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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 11 — Jun. 2, 2014
  • pp: 13811–13824
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A highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced and conventional dielectrophoresis

Yen-Heng Lin, Kai-Siang Ho, Chin-Tien Yang, Jung-Hao Wang, and Chao-Sung Lai  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 11, pp. 13811-13824 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.013811


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Abstract

The number and position of assembled nanowires cannot be controlled using most nanowire sensor assembling methods. In this paper, we demonstrate a high-yield, highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) and conventional dielectrophoresis (DEP). With the ODEP platform, optical images can be used as virtual electrodes to locally turn on a non-contact DEP force and manipulate a micron- or nano-scale substance suspended in fluid. Nanowires were first moved next to the previously deposited metal electrodes using optical images and, then, were attracted to and arranged in the gap between two electrodes through DEP forces generated by switching on alternating current signals to the metal electrodes. A single nanowire can be assembled within 24 seconds using this approach. In addition, the number of nanowires in a single nanowire sensor can be controlled, and the assembly of a single nanowire on each of the adjacent electrodes can also be achieved. The electrical properties of the assembled nanowires were characterized by IV curve measurement. Additionally, the contact resistance between the nanowires and electrodes and the stickiness between the nanowires and substrates were further investigated in this study.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Because of the high surface area-to-volume ratio, nanowires are widely used in various fields. For example, they are used in field effect transistors (FETs) to replace the conventional carrier channel in planar FETs [1

1. Y. Wan, J. Sha, B. Chen, Y. Fang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Nanodevices based on silicon nanowires,” Recent Pat. Nanotechnol. 3(1), 1–9 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. D. I. Suh, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Hyung, T. H. Kim, and S. K. Lee, “Multiple ZnO nanowires field-effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(4), 1276–1281 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In other studies, nanowires are used in solar cells [3

3. J. C. Shin, P. K. Mohseni, K. J. Yu, S. Tomasulo, K. H. Montgomery, M. L. Lee, J. A. Rogers, and X. Li, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAs nanowires on the rear surface of Si solar cells for efficiency enhancement,” ACS Nano 6(12), 11074–11079 (2012). [PubMed]

,4

4. Y. Hu, R. R. Lapierre, M. Li, K. Chen, and J. J. He, “Optical characteristics of GaAs nanowire solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 104311 (2012). [CrossRef]

], fuel cells [5

5. M. Han, S. Liu, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Tu, Z. Dai, and J. Bao, “Synthesis of octopus-tentacle-like Cu nanowire-Ag nanocrystals heterostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(12), 6654–6660 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and displays [6

6. T. Lim, S. J. Ahn, M. Suh, O. K. Kwon, M. Meyyappan, and S. Ju, “A nanowire-based shift register for display scan drivers,” Nanotechnology 22(40), 405203 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition, there are many advantages and potential developmental uses of nanowires in biomedical sensors [7

7. F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire-based biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4260–4269 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species,” Nat. Protoc. 1(4), 1711–1724 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; compared with planar structures, nanowires can provide more surface area for the same volume and, thus, can effectively reflect changes in surface potential when charged ions or molecules attach to the nanowire surface. For example, in a literature review [11

11. K. I. Chen, B. R. Li, and Y. T. Chen, “Silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based biosensors for biomedical diagnosis and cellular recording investigation,” Nano Today 6(2), 131–154 (2011). [CrossRef]

], a bioreceptor-modified nanowire (e.g., modified with antibodies or single-strand DNA) was used to detect protein-protein interactions, DNA hybridization, and protein biomarkers. These biomedical sensors have excellent detection performance, such as the ability to detect very low concentrations and instantaneous signal measurements, indicating that nanowire sensors have advantages such as high sensitivity, real time response and label-free detection.

