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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 11 — Jun. 2, 2014
  • pp: 13625–13633
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Picosecond supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic white-light interferometry with freely adjustable pulse repetition rate

Steffen Novotny, Vasuki Durairaj, Igor Shavrin, Lauri Lipiäinen, Kimmo Kokkonen, Matti Kaivola, and Hanne Ludvigsen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 11, pp. 13625-13633 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.013625


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Abstract

We present a picosecond supercontinuum light source designed for stroboscopic white-light interferometry. This source offers a potential for high-resolution characterization of vibrational fields in electromechanical components with frequencies up to the GHz range. The light source concept combines a gain-switched laser diode, the output of which is amplified in a two-stage fiber amplifier, with supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber. Implemented in our white-light interferometer setup, optical pulses with optimized spectral properties and below 310 ps duration are used for stroboscopic illumination at freely adjustable repetition rates. The performance of the source is demonstrated by characterizing the surface vibration field of a square-plate silicon MEMS resonator at 3.37 MHz. A minimum detectable vibration amplitude of less than 100 pm is reached.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

White-light interferometry (WLI) is a well established and widely used optical method for non-contact 3D profiling of static surface features with a height range extending from the nanometer up to the millimeter scale [1

1. B. S. Lee and T. C. Strand, “Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3784–3788 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In contrast to laser interferometry, WLI makes use of a broad spectrum of the light source. The limited coherence length of the light results in a spatially localized interference pattern, which can be used for unambiguous mapping of the surface topography. The broader the light spectrum, the more localized is the fringe pattern. In practice, a minimum coherence length of about 1μm can be reached, which enables a surface height determination with a precision of tens of nanometers [3

3. I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The resolution of the surface profiling can, however, be further improved by combining the fringe envelope location measurement with the phase information of the interferometric signal [4

4. P. de Groot and L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995). [CrossRef]

]. Through this approach surface height features even down to the sub-nanometer scale can be identified by WLI [4

4. P. de Groot and L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995). [CrossRef]

7

7. P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, and M. Turzhitsky, “Determination of fringe order in white-light interference microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4571–4578 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. While broadening the spectrum of the light source does improve the position determination of the fringe envelope, it will decrease the resolution obtainable from the interferometric phase [6

6. M. Fleischer, R. Windecker, and H. J. Tiziani, “Theoretical limits of scanning white-light interferometry signal evaluation algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2815–2820 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. High-resolution WLI will therefore require a proper composition of the spectral properties of the light source. Even the spectrum of a LED source can actually give a close match to this [8

8. I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

White-light interferometry is not, however, restricted to static measurements, but also surface vibration fields can be measured with the use of stroboscopic illumination. Imaging with short enough light pulses, which are synchronized to the surface vibrations, effectively ”freezes” the mechanical motion and thus enables the use of static optical profiling techniques [9

9. S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001). [CrossRef]

11

11. S. Petitgrand and A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. By repeating the measurement for different phase delays between the vibrations and the light pulses, periodic vibrational motion can be characterized. Although the technique of high-resolution WLI is well known, many of the published results on stroboscopic WLI have been limited to the measurement of low-frequency (up to a few MHz), high-amplitude (several μm) vibrations with a detection limit of 10 – 100 nm [9

9. S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001). [CrossRef]

, 12

12. L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, and C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, and E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

In order to extend stroboscopic WLI also to the research of high-frequency electromechanical devices, for which the typical maximum amplitudes are below 1 nm and the operation frequencies can extend up to several GHz, a significant improvement of the minimum detectable amplitude and also shorter illumination pulses down to the picosesond range are required. As a first step, we have recently achieved a detection limit below 100 pm [8

8. I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] using LED-based stroboscopic WLI with 8 ns optical pulses. This detection limit is comparable to that of full-field laser interferometry [14

14. K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, and J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]

] currently employed for vibration measurements at high frequencies. Obtaining significantly shorter pulses with high enough power from such a source remains, however, a technical challenge.

Supercontinuum sources have already demonstrated their potential to stroboscopic WLI with nanosecond long pulses [13

13. P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, and E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. On the other hand, shorter pulses with spectra extending over a few octaves are typically realized by launching femtosecond pulses from a mode-locked laser into a microstructured optical fiber (MOF). Mode-locked lasers, however, have as a drawback a pulse repetition rate with a narrow tuning range, which is not well suited for the characterization of a wide range of electromechanical devices. Gain-switched laser diodes therefore present a promising alternative as they can provide picosecond optical pulses with freely adjustable repetition rates. Combined with an all-fiber based amplifier, the low-power output of the laser diode can be amplified to high peak-power pulses emitted with excellent beam quality [15

15. P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006). [CrossRef]

18

18. A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2μm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1615–1617 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such a laser source has drawn great interest for many applications, including also the realization of versatile supercontinuum light sources [19

19. S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum with 1550-nm amplified diode-laser pulses and a dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 270–278 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21

21. T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, and R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013). [CrossRef]

].

