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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 15 — Jul. 28, 2014
  • pp: 18093–18100
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Mode-locked semiconductor laser system with intracavity spatial light modulator for linear and nonlinear dispersion management

Jan C. Balzer, Benjamin Döpke, Carsten Brenner, Andreas Klehr, Götz Erbert, Günther Tränkle, and Martin R. Hofmann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 15, pp. 18093-18100 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.018093


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Abstract

We analyze the influence of second and third order intracavity dispersion on a passively mode-locked diode laser by introducing a spatial light modulator (SLM) into the external cavity. The dispersion is optimized for chirped pulses with highest possible spectral bandwidth that can be externally compressed to the sub picosecond range. We demonstrate that the highest spectral bandwidth is achieved for a combination of second and third order dispersion. With subsequent external compression pulses with a duration of 437 fs are generated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

For several decades, semiconductor lasers have been the focus of research as a possible source for ultrashort light pulses. They have unique features, which no other gain media can offer. They can be pumped electrically, which allows for a compact design and good wall-plug efficiency. This, combined with the possibility of semiconductor mass production, leads to a cost-effective alternative to established solid state fs-laser systems [1

1. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. The emission wavelength depends on the band gap of the semiconductor compound and can be adapted for the desired application. This is an advantage over fiber lasers, which are strongly restricted in the emission wavelength [2

2. M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, it has recently been shown that diode laser systems can be easily expanded by a pulse picking device to generate high power pulses with a variable repetition rate [3

3. J. C. Balzer, T. Schlauch, T. Hoffmann, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, and M. R. Hofmann, “Modelocked semiconductor laser system with pulse picking for variable repetition rate,” Electron. Lett. 47(25), 1387–1388 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. A wide gain spectrum makes mode-locked semiconductor lasers to a suitable choice to generate ultrashort light pulses. It has been predicted that the gain spectrum is wide enough to support sub-50 fs pulses [4

4. P. P. Vasil’ev, I. H. White, and J. Gowar, “Fast phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63(12), 1997–2042 (2000). [CrossRef]

].

However, the shortest pulse obtained directly from an injection mode-locked semiconductor laser had a duration of 390 fs [5

5. E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. D. Il’inskaya, Y. M. Zadiranov, E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, D. Livshits, R. Kovsh, and N. N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081107 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The difference between the predicted pulse durations and the experimentally obtained pulse durations originates from another property specific to semiconductors. Semiconductor gain media have large gain per unit length and an α-factor, which is unequal to zero. The linewidth broadening factor α describes the coupling between the carrier-induced variation of real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility [6

6. M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers–An overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. This means, that a change of the gain is connected to a change of the refractive index and leads to nonlinearities. A strong self-phase modulation (SPM) is the result, which leads to a nonlinear chirp of the propagating pulse and limits the minimal pulse duration [7

7. P. J. Delfyett, L. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992). [CrossRef]

].

There are different approaches to solve this problem. The first one is to reduce the interaction length of the pulse with the gain medium in order to minimize the effect of SPM. This is done with the concept of the vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The light incident to the cavity is perpendicular to the growth direction of the active medium, which is a multi-quantum well (MQW) structure. Hence the interaction length of the pulse with the gain media is reduced below 100 nm. With this concept pulses as short as 107 fs were generated [8

8. P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071103 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. While these pulses had only 3 mW average output power, the VECSEL concept can be used to generate pulses with a high average power. Wilcox et al. reported on a VECSEL with 3.3 W average output power and a pulse duration of 400 fs, which leads to 4.35 kW peak power [9

9. K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Despite these impressive results, the VECSEL concept has drawbacks. The results above were achieved by optical pumping of the gain media. This makes the setup more complex, expensive and inefficient and hence the gain chip needs sophisticated cooling. Another disadvantage is the need for a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) for passive mode locking, which further increases the complexity of the system.