In general, the fabrication of nanowire sensors can be divided into two categories, top down and bottom up. The former processing route often involves the following steps. First, the needed material is deposited, and then electron-beam lithography is used to define the dimensions of the nanowires; finally, the nanowires are etched. The advantage of this route is the cost saving in mass production because of its compatibility with the semiconductor fabrication process. The drawback of this route is that it might be limited by the materials that can be deposited and the line width of the photolithography and etching techniques; the fabrication equipment has higher requirements [12

12. S. Choi, I. Park, Z. Hao, H. Y. N. Holman, and A. P. Pisano, “Quantitative studies of long-term stable, top-down fabricated silicon nanowire pH sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 107(2), 421–428 (2012). [CrossRef]

,13

13. A. Agarwal, K. Buddharaju, I. K. Lao, N. Singh, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon nanowire sensor array using top–down CMOS technology, ” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys. 145–146, 207–213 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. The bottom up approach involves first fabricating nanowires by chemical synthesis, such as silicon [14

14. A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber, “A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires,” Science 279(5348), 208–211 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. Y. Cui, L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Diameter-controlled synthesis of single-crystal silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2214–2216 (2001). [CrossRef]

], zinc oxide [16

16. L. Vayssieres, “Growth of arrayed nanorods and nanowires of ZnO from aqueous solutions,” Adv. Mater. 15(5), 464–466 (2003). [CrossRef]

,17

17. X. Zhang, Y. Chen, T. Guo, L. Liu, M. Wei, Q. Li, C. Jia, and Y. Su, “Zn-catalysed growth and optical properties of modulated ZnO hierarchical nanostructures,” J. Exp. Nanosci. 7(5), 513–519 (2012). [CrossRef]

], copper oxide [18

18. G. Filipič and U. Cvelbar, “Copper oxide nanowires: A review of growth,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194001 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and silver nanowires [19

19. Y. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002). [CrossRef]

], and then using control technology to assemble the components. Therefore, the fabrication cost of the bottom up approach is lower than that of the top down approach. However, current technology has not yet solved remaining nanowire assembly issues, including how to manipulate the nanowire to move it to the desired position and how to control the number of nanowires assembled.

Methods of manipulating nanowires can be roughly divided into two categories, namely, contact and contactless manipulation. For example, the Langmuir Blodgett method is a contact manipulation method [20

20. S. Jin, D. Whang, M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, Y. Wu, and C. M. Lieber, “Scalable interconnection and integration of nanowire devices without registration,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 915–919 (2004). [CrossRef]

]: nanowires are uniaxially aligned at the air-water interface using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and then transferred in a single step to a planar substrate surface. However, this method can only be applied to hydrophilic substrates and cannot effectively control the number and arrangement direction of nanowires that adhere to the substrate surface. Other studies have used nanowire printing to print nanowires on the substrate [21

21. Y. L. Zhang, J. Li, S. To, Y. Zhang, X. Ye, L. You, and Y. Sun, “Automated nanomanipulation for nanodevice construction,” Nanotechnology 23(6), 065304 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]; metal electrodes are then deposited on both ends of the nanowire to fix it, and the electrodes are interconnected with some of the nanowires with random probability. Image analysis software is then used to determine the location of the nanowires in a high-magnification scanning electron microscope (SEM); finally, excess nanowires interconnecting the electrodes are removed using a probe to control the number of nanowires. This method is also a contact assembling method that can control the number of assembled nanowires. However, this method requires an SEM equipped with a precision probe platform to remove the excess nanowires; thus, the equipment requirement is high, and the operation is complex [22

22. J. Li, Y. Zhang, S. To, L. You, and Y. Sun, “Effect of nanowire number, diameter, and doping density on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6661–6668 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In contrast, optical tweezers, dielectrophoresis (DEP) force, and optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) force are forms of contactless manipulation. Optical tweezers manipulate objects by focusing a laser light on the object and can precisely manipulate a nanowire to the desired location. However, optical tweezers are prone to causing damage to the object manipulated because of the use of high-intensity laser light and require a sophisticated laser light source system and precision x-y stage [23

23. S. W. Lee, G. Jo, T. Lee, and Y. G. Lee, “Controlled assembly of In2O3 nanowires on electronic circuits using scanning optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17491–17501 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25