In this paper, we present a supercontinuum light source developed for stroboscopic WLI measurements of vibration fields in electromechanical devices. The source is based on supercontinuum generation (SCG) and it emits broadband picosecond light pulses at a freely adjustable repetition rate up to 50 MHz. The all-fiber pump source consists of a gain-switched laser diode whose output pulses are amplified in a two-stage Ytterbium-doped polarization maintaining fiber (YDPMF) amplifier. A part of the amplified output pulse is frequency doubled and launched together with the remaining fundamental output into a MOF for SCG. Through this dual-wavelength pumping scheme [22

22. P.-A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, C. Froehly, and P. Nérin, “White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system,” Opt. Express 12, 4366–4371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] the supercontinuum develops not only in the infrared but generates already at low pump powers a broadband visible part. Here, the visible spectrum is utilized for stroboscopic WLI.

The performance is demonstrated by measuring vibration fields in a square-plate silicon MEMS resonator [24

24. A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, and K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

, 25

25. L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, and M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012). [CrossRef]

] at 3.37 MHz. A minimum detectable amplitude of less than 100 pm is achieved. Together with illumination times shorter than 310 ps, the performance opens up a possibility for characterization of vibration fields even up to the GHz range when illuminating the surface motion at the nth subharmonic of the vibrational frequency, with n being an integer number [13

13. P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, and E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Supercontinuum source setup and characterization

Tailoring the design of a supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic high-resolution WLI requires both optimized spectral properties as well as a freely adjustable pulse repetition rate over a wide frequency range for vibration field characterization. Ideally, the spectra of the supercontinuum pulses used for WLI should remain unchanged at different pulse repetition rates. This requires that the amplified pulses from the pump source should have the same peak power independent of their repetition rate. Furthermore, their peak power should be balanced, on the one hand, to be sufficiently high for efficient SCG in a MOF, while, on the other hand, their corresponding average power at high repetition rates should remain low in order to minimize heating-induced changes in the free-space coupling to the MOF.

The supercontinuum light source is schematically presented in Fig. 1. The optical pulses emitted from a gain-switched laser diode are amplified in a two-stage, all-fiber, Yb-doped fiber amplifier to kW peak powers. After frequency-doubling a part of the output, optical pulses at 1064 nm and 532 nm are both launched into a MOF to generate a supercontinuum spectrum through a dual-wavelength pumping scheme [22

22. P.-A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, C. Froehly, and P. Nérin, “White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system,” Opt. Express 12, 4366–4371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 23

23. E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Compared to the more than 10 kW typically required for supercontinuum generation with single-wavelength pump pulses at 1064 nm only (see e.g. [20

20. K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]), coupled pump powers of 1 kW or even less will already be sufficient for visible light generation to wavelengths below 500 nm through this dual-wavelength approach.

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the picosecond supercontinuum light source. Picosecond optical pulses emitted by a gain-switched laser diode are amplified in a two-stage YDPMF amplifier. A part of the amplified optical pulse is frequency doubled in a KTP nonlinear crystal before both the 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths are coupled into a microstructured optical fiber (MOF). OI - optical isolator; BPF - 1064 nm bandpass filter; CPS - cladding power stripper; SM - single-mode; MM - multi-mode.

The polarization maintaining (PM), fiber-coupled, gain-switched laser diode (PICOPOWER-LD-1064-FC-SF-50, ALPHALAS GmbH) can be synchronized with an external trigger to generate optical pulses at freely selectable repetition rates ranging from a single shot up to 50 MHz. The pulse jitter compared to the external trigger signal is specified to be smaller than 6 ps. The single-frequency laser pulses have the maximum spectral output power at a wavelength of 1063.4 nm with a full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of below 0.25 nm and a temporal pulse width shorter than 50 ps. The average power scales with the selected pulse repetition rate and reaches, for instance, 20 μW at 1 MHz, which corresponds to a pulse peak power of about 400 mW.

In order to increase the pulse peak powers to the kW range, a two-stage, all-fiber, Yb-doped fiber amplifier was designed. The amplifier chain is directly spliced together to allow for maximum mechanical stability and efficient power coupling. An all-PM-fiber approach is used to ensure stable polarization of the output light. The mode-field diameter in the core is scaled to a value which allows avoiding possible nonlinear spectral broadening already in the amplifier chain, while still maintaining a single-mode operation. A fiber-coupled PM optical isolator combined with a 1064 nm-bandpass filter precedes each amplification stage to prevent the backward propagation of light and to reduce the amount of amplified spontaneous emission.

