesa-etch and subsequent epitaxial re-growth were performed to create the buried heterostructure. The wafer was then underwent regular semiconductor processes to construct the ridge waveguide and p-type electrical contacts. The finished sample was thinned down for n-type backside contact and bar/chip cleaving and suitable ceramic submounts were used for die-attachment. The detailed device fabrication was described previously [27

27. C.-Y. Chien, Y.-H. Lo, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Hsu, H.-R. Tseng, and C.-C. Lin, “Compact photonic integrated chip for tunable microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(5), 490–493 (2014). [CrossRef]

, 29

29. C.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Chien, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-T. Lin, “Evaluation of tunable microwave signals generated by monolithic two-section distributed feedback lasers,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, San Jose, California, 2013), p. JTh2A.104.

].

After the regular semiconductor processes, the final stage of the fabrication is the nano-scale focused ion beam (FIB) etch to form the DBR section. This step was done by a FEI Nova 200 system equipped with the 30 keV Ga atom as the etching source. The chamber pressure is around 7.5 × 10−6 torr. The etch rate was controlled by the monitoring current and tuned to be around 0.3 μm/min.

One of the important components in this integrated chip is the DBR structure. The role of the DBR section in our chip is three-fold: the first is to provide an electrical isolation between two lasers via cutting through the p-type layer; the second is to provide a highly-reflective facet which can ensure the single mode operation in a DFB laser; and the third is to provide suitable optical coupling into the other laser. The air gap and semiconductor arrangement can provide a dramatic change of refractive index, which can reflect the photons very efficiently. Therefore, high reflectivity can be expected from very few pairs of DBR. From the calculation combined with effective index method and transmission matrix, a 99.97% reflectivity can be achieved by 3.5 pairs of DBR. However, the devices with 3.5 or fewer pairs of DBR tend to be multi-mode and the actual measurements of the injected intensities among 4.5 or more pairs of DBR structures stay almost the same and this phenomenon indicates that the reflectivity saturates after 4.5 pairs. The central wavelength of the DBR is the same with the DFB gratings (1550nm) and since the bandwidth of such structure is very wide (about 100nm or more), a 10% departure from the designated wavelength will not hurt the device [27

27. C.-Y. Chien, Y.-H. Lo, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Hsu, H.-R. Tseng, and C.-C. Lin, “Compact photonic integrated chip for tunable microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(5), 490–493 (2014). [CrossRef]

].

On the completed device, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of a monolithic two-section DBR DFB laser.
, two DFB lasers are separated by a DBR section which plays the role of both mirror and optical coupler. The deep air trench (around 5 to 6 μm) of DBR section ensures the electrical isolation. The cavity length of the DFB laser is 300 μm while the DBR section is 20 μm. To obtain high reflectivity for individual DFB lasers, 6.5 pairs of air/semiconductor DBR structure were etched. The DBR is designed with 3/4λ( = 1162nm) for air trench width and 5/4λ( = 584nm) for semiconductor width, and the designated wavelength (λ) is 1550nm. When all the processes are finished, the facet on the DBR side has a high reflectance, and the other uncoated facet has a much lower, native Fresnel reflectance of air/InP. Such asymmetric reflecting powers between two facets of individual DFB lasers can produce a single longitudinal mode operation across most of the driving currents with much greater yield.

3. Operational principle

From Fig. 1, we denote the DFB laser at the output facet as the slave laser and the other one as the master laser. Traditionally, the master laser provides the injection signal while the slave laser receives this injection power. This nomenclature comes from the injection locking scheme where the slave laser is controlled by the injection of the master laser. However, due to the monolithic nature of this chip, these two lasers are mutually coupled, i.e. the light from one laser can inject into the other one and vice versa, such that the names (slave and master lasers) are just for the purpose to distinguish between the output side (slave) and backside (master) components of the chip, and the output signal is always taken from the front facet of the slave laser. When two monochromatic photons meet in the resonant cavity of the slave laser, many scenarios could happen. One of them is the weakly injection case in which the two wavelengths of photons co-exist in the same cavity and the carrier modulation due to this mixed optical field induces the refractive index changes, and a resulting four-wave-mixing output can be expected [28

