## Simultaneous generation of a frequency-multiplied and phase-shifted microwave signal with large tunability |

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 15, pp. 18372-18378 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.018372

Acrobat PDF (1465 KB)

### Abstract

We demonstrate a photonic approach to simultaneously realize a frequency-multiplied and phase-shifted microwave signal based on the birefringence effects in the high nonlinear fiber. The phase shift caused by asymmetric variations in refractive indexes of fiber between two orthogonal polarization states is introduced into two coherent harmonic of the modulated signals. By beating the phase-modulated sidebands, a frequency-multiplied microwave signal is generated and its phase can be adjusted by simply controlling the pump power. A microwave signal at doubled- or quadrupled-frequency with a full 2π phase shift is obtained over a frequency range from 10 GHz to 30 GHz. The proposed approach has the potential applications in the system with larger-broadband, higher-frequency and -data-rate system, even to handle a multi-wavelength operation.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

1. A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. **24**(12), 4628–4641 (2006). [CrossRef]

3. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. **24**(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]

4. L. Gao, W. Liu, X. Chen, and J. Yao, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplication with a tunable multiplication factor,” Opt. Lett. **38**(21), 4487–4490 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Phase-Coded Microwave Signal With Large Frequency Tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(11), 712–714 (2011). [CrossRef]

6. J. M. Fuster and J. Marti, “Photonic RF phase shifter for harmonic downconversion in phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” Electron. Lett. **33**(17), 1426 (1997). [CrossRef]

7. Z. S. Jia, J. J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(16), 1726–1728 (2006). [CrossRef]

8. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Tunable subterahertz wave generation based on photonic frequency sextupling using a polarization modulator and a wavelength-fixed notch filter,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. **58**(7), 1967–1975 (2010). [CrossRef]

9. W. Li and J. Yao, “Microwave Generation Based on Optical Domain Microwave Frequency Octupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(1), 24–26 (2010). [CrossRef]

10. Y. Jiang, J. L. Yu, B. C. Han, L. Zhang, W. R. Wang, L. T. Zhang, and E. Z. Yang, “Millimeter-wave subcarrier generation utilizing four-wave mixing and dual-frequency Brillouin pump suppression,” Opt. Eng. **48**(3), 030502 (2009). [CrossRef]

11. J. Zheng, H. Wang, W. Li, L. Wang, T. Su, J. Liu, and N. Zhu, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplier based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Lett. **39**(6), 1366–1369 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mørk, “Microwave phase shifter with controllable power response based on slow- and fast-light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. **34**(7), 929–931 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13. A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(1), 208–210 (2006). [CrossRef]

14. Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, Z. Li, Q. Wang, W. Kuang, T. H. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Photonic microwave phase shifter/modulator based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror incorporating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. **32**(7), 745–747 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. W. Li, W. H. Sun, W. T. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Lett. **39**(11), 3290–3293 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16. W. Zhang and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Millimeter-Wave Signals With Tunable Phase Shift,” IEEE Photon. J. **4**(3), 889–894 (2012). [CrossRef]

5. Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Phase-Coded Microwave Signal With Large Frequency Tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **23**(11), 712–714 (2011). [CrossRef]

17. M. R. Fisher and S. L. Chuang, “Microwave photonic phase-shifter based on wavelength conversion in a DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **18**(16), 1714–1716 (2006). [CrossRef]

18. J. Sancho, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Fully tunable 360 degree microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express **19**(18), 17421–17426 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, Z. Li, Q. Wang, W. Kuang, T. H. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Photonic microwave phase shifter/modulator based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror incorporating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. **32**(7), 745–747 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. W. Li, W. H. Sun, W. T. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Lett. **39**(11), 3290–3293 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19. H. Chen, Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, and L. Li, “Photonic radio-frequency phase shifter based on polarization interference,” Opt. Lett. **34**(15), 2375–2377 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

## 2. Principle

20. P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. **24**(12), 4711–4728 (2006). [CrossRef]

19. H. Chen, Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, and L. Li, “Photonic radio-frequency phase shifter based on polarization interference,” Opt. Lett. **34**(15), 2375–2377 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21. H. Chen, M. Sun, Y. Ding, and X. Sun, “Microwave photonic phase shifter based on birefringence effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. **38**(17), 3272–3274 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

*x*- axis, the optical field can be expressed aswhere

*m*= 1, 2, representing first- and second-order sidebands.