25. A. Irrera, P. Artoni, R. Saija, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, F. Borghese, P. Denti, F. Iacona, F. Priolo, and O. M. Maragò, “Size-Scaling in Optical Trapping of Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4879–4884 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Manipulation using DEP force involves inputting alternating current (AC) signals to form a non-uniform electric field on the metal electrode and manipulating the object using the force exerted on the object by the non-uniform electric field. This approach has the advantages of simple operation and an inexpensive, simple experimental set up. However, the controlling range of the DEP force will be limited by the location of the metal electrode deposited, and DEP force cannot precisely control the number of nanowires attracted, i.e., there is little flexibility in the operation [26

26. S. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, K. Ino, H. Shiku, T. Yao, and T. Matsue, “Microfluid-assisted dielectrophoretic alignment and device characterization of single ZnO wires,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(45), 19376–19381 (2009). [CrossRef]

28

28. Z. Wang, M. Kroener, and P. Woias, “Design and fabrication of a thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform and nanowire assembly by utilizing dielectrophoresis,” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys. 188, 417–426 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The use of ODEP force to manipulate nanowires was first proposed by Jamshidi et al. [29

29. A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 86–89 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In ODEP, dynamically reconfigurable virtual electrodes are generated on a photoconductive surface by projecting a suitable light pattern, and the sample is then manipulated by DEP forces acting in an inhomogeneous electric field; nanowires are manipulated by moving the light image. Jamshidi et al. successfully manipulated metal and semiconductor nanowires using ODEP force in their study. This method is contactless, uses a low-intensity light source, and makes it possible to dynamically manipulate objects by inputting different optical patterns. Thus, this approach has the advantage of great control flexibility. However, using ODEP force alone cannot effectively control the direction of horizontal nanowires after moving them to the target location and thus cannot effectively connect the nanowires to metal electrodes.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Principles of using ODEP force to control nanowires

2.2 Strategies to assemble nanowire sensors with high yield

2.3 Photoconductive material and metal electrode fabrication

Amorphous silicon was used as the photoconductive material in this study, and glass was used as the substrate. First, 70 nm of ITO was sputtered onto the glass as the transparent conductive layer. After annealing (240 degrees, 15 minutes), 10 nm of molybdenum (Mo) was sputtered on top to enhance the adhesion between the ITO and amorphous silicon and to reduce the contact resistance. Then, a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system was used to deposit 1 μm of amorphous silicon as the photoconductive layer. Finally, 100 nm of SiNx was deposited on top of the amorphous silicon using PECVD as an insulating layer to avoid current leakage. Then, the metal electrodes were fabricated using lift-off technology. First, the electrode pattern was defined by photolithography, and then, 30 nm of chromium was deposited as an adhesion layer using thermal evaporation. Later, 120 nm of gold was deposited as the electrode; finally, the photoresist was removed with acetone to remove excess metal. The distance between the two ends of the electrodes was 10 μm. After fabricating the metal electrodes, two pieces of ultra-thin double-sided adhesive (63 μm thick) (8018PT, 3M, USA) were fixed on the substrate, serving to define the height of the fluidic channel, and finally, the upper ITO conductive glass plate was used to cover the top. Then, the nanowire sensors were assembled by following the procedure proposed in 2.2.