28. K. Inoue, T. Mukai, and T. Saitoh, “Nearly degenerate four‐wave mixing in a traveling‐wave semiconductor laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(14), 1051–1053 (1987). [CrossRef]

, 30

30. J.-M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]

]. When this mixed optical signal hits the high-speed photodetector, the resultant electrical output will be in the differential frequency of the two colors of photons, called detuning frequency Δf, and can be written as:
Δf=c(1λmaster1λslave),
(1)
where c is the speed of light, λmaster and λslave are the emission wavelengths of the master and slave lasers, respectively.

Figure 2
Fig. 2 The simplified operational principle of a two-section single mode laser for microwave generation in the optical heterodyne. The corresponding microwave spectrum is listed side by side with its optical counterpart.
shows the simplified operational principle of our devices. When a DFB laser operated above its threshold, one specific driving current to the laser corresponds to one emission wavelength. In our integrated chip, two cases can be discussed here: the first one is when the master laser emission peak is on the shorter wavelength side. The current of the slave laser (Islave) is kept the same and we turn up the current of the master laser (Imaster) to make its emission peak approach the slave laser's. On the optical spectrum, the FWM peak rises due to the four-wave-mixing effect mentioned earlier, and it locates at the same detuning frequency Δf from the slave lasers peak but on the other side. As the Imaster keeps increasing, the peak wavelength of the master laser red-shifts and the Δf reduces until the master laser emission peak coincides with the slave laser's. From the microwave spectrum, the differential frequency Δf can be seen moving towards zero as the Imaster increases. In the second case, the emission peak of the master laser is on the longer wavelength side and moves away from the slave laser's. This situation will produce a similar FWM peak in the optical domain and the signal in the microwave spectrum. However, when Imaster goes up, the gap between the two laser's peak keeps growing and so does the FWM signal. On the microwave spectrum, the RF signal now moves towards the high frequency from the zero point until the detection limit or the FWM effect diminished.

Depending on the wavelengths at low driving currents, we could have both cases on the same device or just one of them. The former situation is useful for laser dynamic analysis since both positive and negative Δf can be produced, while the latter condition might be preferable for microwave carrier generation because of the extended Δf range at the same current span.

In any cases, the combination of different driving currents of the two lasers represents possibilities of different generated microwave signal, and with this feature, a wide-range electrically tunable microwave source can be realized.

4. Device characterization

The individual device characteristics was first tested by a DC current driver and a broadband photodetector. A threshold current of 6 to 10mA was found in most of devices. Devices with side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) better than 40dB can also be selected from different sections of wafers. The purity of the optical mode in the laser is essential for the device to work in the microwave generation. Both electrical and optical characteristics are similar to the devices presented before [29

29. C.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Chien, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-T. Lin, “Evaluation of tunable microwave signals generated by monolithic two-section distributed feedback lasers,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, San Jose, California, 2013), p. JTh2A.104.

]. To test the two-section lasers in action, a three- probe station is necessary and we use an angled-cleaved fiber for efficient light coupling. An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is used for boosting the overall optical signal before it enters an 1 by 2 splitter.

After the splitter, the photons are fed into either optical spectrum analyzer or a u2t 50GHz photodetector (PD). The output of the highspeed PD is fed into an Agilent N9030A PXA signal analyzer for RF spectrum. The whole setup is illustrated in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measurement setup for both microwave and optical spectrum. Suitable in-line isolators were used in the connecting optical fibers to prevent from back scattering.
.

The complete measurements of the integrated lasers include the optical and microwave spectrum. With the weakly injection stemming from the high reflectivity of DBR section, the locking between the master and slave laser is not strong, and the locking range is limited [8

8. A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196–1204 (2003).

, 31

31. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988).

, 32

32. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–793 (1985).

