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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 11 — Jun. 2, 2014
  • pp: 13835–13845
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Polarimetric pixel using Seebeck nanoantennas

Alexander Cuadrado, Edgar Briones, Francisco J. González, and Javier Alda  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 11, pp. 13835-13845 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.013835


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Abstract

Optical nanoantennas made of two metals are proposed to produce a Seebeck voltage proportional to the Stokes parameters of a light beam. The analysis is made using simulations in the electromagnetic and thermal domains. Each Stokes parameter is independently obtained from a dedicated nanoantenna configuration. S1 and S2 rely on the combination of two orthogonal dipoles. S3 is given by arranging two Archimedian spirals with opposite orientations. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the error associated with the Seebeck voltage, and the crosstalk between Stokes parameters. The results could lead to the conception of polarization sensors having a receiving area smaller than 10λ2. We illustrate these findings with a design of a polarimetric pixel.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Antenna-coupled thermopiles have been analized previously in the infrared region [10

10. C. Fu, “Antenna-coupled Thermopiles,” M.S. Dissertation, University of Central Florida, (1998).

, 11

11. G. P. Szakmany, P. Krenz, L. C. Scheneider, A. O. Orlov, G. H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Nanowire thermocouple characterization plattform,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 309–313 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. The Seebeck effect relies on a temperature difference to produce a voltage [12

12. D. M. Rowe, Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano (Taylor and Francis, 2006).

]. In this contribution we use optical antennas to produce this difference in temperature. Seebeck nanoantennas are composed of two metals that configure a junction that, in its simplest configuration, is located at the feed point of the antenna. When light illuminates the structure at a certain wavelength and at a certain polarization state the induced currents heat up the antenna and the junction. Metals exhibit a moderate Seebeck effect described by their Seebeck coefficient. However, an appropriate choice of materials can be made to increase the performance of such device. However, moving towards nanometric devices may require a full characterization and measurement of metals at the nanoscale, and the analysis of the thermal behavior of nanometric structures [11

11. G. P. Szakmany, P. Krenz, L. C. Scheneider, A. O. Orlov, G. H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Nanowire thermocouple characterization plattform,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 309–313 (2013). [CrossRef]

, 13

13. F. J. Gonzalez, C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, “Thermal-impedance model of electrostatic discharge effects on microbolometers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 26, 291–293 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. G. Baffou, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, “Mapping heat origin in plasmonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 36805 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Polarimetric imaging in the infrared is used in astronomy [15

15. R. H. Hildebrand, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, and J. E. Vaillancourt, “A primer on far-infrared poarimetry,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1215–1235 (2000). [CrossRef]

], thermal imaging systems [16

16. J. Scott Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. F. Goudail and J. Scott Tyo, “When is polarimetric imaging preferable to intensity imaging for target detection?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(1), 46–53 (2011). [CrossRef]

], and optical characterization of light and media [18

18. J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J-Appl. Phys. 40, 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 19

19. R. Martinez-Herrero, P. M. Mejías, G. Piquero, and V. Ramírez-Sánchez, “Global parameters for characterizing the radial and azimuthal polarization content of totally polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1976–1980 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. These systems use several strategies to detect certain characteristic parameters of the incoming light [15

15. R. H. Hildebrand, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, and J. E. Vaillancourt, “A primer on far-infrared poarimetry,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1215–1235 (2000). [CrossRef]

, 16

16. J. Scott Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 20

20. G. P. Nording, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. W. Jones, “Micropolarizer array for infrared imaging polarimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 16(5), 1168–1174 (1999). [CrossRef]

]. In the infrared, the options to manufacture a polarization sensitive pixel are reduced and require the addition of filters and auxiliary elements [21

21. M. W. Kudenov, J. L. Pezzaniti, and G. R. Gerhart, “Microbolometer-infrared imaging Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063201 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. As an alternative solution, the polarization selective properties of optical antennas are used in this contribution to define the hot and cold junctions of a thermocouple that is selective to polarization. Combining antenna configurations having different response to the polarization of the light, we can obtain a signal that is proportional to the difference in response of these antennas. This has been proved previously using bolometric devices coupled to orthogonal dipoles [22

22. P. Krenz, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Orthogonal infrared dipole antenna,” Infrared Phys. & Technol. 51(4), 340–343 (2008). [CrossRef]

], but it requires the combination of the signals obtained from the individual elements. Actually, the rise in temperature at the feed point of the antenna is proportional to the optical power incident on the device that is selectively resonating according with its state of polarization. An array of at least two optical antennas properly designed to respond to orthogonal polarization states can be used to obtain a signal proportional to the difference in power carried out by the chosen polarization states. This is what we need to detect the Stokes parameters. Furthermore, the capability of optical antennas and thermocouples to be combined in series can be used to multiply the signal by increasing the number of elements. On the other hand, when placing together antenna elements selective to the polarization states that define the Stokes parameters, it is possible to configure a polarimetric pixel that provides the vector Stokes of a light beam. This pixel also takes advantage of the small receiving area of optical antennas, having itself a lateral dimension of very few wavelengths and allowing a high spatial resolution.