*m*-order sidebands, respectively;

*t*is the time. By adjusting the PC which is positioned between the DLI and the PBC, the separated sidebands are tuned into two orthogonal signals. Then the PBC combines them into one signal. The output field of PBC can be described bywhere

*y*is the orthogonal polarization direction to

*x*.

*x*- and

*y*- axes of the HNLF can be introduced to generate additional birefringence by a linearly polarized pump. The refractive index of the HNLF can be expressed as [22]where

*x-*and

*y-*axes of the HNLF,

*x*-axis and the self-phase modulation is neglected, the corresponding index change

^{3}is purely electronic,

*b*= 1/3 [22]. It can be written aswhere

*x-*and

*y-*axes to produce different phase shifts, the optical field signal at the output of HNLF is given by

*m*. Furthermore, the difference in phase

*∆φ*is directly translated to the phase of the generated microwave signal, simultaneously. The value is directly proportional to the pump power and independent of wavelength and frequency. Thus, the phase can be continuously tuned by adjusting the pump power.

## 3. Experimental results

^{2}and a nonlinear coefficient of 100 /(W∙km). Figure 3 illustrates the optical spectra. Curve ‘@A’ is measured at the output of MZM, curves ‘@B’ and ‘@C’ stand for two separate sidebands measured at the point B and C, respectively.

^{2}coefficient of determination is 0.9219, indicating the regression line fits the data well. It can be found that a near linear phase shift from 0 to 2π is achieved with the change of the pump power from 0 to 380 mW.

## 4. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

2. | R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. |

3. | J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

4. | L. Gao, W. Liu, X. Chen, and J. Yao, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplication with a tunable multiplication factor,” Opt. Lett. |

5. | Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Phase-Coded Microwave Signal With Large Frequency Tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

6. | J. M. Fuster and J. Marti, “Photonic RF phase shifter for harmonic downconversion in phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” Electron. Lett. |

7. | Z. S. Jia, J. J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

8. | S. Pan and J. Yao, “Tunable subterahertz wave generation based on photonic frequency sextupling using a polarization modulator and a wavelength-fixed notch filter,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. |

9. | W. Li and J. Yao, “Microwave Generation Based on Optical Domain Microwave Frequency Octupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

10. | Y. Jiang, J. L. Yu, B. C. Han, L. Zhang, W. R. Wang, L. T. Zhang, and E. Z. Yang, “Millimeter-wave subcarrier generation utilizing four-wave mixing and dual-frequency Brillouin pump suppression,” Opt. Eng. |

11. | J. Zheng, H. Wang, W. Li, L. Wang, T. Su, J. Liu, and N. Zhu, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplier based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mørk, “Microwave phase shifter with controllable power response based on slow- and fast-light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. |

13. | A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

14. | Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, Z. Li, Q. Wang, W. Kuang, T. H. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Photonic microwave phase shifter/modulator based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror incorporating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. |

15. | W. Li, W. H. Sun, W. T. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Lett. |

16. | W. Zhang and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Millimeter-Wave Signals With Tunable Phase Shift,” IEEE Photon. J. |

17. | M. R. Fisher and S. L. Chuang, “Microwave photonic phase-shifter based on wavelength conversion in a DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

18. | J. Sancho, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Fully tunable 360 degree microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express |

19. | H. Chen, Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, and L. Li, “Photonic radio-frequency phase shifter based on polarization interference,” Opt. Lett. |

20. | P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

21. | H. Chen, M. Sun, Y. Ding, and X. Sun, “Microwave photonic phase shifter based on birefringence effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. |

22. | G. P. Agrawal, |

**OCIS Codes**

(190.4370) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, fibers

(280.5110) Remote sensing and sensors : Phased-array radar

(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

**ToC Category:**

RF and Microwave Photonics

**History**

Original Manuscript: May 12, 2014

Revised Manuscript: July 8, 2014

Manuscript Accepted: July 9, 2014

Published: July 22, 2014

**Citation**

Danqi Feng, Heng Xie, Guodong Chen, Lifen Qian, and Junqiang Sun, "Simultaneous generation of a frequency-multiplied and phase-shifted microwave signal with large tunability," Opt. Express **22**, 18372-18378 (2014)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-15-18372

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### References

- A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4628–4641 (2006). [CrossRef]
- R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(2), 832–846 (2006). [CrossRef]
- J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on microwave photonic filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 201–229 (2006). [CrossRef]
- L. Gao, W. Liu, X. Chen, and J. Yao, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplication with a tunable multiplication factor,” Opt. Lett. 38(21), 4487–4490 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Z. Li, W. Li, H. Chi, X. Zhang, and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Phase-Coded Microwave Signal With Large Frequency Tunability,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(11), 712–714 (2011). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Fuster and J. Marti, “Photonic RF phase shifter for harmonic downconversion in phased array antenna beam-forming applications,” Electron. Lett. 33(17), 1426 (1997). [CrossRef]
- Z. S. Jia, J. J. Yu, and G. K. Chang, “A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1726–1728 (2006). [CrossRef]
- S. Pan and J. Yao, “Tunable subterahertz wave generation based on photonic frequency sextupling using a polarization modulator and a wavelength-fixed notch filter,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(7), 1967–1975 (2010). [CrossRef]
- W. Li and J. Yao, “Microwave Generation Based on Optical Domain Microwave Frequency Octupling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(1), 24–26 (2010). [CrossRef]
- Y. Jiang, J. L. Yu, B. C. Han, L. Zhang, W. R. Wang, L. T. Zhang, and E. Z. Yang, “Millimeter-wave subcarrier generation utilizing four-wave mixing and dual-frequency Brillouin pump suppression,” Opt. Eng. 48(3), 030502 (2009). [CrossRef]
- J. Zheng, H. Wang, W. Li, L. Wang, T. Su, J. Liu, and N. Zhu, “Photonic-assisted microwave frequency multiplier based on nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1366–1369 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. Xue, S. Sales, J. Capmany, and J. Mørk, “Microwave phase shifter with controllable power response based on slow- and fast-light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 929–931 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- A. Loayssa and F. J. Lahoz, “Broad-band RF photonic phase shifter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and single-sideband modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 208–210 (2006). [CrossRef]
- Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, Z. Li, Q. Wang, W. Kuang, T. H. Cheng, Y. J. Wen, Y. Wang, and C. Lu, “Photonic microwave phase shifter/modulator based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror incorporating a Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 745–747 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. Li, W. H. Sun, W. T. Wang, and N. H. Zhu, “Optically controlled microwave phase shifter based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3290–3293 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- W. Zhang and J. Yao, “Photonic Generation of Millimeter-Wave Signals With Tunable Phase Shift,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 889–894 (2012). [CrossRef]
- M. R. Fisher and S. L. Chuang, “Microwave photonic phase-shifter based on wavelength conversion in a DFB laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(16), 1714–1716 (2006). [CrossRef]
- J. Sancho, J. Lloret, I. Gasulla, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Fully tunable 360 degree microwave photonic phase shifter based on a single semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17421–17426 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- H. Chen, Y. Dong, H. He, W. Hu, and L. Li, “Photonic radio-frequency phase shifter based on polarization interference,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2375–2377 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, “Advanced modulation formats for high-capacity optical transport networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4711–4728 (2006). [CrossRef]
- H. Chen, M. Sun, Y. Ding, and X. Sun, “Microwave photonic phase shifter based on birefringence effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3272–3274 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, California, 2007).

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