]. However, outside of this injection locked zone, a wide range of FWM operation can be expected [8

8. A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196–1204 (2003).

, 12

12. Y.-S. Juan and F.-Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(4), 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]

, 33

33. A. Hurtado, J. Mee, M. Nami, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable microwave signal generator with an optically-injected 1310 nm QD-DFB laser,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10772–10778 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

For the optical spectrum, a typical four-wave-mixing pattern, as shown in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The combined optical spectrum from the output facet of the slave laser, under different conditions: Islave = 50mA, Imaster = 16mA (blue), and Islave = 50mA, Imaster = 72mA (red). The corresponding emission peaks of the slave and master lasers are marked for clarity.
, can be observed across a wide range of pumping currents. Depending on the relative location of emission wavelengths between the slave and master laser, both cases shown in Fig. 2 are found in our devices. One typical situation in Fig. 4 is that the emission wavelength of the master laser at the low driving current is shorter than the slave laser's, and it sweeps across the slave laser's peak as we increase the driving current of the master laser. In this condition, both positive and negative detuning frequency (Δf) can be found. The slave laser's peak red-shifts slightly due to the rising temperature brought by the increased Imaster, but this red-shifting rate is slower than the master laser's such that the master laser's peak catches up eventually. We could visualize these variations by putting all of the optical spectrum under different Imaster together in a contour plot in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The collection of optical spectrum of the two-section DFB lasers at Islave = 50mA and various Imaster. The color bar represents the relative intensity measured in dBm, and the white dash line marks the trace of the emission peak of the slave laser. The dash-dot line is from the peak of the master laser and the dot line is the FWM signal.
. In this figure, the slave laser is constantly driven at 50mA while the current of the master laser varies from 16mA to 80mA. The peak of the master laser moves much faster (dash-dot line) and catches up with the slave laser's (white dash line). A notch of the slave laser's trace is observed around Imaster = 38mA, indicating a possible injection locking of this device, in which the slave laser's emission peak is pulled to the master laser's. But this injection locking range is narrow in our case, so the two peaks deviate from each other shortly after Imaster = 40mA. The separation between the slave and master laser's emission produces the signal at difference frequency according to Eq. (1) and can be explained in the following paragraph.

5. RF dynamic behavior mapping at different current combination

Needless to say, the random peaks in the RF spectrum due to chaos are not welcomed in microwave carrier generation. However, the P1 mode, in which a more stable peak at resonant frequency (fr) is generated, is possible for optical clock recovery. The most anticipated behavior should still be the single mode operation which can be useful for many applications. Between Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, the range of single mode and their output RF powers can be mapped directly. A continuous distribution of single mode operation is possible from 15GHz all the way to 50GHz. Although the PD cannot detect the signal beyond 50GHz, we could calculate the largest wavelength separation (thus the RF frequency) with FWM effect on the optical spectrum, and the value come up with 70GHz. With Fig. 8 available, any engineer can pick up the right combination of the Islave and Imaster to generate the desired RF signals in terms of frequencies and powers.

The finished map is definitely very different from what was shown before [42

42. V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2780–2782 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 43

43. S.-C. Chan, S.-K. Hwang, and J.-M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14921–14935 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The main reason is because different variables, i.e. the laser driving currents, are used to record this map. Our chip is monolithically integrated such that it is not possible to independently tune the injected power and detuning frequencies. On our chip, the wavelength always move to longer side as the driving increases and the injected power also increases with the same direction. So at some current combinations, the same detuning frequency and the injected to free-running power ratio is repeated inevitably, which will in turns make our map look differently. Another constraint in our map is the precision of our current source. Every mA up or down means a 2.5GHz change in our lasers. So any fine structures shown in previously-reported dynamic maps could be bypassed due to this reason.

6. Laser parameter extraction

From Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The measured (blue dots) and fitted (red lines) results of (a) the power ratio of FWM and regenerative amplified peak; (b) RF power; both at the Islave = 58mA, and Imaster = 16 to 80mA. The frequency detuning is used as the variable. When the detuning diminishes towards zero, the strong chaotic behavior of the laser cause the spreading of the experimental data.
, several points in (a) and (b) deviates from the theoretical calculation. The main reason is due to the strong non-linear reaction of P1 state, where the RF output is fixated at fr and does not respond to the further current tuning of the emission wavelength. Also at close to zero detuning frequency, chaos took place and no simple pattern can be identified under the same criteria. Once the separation of the emission wavelength becomes greater, the laser is back to the FWM state and we saw a very good match between the experimental data and calculation.