2. Design of Seebeck nanoantennas for polarimetric measurements

When characterizing the polarization state of a given light beam, it is commonplace to look for the value of the Stokes parameters. They form a set of 4 numbers that fully describe the polarization of a light beam, even for incoherent, or partially polarized light beams [23

23. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977, Chap. I).

]. In this paper we will use the following form of the Stokes parameters:
s0=Ix+Iy,
(1)
s1=IxIy,
(2)
s2=I+45°I45°
(3)
s3=IRCPILCP,
(4)
where I represent the irradiance carried by each one of the components. These parameters are modified to be represented using the Poincaré sphere. This change consists in normalizing them to the s0 parameter that represents the value of the total irradiance of the incident light. In our case, we are interested in the following parameters: S1 = s1/s0, S2 = s2/s0, and S3 = s3/s0. For totally polarized light, the representation of the state of polarization lies on the surface of the Poincaré sphere. In the rest of this contribution we will assume that s0 = 1. Then, S1 = s1, S2 = s2, and S3 = s3. Alternatively, we may evaluate the total irradiance independently to properly normalize the Stokes parameters. When decomposing the irradiance transported by a light beam into orthogonal components it is possible to choose different sets of components. The Stokes parameters defined in Eqs. (2)(4) can be seen as the difference in power for three choices in this decomposition. S1 works for a decomposition into two linear polarizations aligned along the x and y directions. S2 is also for two linear polarizations now aligned along the 45° and −45° directions. Finally, S3, represents the difference in power when decomposing the light into Right-handed Circular Polarization (RCP, dextro) and Left-handed Circular Polarization (LCP, levo). The aim of the designs proposed here is to detect S1, S2, and S3 independently.

Fig. 1 Arrangement of two resonant structures for their use as Seebeck nanoantennas. The dipole configuration (a) is selective to linear polarization and the Archimedian spirals (b) work for circular polarization.

The detailed design of the selective thermocouple begins with the choice of two available metals showing an appropriate difference in the values of their Seebeck coefficients. In this analysis we have chosen nickel and titanium having sNi = −19.5μV/K, and sTi = 7.19μV/K [25

25. C. G. Mattsson, K. Bertilssson, G. Thungström, H.-E. Nilsson, and H. Martin, “Thermal simulation and design optimization of a thermopile infrared detector with a SU-8 membrane,” J. Michromech. Microeng. 19, 055016 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The antennas are placed on a semi-infinite Si substrate having a SiO2 coating layer (200 nm in thickness) that works as a very efficient thermal insulator. The resonant structures are optimized for a wavelength of λ0 = 10.6μm incident from vacuum. The incoming irradiance has a constant value for all the cases treated here of 117 W/cm2. The evaluation of the performance of these elements is made using COMSOL Multiphysics. This Finite Element Method package determines the heat dissipation in the structure produced by an incoming electromagnetic wavefront in the infrared. This heat distribution produces a temperature pattern that allows to obtain the temperature difference at the location of the junctions in the resonant structures. The electromagnetic and thermal constants are those of the materials involved in the simulation and extracted from reference [26

26. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1997, Vol. III).

].

Fig. 2 Top: Temperature map of the two orthogonal dipole arrangement used for the detection of S1 and S2 for three orientation of linearly polarized light (horizontal, S1 = 1, oblique at 45°, S2 = 1, and vertical S1 = −1). Bottom: Temperature distribution of two Archimedian spirals having opposite helicity and used for the detection of the S3 parameter. The cases represented here are: right-handed circular polarized light (S3 = 1), linear polarization at 0° (S1 = 1), and Left-handed circular polarized light (S3 = −1).
Fig. 3 Top: Temperature profile along the lead line of the dipole structure for five cases of linear polarized light. Center: temperature distribution along the spiral arrangement for five cases of elliptical polarized light along a meridian of the Poincaré sphere (S2 = 0). Bottom: temperature profile along the spiral arrangement for five cases of linearly polarized light (S3 = 0). The vertical lines mark the location of the junctions.