2.4 Material preparation and experimental set-up

The silicon nanowires (Sigma-Aldrich Chemie GmbH, USA) used in this study were approximately 20 μm long and 150 nm in diameter. The nanowires were stored in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solution with an initial concentration of 106 wires per ml to avoid nanowire oxidation. However, we observed that the ODEP force was very small when using IPA as the manipulating solution; the solution evaporated faster, and the nanowires were prone to adhere to the substrate. Therefore, different proportions of IPA were replaced with de-ionized (DI) water (18 MΩ) in the experiment (see section 3.2 for details). Figure 3
Fig. 3 Schematic illustration of the ODEP platform set-up. A commercially available liquid crystal projector was used as the light source. An objective lens was used to collect and collimate the projector light onto the photoconductive layer, and two signal generators were connected to the ITO conductive layers on the upper and lower plates and to the metal electrodes on the substrate. The CCD camera above the chip was used to observe and record the manipulation in real time. The projector, together with a PC and animation software, was used to output optical images at different positions to manipulate the nanowires.
illustrates the entire ODEP platform set-up. In this study, a commercially available projector (PLC-XU350, Sanyo, Japan) was used as the light source, with an objective lens (UV Plan 50X, Nikon, Japan) to focus the projector's light, and projected onto the amorphous silicon to change its resistance. The projector was connected to a PC to use computer software to control the position of the projected light spot. Two signal generators (33210A, Agilent, USA) were connected to the ITO conductive layers on the upper and lower plates and to the metal electrodes to generate the ODEP and DEP forces. The imaging system was a microscope tube (Zoom 160, OPTEM, USA) with a 1/2” CCD camera (STC-620PMT, SENTECH, Japan), which can provide approximately 1.1 μm resolution. After connecting the nanowires, 200-nm-thick platinum was patterned at both ends of the nanowires using an FIB (Quanta 3D FEG, FEI, USA). Finally, the IV curve of the nanowire sensors was measured using a semiconductor characterization system (4200-SCS, Keithley, USA) to ensure the quality of the assembly.

2.5 Assessment of the lowest light intensity required to manipulate nanowires

The illumination of photoconductive material creates a virtual electrode, which is then used to generate an inhomogeneous electric field for dielectrophoretic manipulation. It is known that the conductivity of amorphous silicon increases with increasing illumination power intensity [30

30. A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, H. L. Phan, S. W. Sherwood, J. M. Yang, A. N. K. Lau, H. Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Optically controlled cell discrimination and trapping using optoelectronic tweezers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 235–243 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. Therefore, in our study, the lowest light intensity required by the system to manipulate nanowires was determined before assembling the nanowire sensors. The light intensity of the light source used in our study – a liquid crystal projector – can reach 3.98 μW μm−2 after focusing by a lens. Because we cannot linearly reduce the light intensity of the projector, neutral density filters (BX3-25ND25 and BX3-25ND6, Olympus, Japan) were used to reduce the light intensity to 25%, 6%, and 1.5% of the maximum light intensity, i.e., to the intensities of 1000 nW μm−2, 240 nW μm−2, and 60 nW μm−2, respectively. The manipulation test confirmed that when the light intensity was attenuated to be 1000 nW μm−2 or 240 nW μm−2, one could still effectively control the nanowires with the ODEP force. However, when the light intensity was attenuated to be approximately 60 nW μm−2, the ODEP force generated was too small to effectively control the nanowires. We estimated that the smallest power intensity that can be used to smoothly manipulate nanowires in the present setup was roughly 200 nW μm−2, which is approximately 104 times (estimated with 1 μm in laser spot diameter and 5 mW in power intensity) less than the light intensity required by optical tweezers to achieve a very similar nanowire manipulation function [23

23. S. W. Lee, G. Jo, T. Lee, and Y. G. Lee, “Controlled assembly of In2O3 nanowires on electronic circuits using scanning optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17491–17501 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Assembling nanowire sensors using a combination of ODEP and DEP forces

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 (a) A continuous movie showing the process connecting a single nanowire to multiple pairs of adjacent electrodes (Media 1). (b) Continuous filming of the process sequentially interconnecting a single pair of electrodes with multiple nanowires. The method can control the number of nanowires bridging the space between electrodes and can also connect single nanowires to multiple pairs of electrodes (Media 2).
presents an example of using this manipulation platform to connect a single nanowire to multiple pairs of adjacent electrodes. The ODEP force and DEP force described above were used in alternation to connect a single nanowire to adjacent electrodes sequentially. The assembling process is depicted in a movie (Media 1). In addition, the same method can also be used to assemble multiple nanowires to the same pair of electrodes. As observed in Fig. 5(b) (Media 2), nanowires scattered in the vicinity of the electrode were pulled, one by one, to the gap between the two electrodes by the light spot and were then attracted to arrange between the two electrodes by the DEP force. Compared with conventional methods, which use a DEP force or fluidic force alone, this method can significantly improve the success rate and flexibility of the assembly and control the number of nanowires to be connected. However, when using the ODEP force to manipulate nanowires, the electrostatic force between the substrate and nanowires can cause the nanowire to stick to the substrate, reducing the amount of nanowires that can be effectively controlled. In our study, this issue was addressed by changing the manipulating solution.