7. Conclusion

In summary, we demonstrated a full dynamic behavior map of a monolithic dual-wavelength DFB laser suitable for microwave generation. The nano-scale DBR structure was inserted between the two DFB lasers to create a weak coupling while maintaining single mode operation of lasers. According to different driving current combination, the RF output of the device can exhibit single mode, multiple mode or even chaos patterns. The detailed map can be a very useful tool for engineers to apply such device for microwave carrier generation. A wide and continuous range of single mode from 15GHz up to 50GHz is realized via various combinations of Islave and Imaster. A further investigation reveals the inherent laser parameters from the optical and microwave measurement of the device. The resonant frequency of 8.96 GHz and the linewidth enhancement factor of 7.7 are obtained. The single mode RF spectrum was also examined in details and the linewidth of 2.22MHz is found. We believe this kind of device can provide a small-footprint and energy-efficient choice for the future microwave systems.

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank Prof. H.-C. Kuo, Prof. J.-H. Chen of NCTU, Dr. Y.-J. Cheng of SINICA in Taiwan and Santur Corporation, Inc. USA for their technical supports. This work is supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan through the contracts: NSC 102-2120-M-110-005, and NSC 101-2221-E-009-046-MY3.

References and links

1.

G. J. Simonis and K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser heterodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(5), 667–669 (1990). [CrossRef]

2.

X.-Q. Qi and J.-M. Liu, “Photonic microwave applications of the dynamics of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1198–1211 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).

4.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013). [CrossRef]

5.

A. J. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]

6.

M. J. Fice, E. Rouvalis, F. van Dijk, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, and A. J. Seeds, “146-GHz millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber photonic wireless transmission system,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1769–1774 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

J.-M. Liu, H.-F. Chen, and S. Tang, “Synchronized chaotic optical communications at high bit rates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1184–1196 (2002).

8.

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, and K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196–1204 (2003).

9.

L. Chrostowski, Z. Xiaoxue, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788–796 (2006). [CrossRef]

10.

U. Feiste, D. J. As, and A. Ehrhardt, “18 GHz all-optical frequency locking and clock recovery using a self-pulsating two-section DFB-laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 106–108 (1994). [CrossRef]

11.

G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photon. 7(2), 118–122 (2013). [CrossRef]

12.

Y.-S. Juan and F.-Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(4), 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

G. E. Villanueva, P. Perez-Millan, J. Palaci, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, and J. Marti, “Dual-wavelength DFB erbium-doped fiber laser with tunable wavelength spacing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 254–256 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

G. E. Villanueva, J. Palací, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Martí, and P. Pérez-Millán, “High frequency microwave signal generation using dual-wavelength emission of cascaded DFB fiber lasers with wavelength spacing tunability,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5165–5168 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

B. Sartorius, M. Mohrle, and U. Feiste, “12-64 GHz continuous frequency tuning in self-pulsating 1.55-mm multiquantum-well DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 535–538 (1995). [CrossRef]

16.

X. Wang, W. Mao, M. Al-Mumin, S. Pappert, H. Jin, and L. Guifang, “Optical generation of microwave/millimeter-wave signals using two-section gain-coupled DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(10), 1292–1294 (1999). [CrossRef]

17.

N. A. Naderi, F. Grillot, K. Yang, J. B. Wright, A. Gin, and L. F. Lester, “Two-color multi-section quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27028–27035 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

J. Huang, C. Sun, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, “Y-branch integrated dual wavelength laser diode for microwave generation by sideband injection locking,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20727–20734 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Laperle, M. Svilans, M. Poirier, and M. Tetu, “Frequency multiplication of microwave signals by sideband optical injection locking using a monolithic dual-wavelength DFB laser device,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47(7), 1219–1224 (1999). [CrossRef]

20.