Fig. 4 Left: Signal obtained from the two-dipole configuration as a function of S1 when illuminating with linear polarized light at different angles and having S3 = 0. Center: See-beck voltage obtained from the two Archimedian spirals for various combinations of RCP an LCP as a function of the value of the S3 parameter. In this case we move along a meridian of the Poincaré sphere having S2 = 0. Right: The signal given by the spirals arrangement is also a linear function of S2 when moving along the equator of the Poincaré sphere (S3 = 0)
Fig. 5 Temperature map on the surface of the junctions for the dipole antenna arrangement. The map at the top corresponds with a linear polarization aligned along one of the dipoles that becomes the hot junctions. The other junctions (cold junction) is represented in the middle map for the same linear polarization. The map at the bottom is for a linear polarization at 45° with respect to the dipoles. In this last case the maps of the two surfaces are equal.

Therefore, after evaluating the behavior of the dipoles and spirals arrangements we may write the dependence of the signal obtained for each arrangement as it follows:
V090=α11S1+δ1,
(5)
V±45=α22S2+δ2,
(6)
VD-L=α32S2+α33S3+δ3,
(7)
where V0–90 is the signal received by the two-dipole arrangement oriented along the vertical and horizontal directions, V±45 corresponds with the signal obtained from the two-dipole arrangement oriented obliquely at ±45°, and VD-L is the signal obtained from the two-Arquimedian spirals. The coefficients α and δ have dimensions of voltage and can be obtained from the linear fitting of the results shown in Fig. 4. For the case treated here we find that α11 = α22 = 4.51 ± 0.03μV, α32 = 1.0536 ± 0.0009μV, α33 = 4.5963 ± 0.0003μV, δ1 = δ2 = 0.002 ± 0.02μV, and δ3 = 0.0040 ± 0.0006μV.

3. Detection of the Stokes parameters

Let us begin rewriting eqs. (5)(7) in matrix form
V=AS+Δ,
(8)
where the signal V⃗ = (V0–90, V±45, VD-L)T is given in terms of matrix A, that contains the coefficients α given previously, the vector of the normalized Stokes parameters, S⃗ = (S1, S2, S3)T, and Δ⃗ = (δ1, δ2, δ3)T, where T means transposition. From this equation we can obtain the values of the Stokes parameters evaluated using the antenna, S⃗ant from the voltages given by these devices, V⃗ant:
Sant=A1(VantΔ),
(9)
where A−1 is the inverse of A.

This has been applied to the case of five light beams having input Stokes parameters given in Table 1. This table also contains the output Stokes parameters obtained using Eq. (9).

Table 1. Values of the Stokes parameters of the beam illuminated the array (input) and values obtained from the signals given by the antenna arrangements (output). The last column corresponds to the euclidean distance between the two points represented by the Stokes parameters for each case.

table-icon
View This Table

The results of this evaluation have also been also represented in Fig. 6 on the Poincaré sphere. All selected beams are in the same octant of the sphere for better representation. The location of the original polarization states are represented as blue dots on the sphere. The red dots represent the points defined by S⃗ant and obtained from the signal delivered by the arrangement, V⃗ant, and obtained using Eq. (9). These red dots predict the state of polarization. The values given for the Stokes parameter by the Seebeck nanoantenna arrangement are not on the surface of the sphere. This location has been corrected by normalizing it using the modulus of S⃗ant. The normalization has made it possible to represent the ellipse of polarization for each case. Figure 6 also shows the cases treated here representing in blue the original ellipse, described by S⃗, and plotting in dashed red line the ellipses given by the normalized Stokes parameter obtained from S⃗ant. In this figure we have also plotted in yellow the polarizaton states used to find the linear fitting coefficients described in Eqs. (5)(7).

Fig. 6 Location on the Poincaré sphere of the incoming radiation (blue dots) and the results obtained from the evaluation of the Stokes parameters using the elements proposed in this contribution (red dots). We have also represented the polarization ellipses for the cases analyzed here. The original ellipse is represented as a solid blue line and the ellipse obtained from the Stokes parameters given by the nanoantennas is plotted as a dashed red line.

From a practical point of view, we also propose an antenna-based polarimetric pixel. In Fig. 7 we show a possible realization of the pixel showing the small footprint of the element. In this arrangement we have included two thermocouples connected in series for the detection of S1, S2, and S3. The signal for the S0 parameter can also be obtained from a thermocouple where the hot junction is located at the feed point of an antenna having no selective detection of the polarization state.