In edge emitting diode lasers, the use of quantum dots (QD) instead of QWs as the active region may be promising because QDs are supposed to have a broader gain spectrum and shorter carrier lifetimes then QWs [10

10. E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 395–401 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. A saturable absorber (SA) can be integrated into the laser chip by separating the laser into two segments. The longer segment acts as the gain section by applying an injection current. By applying a reverse voltage to the shorter section a SA is realized, which provides passive mode locking [11

11. D. Derickson, R. Helkey, A. Mar, J. Karin, J. Wasserbauer, and J. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2186–2202 (1992). [CrossRef]

]. The two facets are forming the resonator in the case of a monolithic laser diode. From such a device pulses with a duration of 390 fs were obtained directly from the oscillator [5

5. E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. D. Il’inskaya, Y. M. Zadiranov, E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, D. Livshits, R. Kovsh, and N. N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081107 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. By using a standard single mode fiber as a compressor, another group obtained 374 fs pulses from a mode-locked QD laser diode [12

12. C. Calò, H. Schmeckebier, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, D. Bimberg, and A. Ramdane, “Frequency resolved optical gating characterization of sub-ps pulses from single-section InAs/InP quantum dash based mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1742–1748 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Experimental setup

The following section describes the experimental setup. To enable IDM an external cavity is needed. Therefore, the laser diode has an anti-reflection coating (Rr5104) on one facet and a high-reflection coating (Rr0.95) on the other facet. The laser structure used is based on an InGaAsP triple quantum well active region with a design wavelength of 850 nm embedded in a super large AlGaAs optical waveguide layer of 3.4 µm to realize a narrow vertical divergence of 20 degrees to reach a good collimation of the output beam. The 1 mm long device is divided into 10 sections of equal length. For passive mode locking the section adjacent to the high reflective facet is reverse biased to act as a saturable absorber. The other nine sections are used as the gain section by applying an injection current. The laser diode is stabilized to 20 °C by a thermoelectric cooler (TEC). The configuration of the cavity is called Fourier-transform external cavity laser (FTECAL) [17

17. M. Breede, S. Hoffmann, J. Zimmermann, J. Struckmeier, M. Hofmann, T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, J. P. Meyn, M. Matus, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Fourier-transform external cavity lasers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1–6), 261–271 (2002). [CrossRef]

] and is depicted in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the semiconductor laser system. HWP = half-wave plate.
.

The light emitted from the laser diode is collimated by an aspheric lens with a focal length of 11 mm. The resulting spot size is relatively large in order to illuminate most lines of the diffraction grating to yield a high spectral resolution of the diffraction order. We used a gold coated sinus grating with 1800 lines per mm to get high spectral resolution and high angular dispersion. The 1st diffraction order is collimated by a cylindrical lens with a focal length of 200 mm, while the spectral components are focused in the Fourier plane. For optimal focusing the plane side of the lens is orientated into the direction of the Fourier plane, where a folding mirror is placed, which reflects the light back into the laser diode. The 0th order of the diffraction grating is used to couple light out of the cavity. The ratio of output coupling can be changed by rotating the HWP, because the diffraction efficiency of the grating is highly polarization dependent. For horizontal polarization, a maximum diffraction efficiency of 90% is achieved.

These two drawbacks can be avoided by using a SLM. The SLM, which is manufactured by Cambridge Research and Instrumentation (Cri SLM-128-D-VN), consists of two liquid crystal panels forming masks shaped as linear arrays with 128 pixels, respectively. Each pixel is 98 µm wide with a 2 µm gap between adjacent pixels. The extra-ordinary axes of the liquid-crystal molecules of both arrays are aligned at 45° and −45° with respect to the polarization of the incident light. The orientation of the liquid-crystal molecules is a function of an electric field, which is applied by transparent electrodes. If an identical electrical field is applied to both arrays, the polarization of the light is unaffected, while the refractive index is changed. Hence, the phase is changed. If two different electrical fields are applied to the arrays a change in the polarization is the result. Since the diffraction grating and the laser diode are highly sensitive to the polarization, the SLM also changes the amplitude. Hence the SLM allows for independent control of spectral phase and amplitude without misalignment of the cavity if it is placed in the Fourier plane of the FTECAL.