N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H.-C. Ryu, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, D. Lee, M. Y. Jeon, and K. H. Park, “Distributed feedback laser diode integrated with distributed Bragg reflector for continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17496–17502 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

N. Kim, J. Shin, E. Sim, C. W. Lee, D.-S. Yee, M. Y. Jeon, Y. Jang, and K. H. Park, “Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13851–13859 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

G. Carpintero, K. Balakier, Z. Yang, R. C. Guzman, A. Corradi, A. Jimenez, G. Kervella, M. J. Fice, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. van Dijk, C. C. Renaud, A. Wonfor, E. A. J. M. Bente, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. J. Seeds, “Photonic integrated circuits for millimeter-wave wireless communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. (2014).

23.

M. Zanola, M. J. Strain, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Monolithically integrated DFB lasers for tunable and narrow linewidth millimeter-wave generation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500406 (2013). [CrossRef]

24.

D. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, and Y. Luo, “Suppression of chaos in integrated twin DFB lasers for millimeter-wave generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2444–2451 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

C. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Zhu, and W. Wang, “Widely tunable dual-mode distributed feedback laser fabricated by selective area growth technology integrated with Ti heaters,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3050–3053 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

M. Soldo, N. Gibbons, and G. Giuliani, “Narrow linewidth mm-wave signal generation based on two phase-locked DFB lasers mutually coupled via four wave mixing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, Maryland, 2009), p. JThE32. [CrossRef]

27.

C.-Y. Chien, Y.-H. Lo, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Hsu, H.-R. Tseng, and C.-C. Lin, “Compact photonic integrated chip for tunable microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(5), 490–493 (2014). [CrossRef]

28.

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, and T. Saitoh, “Nearly degenerate four‐wave mixing in a traveling‐wave semiconductor laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(14), 1051–1053 (1987). [CrossRef]

29.

C.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Chien, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-T. Lin, “Evaluation of tunable microwave signals generated by monolithic two-section distributed feedback lasers,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, San Jose, California, 2013), p. JTh2A.104.

30.

J.-M. Liu and T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]

31.

I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988).

32.

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, and G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–793 (1985).

33.

A. Hurtado, J. Mee, M. Nami, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, and L. F. Lester, “Tunable microwave signal generator with an optically-injected 1310 nm QD-DFB laser,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10772–10778 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

34.

C.-C. Lin, G. Yoffe, M. Emanuel, S. Rishton, D. Ton, S. Zou, B. Lu, and B. Pezeshki, “Monolithically integrated high speed DFB BH laser arrays for 10Gbbased LX4 application,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, Anaheim, California, 2006), p. OWI84.

35.

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, and P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51(5), 4181–4185 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

Y. Kotaki, S. Ogita, M. Matsuda, Y. Kuwahara, and H. Ishikawa, “Tunable, narrow-linewidth and high-power lambda /4-shifted DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 25(15), 990–992 (1989). [CrossRef]

37.

B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, and R. Drullinger, “Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers by resonant optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 12(11), 876–878 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

38.

K. Petermann, “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 480–489 (1995). [CrossRef]

39.

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, “Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1005–1007 (2007). [CrossRef]

40.

P. Gallion, G. Debarge, and C. Chabran, “Output spectrum of an unlocked optically driven semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 294–296 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

41.

J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, and E. O. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45(3), 1893–1905 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

42.

V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, and J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2780–2782 (1995). [CrossRef]

43.

S.-C. Chan, S.-K. Hwang, and J.-M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14921–14935 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

44.

