## Measuring the intensity fluctuation of partially coherent radially polarized beams in atmospheric turbulence |

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 15, pp. 18278-18283 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.018278

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### Abstract

The scintillation index of a Gaussian beam and radially polarized beams in turbulent atmosphere is experimentally investigated. The scintillation index of a Gaussian beam and a completely coherent radially polarized beam increases with increasing propagation distance from 0 to 400m. The influence of the coherence of partially coherent radially polarized beam on the scintillation is studied. The result shows that the scintillation index of a partially coherent radially polarized beam can be smaller than that of a completely coherent beam.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

3. X. Ji, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, G. Ji, and X. Jia, “Propagation of an Airy beam through the atmosphere,” Opt. Express **21**(2), 2154–2164 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. T. J. Schulz, “Optimal beams for propagation through random media,” Opt. Lett. **30**(10), 1093–1095 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. X. Qian, W. Zhu, and R. Rao, “Numerical investigation on propagation effects of pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Express **17**(5), 3782–3791 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6. F. Wang, Y. Cai, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Twist phase-induced reduction in scintillation of a partially coherent beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. **37**(2), 184–186 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. X. Qian, W. Zhu, and R. Rao, “Numerical investigation on propagation effects of pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Express **17**(5), 3782–3791 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. H. T. Eyyuboğlu, Y. Baykal, and Y. Cai, “Scintillations of laser array beams,” Appl. Phys. B **91**(2), 265–271 (2008). [CrossRef]

11. Y. Gu and G. Gbur, “Scintillation of Airy beam arrays in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. **35**(20), 3456–3458 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. A. Peleg and J. V. Moloney, “Scintillation index for two Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A **23**(12), 3114–3122 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10. P. Polynkin, A. Peleg, L. Klein, T. Rhoadarmer, and J. V. Moloney, “Optimized multiemitter beams for free-space optical communications through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. **32**(8), 885–887 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. O. Korotkova, “Scintillation index of a stochastic electromagnetic beam propagating in random media,” Opt. Commun. **281**(9), 2342–2348 (2008). [CrossRef]

13. Y. Gu, O. Korotkova, and G. Gbur, “Scintillation of nonuniformly polarized beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. **34**(15), 2261–2263 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. W. Cheng, J. W. Haus, and Q. Zhan, “Propagation of vector vortex beams through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express **17**(20), 17829–17836 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. Y. Gu and G. Gbur, “Reduction of turbulence-induced scintillation by nonuniformly polarized beam arrays,” Opt. Lett. **37**(9), 1553–1555 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Experimental configuration

_{1}and L

_{2}with focal length of 6cm and 30cm respectively. A partially coherent beam can be generated by introducing a rotating ground glass (RGG). The RGG rotates continuously, and adds a random phase on the beam, therefore a completely coherent beam converts into a partially coherent beam [16

16. T. Asakura, “Spatial coherence of laser light passed through rotating ground glass,” Opto-Electronics **2**(3), 115–123 (1970). [CrossRef]

18. C. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Dong, Y. Han, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on determing the topological charge of a vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **101**(26), 261104 (2012). [CrossRef]

16. T. Asakura, “Spatial coherence of laser light passed through rotating ground glass,” Opto-Electronics **2**(3), 115–123 (1970). [CrossRef]

2. F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **103**(9), 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]

*I*(

*x*,

*y*,

*z*) is the intensity of the point.

19. H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Estimation of aperture averaged scintillations in weak turbulence regime for annular, sinusoidal and hyperbolic Gaussian beams using random phase screen,” Opt. Laser Technol. **52**, 96–102 (2013). [CrossRef]

## 3. Scintillation index of a Gaussian beam and radially polarized beams

20. H. T. Eyyuboğlu, E. Sermutlu, Y. Baykal, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Intensity fluctuations in J-Bessel–Gaussian beams of all orders propagating in turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B **93**(2–3), 605–611 (2008). [CrossRef]

20. H. T. Eyyuboğlu, E. Sermutlu, Y. Baykal, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Intensity fluctuations in J-Bessel–Gaussian beams of all orders propagating in turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B **93**(2–3), 605–611 (2008). [CrossRef]

## 4. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, |

2. | F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

3. | X. Ji, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, G. Ji, and X. Jia, “Propagation of an Airy beam through the atmosphere,” Opt. Express |

4. | T. J. Schulz, “Optimal beams for propagation through random media,” Opt. Lett. |

5. | X. Qian, W. Zhu, and R. Rao, “Numerical investigation on propagation effects of pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Express |

6. | F. Wang, Y. Cai, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Twist phase-induced reduction in scintillation of a partially coherent beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. |

7. | H. T. Eyyuboğlu, Y. Baykal, and Y. Cai, “Scintillations of laser array beams,” Appl. Phys. B |

8. | P. Pan, B. Zhang, N. Qiao, and Y. Dan, “Characteristics of scintillations and bit error rate of partially coherent rectangular array beams in turbulence,” Opt. Commun. |

9. | A. Peleg and J. V. Moloney, “Scintillation index for two Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A |

10. | P. Polynkin, A. Peleg, L. Klein, T. Rhoadarmer, and J. V. Moloney, “Optimized multiemitter beams for free-space optical communications through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. |