Fig. 7 Geometrical arrangement of a pixel that is able to measure the Stokes parameter of an infrared beam. Each subpixel is responsible for the detection of each one of the Stokes parameter independently. The resonant element appearing at the S0 subpixel has not been analyzed in this contribution and can be substituted by any other arrangement exposing a junction to the incident irradiance. The red bar represents the wavelength in vacuum. In the case analyzed in this paper λ0 = 10.6μm

4. Conclusions

Two dipoles oriented perpendicularly to each other are responsible for the detection of the S1 and S2 parameters. Two archimedian spirals having opposite helicities are combined to produce a signal proportional to S3. In both cases, the hot and cold junctions are located at the feed point of the antennas. Therefore, each arm of the antenna are made of different materials. The results given here have been obtained using a Finite Element Method that combines the electromagnetic and thermal response of these structures. We have also evaluated some uncertainties linked with practical realizations of the structure. The crosstalk between Stokes parameters has been analyzed and characterized. The system has been tested using a collection of elliptical states of polarizations showing good agreement between the actual Stokes parameters of the input beams and the values of the Stokes parameters given by the proposed resonant structures. Finally we have outlined a practical realization of a pixel containing four subpixels, one for each Stokes parameter. This polarimetric pixel based on Seebeck nanoantennas has a very small area allowing a high spatial resolution for polarimetric imaging, where the Stokes parameters are obtained independently.

Acknowledgments

This work has been partially supported by project ENE2009-14340 from the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación of Spain, by project “Centro Mexicano de Innovación en Energía Solar” from “Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-Secretaría de Energía-Sustentabilidad Energética”, and by grant CV-45809 from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología of México.

References and links

1.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Alda, C. Fumeaux, I. Codreanu, J. Schaefer, and G. Boreman, “A deconvolution method for two-dimensional spatial-response mapping of lithographic infrared antennas,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3993–4000 (1998). [CrossRef]

4.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. k. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Sraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometer-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-field dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, and H. Rothouizen, “Nanometer thin-film Bi-NiO-Bi diodes for detection and mixing of 30 THz radiation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123–183 (1998). [CrossRef]

6.

F. Gonzalez and G. Boreman, “Comparison of dipole, bowtie, spiral and log-periodic IR antennas,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46(5), 418–428 (2005). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Cuadrado, J. Alda, and F. J. Gonzalez, “Distributed bolometric effect in optical antennas and resonant structures,” J. Nanophotonics 6, 063512 (2012). [CrossRef]

8.

A. Cuadrado, J. Alda, and F. J. Gonzalez, “Multiphysics simulation of optical nanoantennas working as distributed bolometers in ther infrared,” J. Nanophotonics 7, 073093 (2013). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Cuadrado, M. Silva-López, F. J. González, and J. Alda, “Robustness of antenna-coupled distributed bolometers,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3784–3787 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. Fu, “Antenna-coupled Thermopiles,” M.S. Dissertation, University of Central Florida, (1998).

11.

G. P. Szakmany, P. Krenz, L. C. Scheneider, A. O. Orlov, G. H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Nanowire thermocouple characterization plattform,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 309–313 (2013). [CrossRef]

12.

D. M. Rowe, Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano (Taylor and Francis, 2006).

13.

F. J. Gonzalez, C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, and G. D. Boreman, “Thermal-impedance model of electrostatic discharge effects on microbolometers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 26, 291–293 (2000). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Baffou, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, “Mapping heat origin in plasmonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 36805 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

R. H. Hildebrand, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, and J. E. Vaillancourt, “A primer on far-infrared poarimetry,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1215–1235 (2000). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Scott Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

F. Goudail and J. Scott Tyo, “When is polarimetric imaging preferable to intensity imaging for target detection?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(1), 46–53 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J-Appl. Phys. 40, 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]

19.

R. Martinez-Herrero, P. M. Mejías, G. Piquero, and V. Ramírez-Sánchez, “Global parameters for characterizing the radial and azimuthal polarization content of totally polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1976–1980 (2008). [CrossRef]

20.

G. P. Nording, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. W. Jones, “Micropolarizer array for infrared imaging polarimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 16(5), 1168–1174 (1999). [CrossRef]

21.

M. W. Kudenov, J. L. Pezzaniti, and G. R. Gerhart, “Microbolometer-infrared imaging Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063201 (2009). [CrossRef]

22.

P. Krenz, J. Alda, and G. Boreman, “Orthogonal infrared dipole antenna,” Infrared Phys. & Technol. 51(4), 340–343 (2008). [CrossRef]

23.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977, Chap. I).