3.2 Effects of the DI water-to-IPA ratio and oxygen plasma treatment of SiNx on nanowire adhesion

3.3 I-V properties of nanowires with platinum patterned at both ends

Although the nanowires were successfully situated on top of the electrodes with the aid of ODEP, the currents passing to each nanowire had large variation due to poor electrical contact between the nanowires and electrode. In addition, the photolithography in the subsequent processing, which is needed for electrical insulation, may remove the connected nanowires. Therefore, after connecting the nanowires and evaporating the solution, platinum was patterned at both ends of the nanowire using an FIB system, such that the nanowire was clamped between the platinum and gold electrode. It was observed that an excessively high ion beam power could damage or even cut off the nanowire, resulting in an open circuit. Therefore, an ion beam with a voltage of 15 kV and a current of 30 pA was used to pattern the 200-nm-thick platinum at both ends of the nanowire. Figure 7(a)
Fig. 7 (a) SEM images of assembled nanowire sensors. After connecting the nanowires across the two ends of the electrode, platinum was patterned at both ends of the nanowires using an FIB system. (b) IV characteristic curve of the nanowire sensors before platinum patterning; the average coefficient of conductance variation was 82% (n = 8). (c) IV characteristic curve of nanowire sensors with patterned platinum; the average coefficient of conductance variation was 12% (n = 5). (d) After 30 days of operation, the signals of the nanowires were still stable, and the average coefficient of conductance variation was 10.82%.
shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a nanowire sensor with patterned platinum. Depositing platinum can enhance the quality and stability of nanowire interconnects. To obtain quantitative data, the IV characteristics of the nanowire sensors were measured with a Keithley 4200-SCS. Figure 7(b) and Fig. 7(c) present the IV characteristic curves before and after depositing platinum at both ends of the nanowires, respectively. The experimental data show that in addition to fixing the nanowires to metal electrodes, depositing platinum can also effectively improve the contact interface between the nanowire and metal electrode, resulting in more stable current conduction and more consistent assembly quality. The coefficient of conductance variation improved from 82% (n = 8) without deposited platinum to 12% (n = 5) with deposited platinum, and the contact resistance was significantly reduced. The average conductance increased from 3.26 pS before patterning the platinum to 59.88 pS after patterning the platinum. In addition, the lifetime of the assembled nanowire sensors – the number of days that the sensor can operate – was also assessed in our study. As shown in Fig. 7(d), the electrical properties were measured every 2 days from day 2 to day 28. The coefficient of conductance variation was approximately 10.82% for the 14 measurements, and the electrical signal can still be measured after 28 days (without SU-8 coating). In addition, the metal electrodes were covered using negative photoresist (SU-8 2005), and only the nanowires were exposed, such that the sensor could perform measurements in a wet environment. Figure 8
Fig. 8 Detection of solutions of different pH values using assembled nanowire sensors. The figure shows that under a fixed voltage, the current passing through the nanowire decreased with the increasing pH value of the solution. The inset shows that the conductance of the nanowire sensor was decreased with increasing pH values.
shows changes in the current of the nanowire when performing measurements in solutions with pH values of 6, 8, and 10. The figure indicates that the current passing through the nanowire decreased with increasing pH values of the solution. This result occurs because the hydrogen ions in the solution were adsorbed to the surface of the nanowires and thus changed the surface potential of the nanowires and further changed the conductance of the nanowires. The effect of hydrogen ion adsorption on the silica or silicon surface has been described by the site-binding model [33

33. C. D. Fung, P. W. Cheung, and W. H. Ko, “A generalized theory of an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 33(1), 8–18 (1986). [CrossRef]