11. | Y. Gu and G. Gbur, “Scintillation of Airy beam arrays in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | O. Korotkova, “Scintillation index of a stochastic electromagnetic beam propagating in random media,” Opt. Commun. |

13. | Y. Gu, O. Korotkova, and G. Gbur, “Scintillation of nonuniformly polarized beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett. |

14. | W. Cheng, J. W. Haus, and Q. Zhan, “Propagation of vector vortex beams through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express |

15. | Y. Gu and G. Gbur, “Reduction of turbulence-induced scintillation by nonuniformly polarized beam arrays,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | T. Asakura, “Spatial coherence of laser light passed through rotating ground glass,” Opto-Electronics |

17. | A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Intensity correlation properties of high-order optical vortices passing through a rotating ground-glass plate,” Opt. Lett. |

18. | C. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Dong, Y. Han, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on determing the topological charge of a vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

19. | H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Estimation of aperture averaged scintillations in weak turbulence regime for annular, sinusoidal and hyperbolic Gaussian beams using random phase screen,” Opt. Laser Technol. |

20. | H. T. Eyyuboğlu, E. Sermutlu, Y. Baykal, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Intensity fluctuations in J-Bessel–Gaussian beams of all orders propagating in turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B |

**OCIS Codes**

(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation

(010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence

(260.5430) Physical optics : Polarization

**ToC Category:**

Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

**History**

Original Manuscript: June 6, 2014

Revised Manuscript: July 10, 2014

Manuscript Accepted: July 11, 2014

Published: July 21, 2014

**Citation**

Ziyang Chen, Shengwei Cui, Lei Zhang, Cunzhi Sun, Mengsu Xiong, and Jixiong Pu, "Measuring the intensity fluctuation of partially coherent radially polarized beams in atmospheric turbulence," Opt. Express **22**, 18278-18283 (2014)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-15-18278

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### References

- L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (SPIE Press, 1998).
- F. Wang, X. Liu, L. Liu, Y. Yuan, and Y. Cai, “Experimental study of the scintillation index of a radially polarized beam with controllable spatial coherence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(9), 091102 (2013). [CrossRef]
- X. Ji, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, G. Ji, and X. Jia, “Propagation of an Airy beam through the atmosphere,” Opt. Express21(2), 2154–2164 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. J. Schulz, “Optimal beams for propagation through random media,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1093–1095 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X. Qian, W. Zhu, and R. Rao, “Numerical investigation on propagation effects of pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Express17(5), 3782–3791 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- F. Wang, Y. Cai, H. T. Eyyuboğlu, and Y. Baykal, “Twist phase-induced reduction in scintillation of a partially coherent beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett.37(2), 184–186 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. T. Eyyuboğlu, Y. Baykal, and Y. Cai, “Scintillations of laser array beams,” Appl. Phys. B91(2), 265–271 (2008). [CrossRef]
- P. Pan, B. Zhang, N. Qiao, and Y. Dan, “Characteristics of scintillations and bit error rate of partially coherent rectangular array beams in turbulence,” Opt. Commun.284(4), 1019–1025 (2011). [CrossRef]
- A. Peleg and J. V. Moloney, “Scintillation index for two Gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths in weak atmospheric turbulence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A23(12), 3114–3122 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Polynkin, A. Peleg, L. Klein, T. Rhoadarmer, and J. V. Moloney, “Optimized multiemitter beams for free-space optical communications through turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Lett.32(8), 885–887 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Gu and G. Gbur, “Scintillation of Airy beam arrays in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3456–3458 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Korotkova, “Scintillation index of a stochastic electromagnetic beam propagating in random media,” Opt. Commun.281(9), 2342–2348 (2008). [CrossRef]
- Y. Gu, O. Korotkova, and G. Gbur, “Scintillation of nonuniformly polarized beams in atmospheric turbulence,” Opt. Lett.34(15), 2261–2263 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. Cheng, J. W. Haus, and Q. Zhan, “Propagation of vector vortex beams through a turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express17(20), 17829–17836 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Gu and G. Gbur, “Reduction of turbulence-induced scintillation by nonuniformly polarized beam arrays,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1553–1555 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- T. Asakura, “Spatial coherence of laser light passed through rotating ground glass,” Opto-Electronics2(3), 115–123 (1970). [CrossRef]
- A. Kumar, J. Banerji, and R. P. Singh, “Intensity correlation properties of high-order optical vortices passing through a rotating ground-glass plate,” Opt. Lett.35(22), 3841–3843 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- C. Zhao, F. Wang, Y. Dong, Y. Han, and Y. Cai, “Effect of spatial coherence on determing the topological charge of a vortex beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(26), 261104 (2012). [CrossRef]
- H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Estimation of aperture averaged scintillations in weak turbulence regime for annular, sinusoidal and hyperbolic Gaussian beams using random phase screen,” Opt. Laser Technol.52, 96–102 (2013). [CrossRef]
- H. T. Eyyuboğlu, E. Sermutlu, Y. Baykal, Y. Cai, and O. Korotkova, “Intensity fluctuations in J-Bessel–Gaussian beams of all orders propagating in turbulent atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B93(2–3), 605–611 (2008). [CrossRef]

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