The first amplifier stage consists of a 1.0 m long single-mode YDPMF (core mode-field diameter: 6.0 μm; cladding diameter: 125 μm; LIEKKI™ Yb700-6/125-PM) which is core-pumped in forward direction at a wavelength of 974.5 nm with a fiber-Bragg-grating-stabilized single-mode pump laser module. The amplifier stage provides at a coupled pump power of 140 mW a gain of 15 dB to optical pulses at 1 MHz.

The second stage is a 2.5 m long single-mode double-cladding YDPMF with an increased fiber core diameter of 12.5 μm (cladding diameter: 125.0 μm; LIEKKI™ Yb1200-12/125DC-PM). The active fiber is cladding-pumped in backward direction by a multimode pump laser module at a wavelength of 976.0 nm. The average output powers measured for three selected pulse repetition rates are presented in Fig. 2(a) as a function of the second stage coupled pump power. The emitted average power exceeds 12 W at 50 MHz and a coupled pump power of 15 W, corresponding to a gain of about 30 dB and a slope efficiency of 87 %. In comparison, at 1 MHz a similar gain is already reached at a coupled pump power of 2.6 W. The slope efficiency, however, decreases with decreasing pulse repetition rate due to amplified spontaneous emission. The respective pulse peak powers at the amplifier output are estimated from the measured average powers by assuming a Gaussian-shaped temporal pulse profile and a temporal pulse width of 50 ps, see Fig. 2(b). The laser source generates picosecond optical pulses with peak powers exceeding 5 kW up to repetition rates of 50 MHz. By decreasing the pulse repetition rate, even higher peak powers can be achieved, reaching, for instance, at 1 MHz up to 15 kW. Nonlinear spectral broadening in the amplifier is under these conditions largely avoided. For instance, at a peak power of 10 kW, the spectral width of the pulses is only increased by a factor of two compared to the output spectrum of the gain-switched laser diode (Fig. 2(c)).

Fig. 2 (a) Measured average and (b) corresponding estimated peak signal output power as a function of the coupled second stage pump power for different pulse repetition rates. (c) The optical spectra of the pulses emitted from the gain-switched laser diode (solid line, 400 mW peak power) and of amplified optical pulses with 10 kW peak power (dashed line) are shown for a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz.

The light emitted from the last amplifier stage is collimated and then passed through a free-space 1064 nm bandpass filter and optical isolator. Subsequently, a part of the output is frequency-doubled in a 5 mm long KTP crystal with a conversion efficiency of about 22 %. Both the 532 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are then coupled into a 7 m long MOF using a microscope objective. The coupling of the wavelengths into the MOF depends on the objective’s transmission and on the longitudinal fiber alignment due to chromatic aberration of the objective, yielding at the input of the MOF approximately an efficiency of 9% at 532 nm and 17.5% at 1064 nm for the presented measurements. The geometry of the custom made silica MOF (triangular grid of holes with pitch Λ = 1.55μm and relative hole size of d/Λ = 0.7) has been chosen such that the first zero dispersion wavelength is located between the two pump wavelengths at 778 nm (see also [23

23. E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]). The inverse group velocity β1 and the group velocity dispersion β2 are β1 = 4.985 · 10−9 s/m and β2 = −5.079 · 10−26 s2/m at 532 nm and β1 = 4.971 · 10−9 s/m and β2 = −5.652 · 10−26 s2/m at 1064 nm.

The measured spectra at the output of the MOF are shown in Fig. 3(a) for different coupled peak powers at a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz. The infrared pump at 1064 nm initiates the generation of a continuum towards longer wavelengths only, driven by soliton dynamics. In the visible, however, the interaction of the infrared solitons with the visible pump causes the development of a blue-shifted continuum down to about 450 nm through cascaded cross-phase modulation [23

23. E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Above coupled peak powers of P532 = 40 W and P1064 = 280 W for the 532 nm and 1064 nm pump pulses, respectively, the wavelength dependence of the spectra remains almost independent of the pump power. Furthermore, comparing the supercontinuum spectra measured at different pulse repetition rates in Fig. 3(b), nearly identical spectra at a given coupled pulse peak power (P532 = 60 W and P1064 = 420 W) are recorded, only with an increased power spectral density. The supercontinuum source allows operation both in the infrared and the visible, depending on the application.

Fig. 3 Supercontinuum spectra measured for (a) different coupled peak powers at a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz and (b) different pulse repetition rates at a coupled peak power of P532 = 60 W and P1064 = 420 W, showing that the shape of the spectra remain constant.