3. Experimental results

From mode-locking theory, it is known that pulses from a passively mode-locked semiconductor laser have a positive, mostly linear, chirp due to the different α-factors of the gain and the absorber sections [19

19. M. Schell, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, “Chirp and stability of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1180–1190 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. The pulse shaping mechanism of a passively mode-locked semiconductor laser is based on a temporal net gain window [20

20. H. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a slow saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975). [CrossRef]

]. The temporal net gain window is created by the interplay of absorber saturation and gain saturation [21

21. H. A. Haus and Y. Silberberg, “Theory of mode locking of a laser diode with a multiple-quantum-well structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1237 (1985). [CrossRef]

]. Under the assumption of a constant duration, we suggested that IDM leads to a greater spectral bandwidth [16

16. T. Schlauch, J. C. Balzer, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, and M. R. Hofmann, “Femtosecond passively modelocked diode laser with intracavity dispersion management,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24316–24324 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], because more spectral components fit into the temporal net gain window, if the chirp is compensated. Hence the aim of IDM is to increase the spectral bandwidth and exploit the property that the emitted pulses are mainly linearly chirped and can be compressed with a grating compressor.

In order to obtain a larger spectral bandwidth we introduce as a first step negative GDD to compensate the positive chirp of the passively mode-locked semiconductor laser. The temporal behavior as a function of intracavity GDD is depicted in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Deconvoluted pulse duration assuming a sech2 shape as a function of intracavity GDD.
. A sech2 pulse shape is assumed. It can be seen that there is a slight dependency of the GDD on the temporal duration. The pulse duration changes from a maximum of 5.8 ps (−4.6 x 104 fs2) to a minimum of 4.7 ps (−6.1 x 104 fs2). This corresponds to a change of 1 ps or of about 20%. After reaching this point, the mode-locking became instable. Hence, we concentrate in the following on the stable region.

This is also in good agreement with the theoretical prediction that the shortest pulses with the highest peak power are obtained in the case for equal α-factors in the gain and the absorber section [22

22. A. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 033808 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. From this point of view the IDM compensates the difference of the α-factors in both sections and increases the peak power. With the increased peak power the pulses are able to saturate the SA at higher energy levels, where the unsaturated losses are higher [23

23. P. M. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, G. Mezosi, L. Hou, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, C. Bryce, and S. Balle, “Spectral dynamical behavior in passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1067–1082 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Without the IDM the peak power is too low to saturate these spectral regions and hence the laser is spectrally restricted to operate near the band gap of the SA. The spectral broadening can be seen with a look at the spectral behavior of the mode-locked laser, which is depicted in Fig. 3(b). It can be seen that the red edge of the spectrum shows a slight dependence of the introduced GDD, while the blue edge is showing a strong blue shift. Hence, the spectral bandwidth is increased, because the laser is able to saturate the SA over a wider spectral range. The maximum bandwidth was reached for −5.9 x 104 fs2. The average output power was 4 mW and the photo current generated in the SA was 0.94 mA.

It can be seen that the broadest spectrum is achieved for a TOD value of 2.5 x 10−5 fs3. Hence the broadest spectra can only be achieved for a combination of GDD and TOD. A difference to the case of pure GDD is that the increase of the average output power and the increase of spectral bandwidth not have the same normalized slope. Another difference is the spectral behavior as a function of TOD. The red spectral edge is shifting slightly further into the red, while there is again a strong blue shift of the blue edge. After reaching the maximum of spectral bandwidth for 2.5 x 10−5 fs3, there is again a strong breakdown in average output power and spectral bandwidth.

After demonstrating that a combination of GDD and TOD leads to broader spectra than GDD alone, the question is whether the increased bandwidth can be used to generate shorter pulses by using a standard grating compressor. As discussed before, a grating compressor is only capable to generate GDD, hence to use the additional bandwidth the chirp has to be mainly linear. The external compressor we used is a folded grating compressor as described in [16