24.

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

C. G. Mattsson, K. Bertilssson, G. Thungström, H.-E. Nilsson, and H. Martin, “Thermal simulation and design optimization of a thermopile infrared detector with a SU-8 membrane,” J. Michromech. Microeng. 19, 055016 (2009). [CrossRef]

26.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1997, Vol. III).

OCIS Codes
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics
(110.5405) Imaging systems : Polarimetric imaging
(040.6808) Detectors : Thermal (uncooled) IR detectors, arrays and imaging

ToC Category:
Detectors

History
Original Manuscript: March 10, 2014
Revised Manuscript: April 1, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 1, 2014
Published: May 30, 2014

Citation
Alexander Cuadrado, Edgar Briones, Francisco J. González, and Javier Alda, "Polarimetric pixel using Seebeck nanoantennas," Opt. Express 22, 13835-13845 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-11-13835


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References

  1. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 438–483 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5, 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Alda, C. Fumeaux, I. Codreanu, J. Schaefer, G. Boreman, “A deconvolution method for two-dimensional spatial-response mapping of lithographic infrared antennas,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3993–4000 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. k. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Sraswat, D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometer-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-field dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics 2, 226–229 (2008). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Fumeaux, W. Herrmann, F. K. Kneubühl, H. Rothouizen, “Nanometer thin-film Bi-NiO-Bi diodes for detection and mixing of 30 THz radiation,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 123–183 (1998). [CrossRef]
  6. F. Gonzalez, G. Boreman, “Comparison of dipole, bowtie, spiral and log-periodic IR antennas,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46(5), 418–428 (2005). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Cuadrado, J. Alda, F. J. Gonzalez, “Distributed bolometric effect in optical antennas and resonant structures,” J. Nanophotonics 6, 063512 (2012). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Cuadrado, J. Alda, F. J. Gonzalez, “Multiphysics simulation of optical nanoantennas working as distributed bolometers in ther infrared,” J. Nanophotonics 7, 073093 (2013). [CrossRef]
  9. A. Cuadrado, M. Silva-López, F. J. González, J. Alda, “Robustness of antenna-coupled distributed bolometers,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3784–3787 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Fu, “Antenna-coupled Thermopiles,” M.S. Dissertation, University of Central Florida, (1998).
  11. G. P. Szakmany, P. Krenz, L. C. Scheneider, A. O. Orlov, G. H. Bernstein, W. Porod, “Nanowire thermocouple characterization plattform,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 12(3), 309–313 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. D. M. Rowe, Thermoelectrics Handbook: Macro to Nano (Taylor and Francis, 2006).
  13. F. J. Gonzalez, C. Fumeaux, J. Alda, G. D. Boreman, “Thermal-impedance model of electrostatic discharge effects on microbolometers,” Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 26, 291–293 (2000). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Baffou, C. Girard, R. Quidant, “Mapping heat origin in plasmonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 36805 (2010). [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Hildebrand, J. A. Davidson, J. L. Dotson, C. D. Dowell, G. Novak, J. E. Vaillancourt, “A primer on far-infrared poarimetry,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 1215–1235 (2000). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Scott Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. F. Goudail, J. Scott Tyo, “When is polarimetric imaging preferable to intensity imaging for target detection?” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28(1), 46–53 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. J. J. Gil, “Polarimetric characterization of light and media,” Eur. Phys. J-Appl. Phys. 40, 1–47 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. R. Martinez-Herrero, P. M. Mejías, G. Piquero, V. Ramírez-Sánchez, “Global parameters for characterizing the radial and azimuthal polarization content of totally polarized beams,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1976–1980 (2008). [CrossRef]
  20. G. P. Nording, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, M. W. Jones, “Micropolarizer array for infrared imaging polarimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 16(5), 1168–1174 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. M. W. Kudenov, J. L. Pezzaniti, G. R. Gerhart, “Microbolometer-infrared imaging Stokes polarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 48(6), 063201 (2009). [CrossRef]
  22. P. Krenz, J. Alda, G. Boreman, “Orthogonal infrared dipole antenna,” Infrared Phys. & Technol. 51(4), 340–343 (2008). [CrossRef]
  23. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977, Chap. I).
  24. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. C. G. Mattsson, K. Bertilssson, G. Thungström, H.-E. Nilsson, H. Martin, “Thermal simulation and design optimization of a thermopile infrared detector with a SU-8 membrane,” J. Michromech. Microeng. 19, 055016 (2009). [CrossRef]
  26. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Elsevier, 1997, Vol. III).

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