]. Surface terminating –SiOH groups were formed on the silicon nanowires, which were then deprotonated to SiO-. Positively charged ions, such as hydrogen ions (H+), were then adsorbed on such charged sites to form surface complexes, which influenced the conductance of the silicon nanowires. The density of –SiOH groups on the nanowire surface determines its sensitivity to the hydrogen ions. Note that the pH measurement demonstrated in Fig. 8 was just a proof of concept that the assembled nanowire device could be used in a wet environment. Therefore, a complete verification of the stability and reproducibility of the wet environment measurement was not performed in this study. However, the decreasing trend of the current magnitude with increasing pH was ensured by several measurements. Our focus was to demonstrate a working device fabricated by the controlled assembly of nanowires using an ODEP platform; the measurements in a wet environment are still ongoing.

4. Conclusions

In this study, nanowire sensors were successfully assembled by the combination of ODEP and conventional DEP forces. This approach greatly increased the success rate of assembly compared with the conventional method of using only the DEP and fluidic drag forces and can control the number of nanowires to be assembled. In addition, our results indicate that the issue of nanowire adherence to the substrate can be effectively improved with a manipulating solution of pure DI water on an oxygen plasma-treated SiNx substrate. The proportion of nanowires that did not adhere and could thus be manipulated by the ODEP force was greater than 80%. In addition, the measurements also indicate that effective manipulation could still be performed at light intensities as low as approximately 200 nW μm−2, which is 30 times less than the light intensity required by optical tweezers. Depositing platinum at both ends of the nanowires after interconnecting improved the current signals and stabilized the signals of the nanowire sensors. Sensors with appropriate insulation were also successfully used for detection in wet environments. The method proposed in this study can be used to simultaneously assemble multiple pairs of electrodes, control the number of nanowires to be assembled, and provide an accurate and versatile nanowire sensor assembling platform.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan, Industrial Technology Research Institute, and Chang Gung University for financial support under Grant No. NSC 100-2221-E-182-021-MY3, GERPD2B0021, and UERPD2B0091.

References and links

1.

Y. Wan, J. Sha, B. Chen, Y. Fang, Z. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Nanodevices based on silicon nanowires,” Recent Pat. Nanotechnol. 3(1), 1–9 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

D. I. Suh, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Hyung, T. H. Kim, and S. K. Lee, “Multiple ZnO nanowires field-effect transistors,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(4), 1276–1281 (2008). [CrossRef]

3.

J. C. Shin, P. K. Mohseni, K. J. Yu, S. Tomasulo, K. H. Montgomery, M. L. Lee, J. A. Rogers, and X. Li, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAs nanowires on the rear surface of Si solar cells for efficiency enhancement,” ACS Nano 6(12), 11074–11079 (2012). [PubMed]

4.

Y. Hu, R. R. Lapierre, M. Li, K. Chen, and J. J. He, “Optical characteristics of GaAs nanowire solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(10), 104311 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Han, S. Liu, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, W. Tu, Z. Dai, and J. Bao, “Synthesis of octopus-tentacle-like Cu nanowire-Ag nanocrystals heterostructures and their enhanced electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(12), 6654–6660 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Lim, S. J. Ahn, M. Suh, O. K. Kwon, M. Meyyappan, and S. Ju, “A nanowire-based shift register for display scan drivers,” Nanotechnology 22(40), 405203 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire-based biosensors,” Anal. Chem. 78(13), 4260–4269 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Y. Zhang, L. Su, D. Manuzzi, H. V. de los Monteros, W. Jia, D. Huo, C. Hou, and Y. Lei, “Ultrasensitive and selective non-enzymatic glucose detection using copper nanowires,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31(1), 426–432 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

S. Hui, J. Zhang, X. Chen, H. Xu, D. Ma, Y. Liu, and B. Tao, “Study of an amperometric glucose sensor based on Pd–Ni/SiNW electrode,” Sensor Actuat. B-Chem. 155(2), 592–597 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

F. Patolsky, G. Zheng, and C. M. Lieber, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire devices for ultrasensitive, label-free, real-time detection of biological and chemical species,” Nat. Protoc. 1(4), 1711–1724 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

K. I. Chen, B. R. Li, and Y. T. Chen, “Silicon nanowire field-effect transistor-based biosensors for biomedical diagnosis and cellular recording investigation,” Nano Today 6(2), 131–154 (2011). [CrossRef]

12.