16. T. Schlauch, J. C. Balzer, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, and M. R. Hofmann, “Femtosecond passively modelocked diode laser with intracavity dispersion management,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24316–24324 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The results are depicted in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Spectrum measured from the oscillator without any IDM (black), with optimal additionally GDD (red) and a combination of GDD and TOD (blue). (b) The corresponding normalized autocorrelation traces.
. It can be seen that the spectrum without any IDM is the narrowest one with 1.63 nm (black curve). By applying a GDD of −5.9 x 104 fs2 (red curve) the spectrum is blue shifted and significantly broader (5.05 nm). By adding 2.5 x 10−5 fs3 TOD the spectrum (blue curve) gets more blue shifted and broader (5.27 nm). It follows that an optimization of TOD leads to an increase of the spectral bandwidth of about 4.3%. In Fig. 5(b) the corresponding normalized autocorrelation traces are depicted. There is only a slight difference in the temporal duration, while no change in the pulse shape can be observed. The deconvoluted temporal durations are 4.6 ps without dispersion (black trace), 4.3 ps for GDD only and 4.0 ps for the combination of GDD and TOD. This means that the temporal duration is reduced by about 7% for optimized TOD.

From Fig. 5(b) it can be seen that he TOD has no obvious impact on the pulse shape. This is an indicator that the gained bandwidth can be used for a further shortening of the pulse if a subsequent external compressor is used. The normalized autocorrelation traces with subsequent compression are depicted in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Autocorrelation traces with subsequent external compression.
. In the case of no extra dispersion the shortest obtainable pulse has a duration of 1.6 ps (black curve). The pulse with pure linear chirp compensation can be compressed down to 483 fs (red curve). The combination of GDD and TOD leads with subsequent compression to a duration of 437 fs, which correspond to a reduction of the temporal duration of 10.5%.

4. Summary and conclusion

Acknowledgment

We thank the German Research Foundation (HO1973/15-1) for financial support.

References and links

1.

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B 100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

J. C. Balzer, T. Schlauch, T. Hoffmann, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, and M. R. Hofmann, “Modelocked semiconductor laser system with pulse picking for variable repetition rate,” Electron. Lett. 47(25), 1387–1388 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

P. P. Vasil’ev, I. H. White, and J. Gowar, “Fast phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 63(12), 1997–2042 (2000). [CrossRef]

5.

E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. D. Il’inskaya, Y. M. Zadiranov, E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, D. Livshits, R. Kovsh, and N. N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(8), 081107 (2005). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers–An overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987). [CrossRef]

7.

P. J. Delfyett, L. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2203–2219 (1992). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(7), 071103 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1599–1605 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photon. 1(7), 395–401 (2007). [CrossRef]

11.

D. Derickson, R. Helkey, A. Mar, J. Karin, J. Wasserbauer, and J. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(10), 2186–2202 (1992). [CrossRef]

12.

C. Calò, H. Schmeckebier, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, D. Bimberg, and A. Ramdane, “Frequency resolved optical gating characterization of sub-ps pulses from single-section InAs/InP quantum dash based mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1742–1748 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

B. Resan, L. Archundia, and P. J. Delfyett, “FROG measured high-power 185-fs pulses generated by down-chirping of the dispersion-managed breathing-mode semiconductor mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1384–1386 (2005). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Kono, H. Watanabe, R. Koda, T. Miyajima, and M. Kuramoto, “200-fs pulse generation from a GaInN semiconductor laser diode passively mode-locked in a dispersion-compensated external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081121 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

J. C. Balzer, T. Schlauch, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, and M. R. Hofmann, “High peak power pulses from dispersion optimised modelocked semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 49(13), 838–839 (2013). [CrossRef]

16.

T. Schlauch, J. C. Balzer, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, and M. R. Hofmann, “Femtosecond passively modelocked diode laser with intracavity dispersion management,” Opt. Express 18(23), 24316–24324 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

M. Breede, S. Hoffmann, J. Zimmermann, J. Struckmeier, M. Hofmann, T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, J. P. Meyn, M. Matus, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Fourier-transform external cavity lasers,” Opt. Commun. 207(1–6), 261–271 (2002). [CrossRef]

18.

X. Gu, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, “Spatial chirp in ultrafast optics,” Opt. Commun. 242(4–6), 599–604 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

M. Schell, M. Tsuchiya, and T. Kamiya, “Chirp and stability of mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1180–1190 (1996). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a slow saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975). [CrossRef]

21.