3. Application of the source to stroboscopic high-resolution white-light interferometry

Fig. 4 The supercontinuum optical pulses emitted by the source are first spectrally filtered by a bandpass filter (BPF) and guided through a multi-mode fiber (MM-fiber) before illuminating the sample in our stroboscopic white-light interferometer setup. A function generator drives the MEMS sample and provides the synchronization signal for the light source. The insets show the measured average (a) temporal and (b) spectral properties of the optical pulses at the interferometer input at 1 MHz repetition rate.

Fig. 5 The measured (a) amplitude and (b) phase data for the 3.37 MHz vibration mode are presented. In (c) a schematic view of the square-plate silicon MEMS resonator is shown together with a 3D view of the instantaneous surface deformation obtained by combining amplitude and phase data at maximum deflection of the plate center.

4. Conclusions

We have presented the concept and performance of a picosecond pulsed supercontinuum light source which has been developed for stroboscopic high-resolution white-light interferometry.

The optical spectrum of the supercontinuum pulses allows, in principle, the operation both in the infrared and the visible. While here only the visible part of the generated supercontinuum spectrum was utilized for stroboscopic white-light interferometry, the infrared part could, for instance, find application in through-silicon characterization of static or dynamic electromechanical devices [26

26. K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. The presented spectral properties of the light source enabled us to obtain high resolution surface profiles by taking advantage of both the interferometric fringe localization in low-coherence interferometry and the phase information of the interferometric signal. The achieved minimum detectable amplitude of less than 100 pm corresponds to the current state-of-the-art level obtained in stroboscopic WLI and is comparable to the performance of full-field laser interferometry [14

14. K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, and J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]

].

Our approach enables freely adjustable pulse repetition rates up to 50 MHz in synchronization with a vibration frequency of interest. Importantly, the optical pulses used for the stroboscopic illumination were measured to be shorter than 310 ps.

The picosecond illumination pulses together with the excellent amplitude resolution, opens up a possibility to utilize stroboscopic white-light interferometry for the study of high-frequency vibration fields in electromechanical devices even up to the GHz range.

Acknowledgments

This work has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland as part of the ”Photonics and Modern Imaging Techniques” research programme (project 134857). IS thanks the Graduate School of Modern Optics and Photonics. The authors thank VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland for collaboration and providing the sample. We are grateful to Teemu Kokki at nLIGHT for technical support and to Dr. Kay Nyholm (MIKES) for generous loan of experimental equipment.

References and links

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2.

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I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, and E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

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A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, and J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000). [CrossRef]

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7.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, and M. Turzhitsky, “Determination of fringe order in white-light interference microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4571–4578 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, and J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001). [CrossRef]

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11.

S. Petitgrand and A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003). [CrossRef]

12.

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, and C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009). [CrossRef]

13.

P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, and E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, and J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003). [CrossRef]

15.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006). [CrossRef]

16.

K. K. Chen, J. H. V. Price, S.-U. Alam, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, and D. J. Richardson, “Polarisation maintaining 100W Yb-fiber MOPA producing μJ pulses tunable in duration from 1 to 21 ps,” Opt. Express 18, 14385–14394 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

S. Kanzelmeyer, H. Sayinc, T. Theeg, M. Frede, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “All-fiber based amplification of 40 ps pulses from a gain-switched laser diode,” Opt. Express 19, 1854–1859 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2μm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1615–1617 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum with 1550-nm amplified diode-laser pulses and a dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 270–278 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, and D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, and R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013). [CrossRef]

22.

P.-A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, C. Froehly, and P. Nérin, “White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system,” Opt. Express 12, 4366–4371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, and K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

25.

L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, and M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012). [CrossRef]

26.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, and E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(180.3170) Microscopy : Interference microscopy
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(110.3175) Imaging systems : Interferometric imaging
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: April 16, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 22, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 23, 2014
Published: May 29, 2014

Citation
Steffen Novotny, Vasuki Durairaj, Igor Shavrin, Lauri Lipiäinen, Kimmo Kokkonen, Matti Kaivola, and Hanne Ludvigsen, "Picosecond supercontinuum light source for stroboscopic white-light interferometry with freely adjustable pulse repetition rate," Opt. Express 22, 13625-13633 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-11-13625


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  19. S. Moon, D. Y. Kim, “Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum with 1550-nm amplified diode-laser pulses and a dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 270–278 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013). [CrossRef]
  22. P.-A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, C. Froehly, P. Nérin, “White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system,” Opt. Express 12, 4366–4371 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.
  25. L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013). [CrossRef]

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