T. B. Simpson and J. M. Liu, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of nearly degenerate four‐wave mixing in Fabry–Perot semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(5), 2587–2589 (1993). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(350.4010) Other areas of optics : Microwaves
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: March 24, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 10, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 11, 2014
Published: May 22, 2014

Citation
Yen-Hua Lo, Yu-Chang Wu, Shun-Chieh Hsu, Yi-Chia Hwang, Bai-Ci Chen, and Chien-Chung Lin, "Tunable microwave generation of a monolithic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser," Opt. Express 22, 13125-13137 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-11-13125


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. G. J. Simonis, K. G. Purchase, “Optical generation, distribution, and control of microwaves using laser heterodyne,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38(5), 667–669 (1990). [CrossRef]
  2. X.-Q. Qi, J.-M. Liu, “Photonic microwave applications of the dynamics of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1198–1211 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
  4. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(4), 506–538 (2013). [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Seeds, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. M. J. Fice, E. Rouvalis, F. van Dijk, A. Accard, F. Lelarge, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, A. J. Seeds, “146-GHz millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber photonic wireless transmission system,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1769–1774 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J.-M. Liu, H.-F. Chen, S. Tang, “Synchronized chaotic optical communications at high bit rates,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1184–1196 (2002).
  8. A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, K. Atsuki, “Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196–1204 (2003).
  9. L. Chrostowski, Z. Xiaoxue, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54(2), 788–796 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. U. Feiste, D. J. As, A. Ehrhardt, “18 GHz all-optical frequency locking and clock recovery using a self-pulsating two-section DFB-laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(1), 106–108 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. G. J. Schneider, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, “Radiofrequency signal-generation system with over seven octaves of continuous tuning,” Nat. Photon. 7(2), 118–122 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. Y.-S. Juan, F.-Y. Lin, “Photonic generation of broadly tunable microwave signals utilizing a dual-beam optically injected semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(4), 644–650 (2011). [CrossRef]
  13. G. E. Villanueva, P. Perez-Millan, J. Palaci, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, J. Marti, “Dual-wavelength DFB erbium-doped fiber laser with tunable wavelength spacing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(4), 254–256 (2010). [CrossRef]
  14. G. E. Villanueva, J. Palací, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Martí, P. Pérez-Millán, “High frequency microwave signal generation using dual-wavelength emission of cascaded DFB fiber lasers with wavelength spacing tunability,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5165–5168 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. B. Sartorius, M. Mohrle, U. Feiste, “12-64 GHz continuous frequency tuning in self-pulsating 1.55-mm multiquantum-well DFB lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 535–538 (1995). [CrossRef]
  16. X. Wang, W. Mao, M. Al-Mumin, S. Pappert, H. Jin, L. Guifang, “Optical generation of microwave/millimeter-wave signals using two-section gain-coupled DFB lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(10), 1292–1294 (1999). [CrossRef]
  17. N. A. Naderi, F. Grillot, K. Yang, J. B. Wright, A. Gin, L. F. Lester, “Two-color multi-section quantum dot distributed feedback laser,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27028–27035 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Huang, C. Sun, B. Xiong, Y. Luo, “Y-branch integrated dual wavelength laser diode for microwave generation by sideband injection locking,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20727–20734 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Laperle, M. Svilans, M. Poirier, M. Tetu, “Frequency multiplication of microwave signals by sideband optical injection locking using a monolithic dual-wavelength DFB laser device,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47(7), 1219–1224 (1999). [CrossRef]
  20. N. Kim, S.-P. Han, H.-C. Ryu, H. Ko, J.-W. Park, D. Lee, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Park, “Distributed feedback laser diode integrated with distributed Bragg reflector for continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17496–17502 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Kim, J. Shin, E. Sim, C. W. Lee, D.-S. Yee, M. Y. Jeon, Y. Jang, K. H. Park, “Monolithic dual-mode distributed feedback semiconductor laser for tunable continuous-wave terahertz generation,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13851–13859 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Carpintero, K. Balakier, Z. Yang, R. C. Guzman, A. Corradi, A. Jimenez, G. Kervella, M. J. Fice, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. van Dijk, C. C. Renaud, A. Wonfor, E. A. J. M. Bente, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, and A. J. Seeds, “Photonic integrated circuits for millimeter-wave wireless communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. (2014).