H. A. Haus and Y. Silberberg, “Theory of mode locking of a laser diode with a multiple-quantum-well structure,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1237 (1985). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Vladimirov and D. Turaev, “Model for passive mode locking in semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(3), 033808 (2005). [CrossRef]

23.

P. M. Stolarz, J. Javaloyes, G. Mezosi, L. Hou, C. N. Ironside, M. Sorel, C. Bryce, and S. Balle, “Spectral dynamical behavior in passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1067–1082 (2011). [CrossRef]

24.

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror assisted Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser producing pulses in the two-cycle regime,” Opt. Lett. 24(9), 631–633 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

S. Gee, G. Alphonse, J. Connolly, C. Barty, and P. Delfyett, “Ultrashort pulse generation by intracavity spectral shaping and phase compensation of external-cavity modelocked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(9), 1035–1040 (2000). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.2020) Lasers and laser optics : Diode lasers
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 2, 2014
Revised Manuscript: June 4, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: July 12, 2014
Published: July 18, 2014

Citation
Jan C. Balzer, Benjamin Döpke, Carsten Brenner, Andreas Klehr, Götz Erbert, Günther Tränkle, and Martin R. Hofmann, "Mode-locked semiconductor laser system with intracavity spatial light modulator for linear and nonlinear dispersion management," Opt. Express 22, 18093-18100 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-15-18093


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References

  1. U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state laser oscillators: a success story for the last 20 years with no end in sight,” Appl. Phys. B100(1), 15–28 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. M. E. Fermann and I. Hartl, “Ultrafast fiber laser technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(1), 191–206 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. J. C. Balzer, T. Schlauch, T. Hoffmann, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, and M. R. Hofmann, “Modelocked semiconductor laser system with pulse picking for variable repetition rate,” Electron. Lett.47(25), 1387–1388 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. P. P. Vasil’ev, I. H. White, and J. Gowar, “Fast phenomena in semiconductor lasers,” Rep. Prog. Phys.63(12), 1997–2042 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, W. Sibbett, N. D. Il’inskaya, Y. M. Zadiranov, E. Zhukov, V. M. Ustinov, D. Livshits, R. Kovsh, and N. N. Ledentsov, “High-power picosecond and femtosecond pulse generation from a two-section mode-locked quantum-dot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(8), 081107 (2005). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers–An overview,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 9–29 (1987). [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Delfyett, L. Florez, N. Stoffel, T. Gmitter, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, J. P. Heritage, and G. Alphonse, “High-power ultrafast laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2203–2219 (1992). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. U. Rafailov, M. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photon.1(7), 395–401 (2007). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Derickson, R. Helkey, A. Mar, J. Karin, J. Wasserbauer, and J. Bowers, “Short pulse generation using multisegment mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.28(10), 2186–2202 (1992). [CrossRef]
  12. C. Calò, H. Schmeckebier, K. Merghem, R. Rosales, F. Lelarge, A. Martinez, D. Bimberg, and A. Ramdane, “Frequency resolved optical gating characterization of sub-ps pulses from single-section InAs/InP quantum dash based mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Express22(2), 1742–1748 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Resan, L. Archundia, and P. J. Delfyett, “FROG measured high-power 185-fs pulses generated by down-chirping of the dispersion-managed breathing-mode semiconductor mode-locked laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(7), 1384–1386 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Kono, H. Watanabe, R. Koda, T. Miyajima, and M. Kuramoto, “200-fs pulse generation from a GaInN semiconductor laser diode passively mode-locked in a dispersion-compensated external cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(8), 081121 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Balzer, T. Schlauch, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, and M. R. Hofmann, “High peak power pulses from dispersion optimised modelocked semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.49(13), 838–839 (2013). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Schlauch, J. C. Balzer, A. Klehr, G. Erbert, G. Tränkle, and M. R. Hofmann, “Femtosecond passively modelocked diode laser with intracavity dispersion management,” Opt. Express18(23), 24316–24324 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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