S. Choi, I. Park, Z. Hao, H. Y. N. Holman, and A. P. Pisano, “Quantitative studies of long-term stable, top-down fabricated silicon nanowire pH sensors,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 107(2), 421–428 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

A. Agarwal, K. Buddharaju, I. K. Lao, N. Singh, N. Balasubramanian, and D. L. Kwong, “Silicon nanowire sensor array using top–down CMOS technology, ” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys. 145–146, 207–213 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

A. M. Morales and C. M. Lieber, “A laser ablation method for the synthesis of crystalline semiconductor nanowires,” Science 279(5348), 208–211 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Y. Cui, L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, J. Wang, and C. M. Lieber, “Diameter-controlled synthesis of single-crystal silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(15), 2214–2216 (2001). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Vayssieres, “Growth of arrayed nanorods and nanowires of ZnO from aqueous solutions,” Adv. Mater. 15(5), 464–466 (2003). [CrossRef]

17.

X. Zhang, Y. Chen, T. Guo, L. Liu, M. Wei, Q. Li, C. Jia, and Y. Su, “Zn-catalysed growth and optical properties of modulated ZnO hierarchical nanostructures,” J. Exp. Nanosci. 7(5), 513–519 (2012). [CrossRef]

18.

G. Filipič and U. Cvelbar, “Copper oxide nanowires: A review of growth,” Nanotechnology 23(19), 194001 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. Sun, B. Gates, B. Mayers, and Y. Xia, “Crystalline silver nanowires by soft solution processing,” Nano Lett. 2(2), 165–168 (2002). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Jin, D. Whang, M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, Y. Wu, and C. M. Lieber, “Scalable interconnection and integration of nanowire devices without registration,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 915–919 (2004). [CrossRef]

21.

Y. L. Zhang, J. Li, S. To, Y. Zhang, X. Ye, L. You, and Y. Sun, “Automated nanomanipulation for nanodevice construction,” Nanotechnology 23(6), 065304 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

J. Li, Y. Zhang, S. To, L. You, and Y. Sun, “Effect of nanowire number, diameter, and doping density on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6661–6668 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

S. W. Lee, G. Jo, T. Lee, and Y. G. Lee, “Controlled assembly of In2O3 nanowires on electronic circuits using scanning optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17491–17501 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

Z. Yan, J. E. Jureller, J. Sweet, M. J. Guffey, M. Pelton, and N. F. Scherer, “Three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation of single silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5155–5161 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

A. Irrera, P. Artoni, R. Saija, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, F. Borghese, P. Denti, F. Iacona, F. Priolo, and O. M. Maragò, “Size-Scaling in Optical Trapping of Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4879–4884 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

S. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, K. Ino, H. Shiku, T. Yao, and T. Matsue, “Microfluid-assisted dielectrophoretic alignment and device characterization of single ZnO wires,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(45), 19376–19381 (2009). [CrossRef]

27.

E. M. Freer, O. Grachev, X. Duan, S. Martin, and D. P. Stumbo, “High-yield self-limiting single-nanowire assembly with dielectrophoresis,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(7), 525–530 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Z. Wang, M. Kroener, and P. Woias, “Design and fabrication of a thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform and nanowire assembly by utilizing dielectrophoresis,” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys. 188, 417–426 (2012). [CrossRef]

29.

A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, and M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 86–89 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, H. L. Phan, S. W. Sherwood, J. M. Yang, A. N. K. Lau, H. Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, and M. C. Wu, “Optically controlled cell discrimination and trapping using optoelectronic tweezers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 235–243 (2007). [CrossRef]

31.

B. J. Kirby and E. F. Hasselbrink Jr., “Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations,” Electrophoresis 25(2), 187–202 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, J. S. Ryu, Y. K. Hong, T. G. Kim, and A. A. Busnaina, “Interfacial and electrokinetic characterization of IPA solutions related to semiconductor wafer drying and cleaning,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), G811–G814 (2006). [CrossRef]

33.

C. D. Fung, P. W. Cheung, and W. H. Ko, “A generalized theory of an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 33(1), 8–18 (1986). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(250.0250) Optoelectronics : Optoelectronics
(350.4855) Other areas of optics : Optical tweezers or optical manipulation

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: March 11, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 15, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 23, 2014
Published: May 30, 2014

Citation
Yen-Heng Lin, Kai-Siang Ho, Chin-Tien Yang, Jung-Hao Wang, and Chao-Sung Lai, "A highly flexible platform for nanowire sensor assembly using a combination of optically induced and conventional dielectrophoresis," Opt. Express 22, 13811-13824 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-11-13811


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  20. S. Jin, D. Whang, M. C. McAlpine, R. S. Friedman, Y. Wu, C. M. Lieber, “Scalable interconnection and integration of nanowire devices without registration,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 915–919 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. L. Zhang, J. Li, S. To, Y. Zhang, X. Ye, L. You, Y. Sun, “Automated nanomanipulation for nanodevice construction,” Nanotechnology 23(6), 065304 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Li, Y. Zhang, S. To, L. You, Y. Sun, “Effect of nanowire number, diameter, and doping density on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6661–6668 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. W. Lee, G. Jo, T. Lee, Y. G. Lee, “Controlled assembly of In2O3 nanowires on electronic circuits using scanning optical tweezers,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17491–17501 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Z. Yan, J. E. Jureller, J. Sweet, M. J. Guffey, M. Pelton, N. F. Scherer, “Three-dimensional optical trapping and manipulation of single silver nanowires,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5155–5161 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Irrera, P. Artoni, R. Saija, P. G. Gucciardi, M. A. Iatì, F. Borghese, P. Denti, F. Iacona, F. Priolo, O. M. Maragò, “Size-Scaling in Optical Trapping of Silicon Nanowires,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4879–4884 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. S. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, K. Ino, H. Shiku, T. Yao, T. Matsue, “Microfluid-assisted dielectrophoretic alignment and device characterization of single ZnO wires,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(45), 19376–19381 (2009). [CrossRef]
  27. E. M. Freer, O. Grachev, X. Duan, S. Martin, D. P. Stumbo, “High-yield self-limiting single-nanowire assembly with dielectrophoresis,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5(7), 525–530 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Wang, M. Kroener, P. Woias, “Design and fabrication of a thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform and nanowire assembly by utilizing dielectrophoresis,” Sensor Actuat. A-Phys. 188, 417–426 (2012). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Jamshidi, P. J. Pauzauskie, P. J. Schuck, A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, J. Chou, P. Yang, M. C. Wu, “Dynamic manipulation and separation of individual semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 86–89 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. T. Ohta, P. Y. Chiou, H. L. Phan, S. W. Sherwood, J. M. Yang, A. N. K. Lau, H. Y. Hsu, A. Jamshidi, M. C. Wu, “Optically controlled cell discrimination and trapping using optoelectronic tweezers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(2), 235–243 (2007). [CrossRef]
  31. B. J. Kirby, E. F. Hasselbrink., “Zeta potential of microfluidic substrates: 1. Theory, experimental techniques, and effects on separations,” Electrophoresis 25(2), 187–202 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. G. Park, S. H. Lee, J. S. Ryu, Y. K. Hong, T. G. Kim, A. A. Busnaina, “Interfacial and electrokinetic characterization of IPA solutions related to semiconductor wafer drying and cleaning,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), G811–G814 (2006). [CrossRef]
  33. C. D. Fung, P. W. Cheung, W. H. Ko, “A generalized theory of an electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 33(1), 8–18 (1986). [CrossRef]

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