  23. M. Zanola, M. J. Strain, G. Giuliani, M. Sorel, “Monolithically integrated DFB lasers for tunable and narrow linewidth millimeter-wave generation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1500406 (2013). [CrossRef]
  24. D. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, Y. Luo, “Suppression of chaos in integrated twin DFB lasers for millimeter-wave generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2444–2451 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. Zhang, S. Liang, H. Zhu, W. Wang, “Widely tunable dual-mode distributed feedback laser fabricated by selective area growth technology integrated with Ti heaters,” Opt. Lett. 38(16), 3050–3053 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Soldo, N. Gibbons, and G. Giuliani, “Narrow linewidth mm-wave signal generation based on two phase-locked DFB lasers mutually coupled via four wave mixing,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Baltimore, Maryland, 2009), p. JThE32. [CrossRef]
  27. C.-Y. Chien, Y.-H. Lo, Y.-C. Wu, S.-C. Hsu, H.-R. Tseng, C.-C. Lin, “Compact photonic integrated chip for tunable microwave generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(5), 490–493 (2014). [CrossRef]
  28. K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, “Nearly degenerate four‐wave mixing in a traveling‐wave semiconductor laser amplifier,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(14), 1051–1053 (1987). [CrossRef]
  29. C.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Chien, Y.-C. Wu, H.-C. Kuo, and C.-T. Lin, “Evaluation of tunable microwave signals generated by monolithic two-section distributed feedback lasers,” in CLEO: 2013 (Optical Society of America, San Jose, California, 2013), p. JTh2A.104.
  30. J.-M. Liu, T. B. Simpson, “Four-wave mixing and optical modulation in a semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30(4), 957–965 (1994). [CrossRef]
  31. I. Petitbon, P. Gallion, G. Debarge, C. Chabran, “Locking bandwidth and relaxation oscillations of an injection-locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 148–154 (1988).
  32. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, “Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 784–793 (1985).
  33. A. Hurtado, J. Mee, M. Nami, I. D. Henning, M. J. Adams, L. F. Lester, “Tunable microwave signal generator with an optically-injected 1310 nm QD-DFB laser,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10772–10778 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. C.-C. Lin, G. Yoffe, M. Emanuel, S. Rishton, D. Ton, S. Zou, B. Lu, and B. Pezeshki, “Monolithically integrated high speed DFB BH laser arrays for 10Gbbased LX4 application,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (Optical Society of America, Anaheim, California, 2006), p. OWI84.
  35. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, P. M. Alsing, “Period-doubling cascades and chaos in a semiconductor laser with optical injection,” Phys. Rev. A 51(5), 4181–4185 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Y. Kotaki, S. Ogita, M. Matsuda, Y. Kuwahara, H. Ishikawa, “Tunable, narrow-linewidth and high-power lambda /4-shifted DFB laser,” Electron. Lett. 25(15), 990–992 (1989). [CrossRef]
  37. B. Dahmani, L. Hollberg, R. Drullinger, “Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers by resonant optical feedback,” Opt. Lett. 12(11), 876–878 (1987). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. K. Petermann, “External optical feedback phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(2), 480–489 (1995). [CrossRef]
  39. H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, M. C. Wu, “Optical single sideband modulation using strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(13), 1005–1007 (2007). [CrossRef]
  40. P. Gallion, G. Debarge, C. Chabran, “Output spectrum of an unlocked optically driven semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 294–296 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Sacher, D. Baums, P. Panknin, W. Elsässer, E. O. Göbel, “Intensity instabilities of semiconductor lasers under current modulation, external light injection, and delayed feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 45(3), 1893–1905 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. V. Kovanis, A. Gavrielides, T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, “Instabilities and chaos in optically injected semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(19), 2780–2782 (1995). [CrossRef]
  43. S.-C. Chan, S.-K. Hwang, J.-M. Liu, “Period-one oscillation for photonic microwave transmission using an optically injected semiconductor laser,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14921–14935 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, “Phase and amplitude characteristics of nearly degenerate four‐wave mixing in Fabry–Perot semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(5), 2587–2589 (1993). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited