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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 15 — Jul. 28, 2014
  • pp: 18604–18611
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Transformation of Ramsey electromagnetically induced absorption into magnetic-field induced transparency in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell

Han Seb Moon and Ho-Jung Kim  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 15, pp. 18604-18611 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.018604


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Abstract

We report on magnetic-field induced transparency (MIT) based on Ramsey electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell. Changing the laser polarization from linear to circular in the presence of a weak residual transverse magnetic field to the laser propagation, the narrow absorption due to the Ramsey EIA transformed into the transparency due to MIT of the 5S1/2 (F = 2)–5P3/2 (F′ = 3) transition of 87Rb in the paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell. The spectral widths of the EIA and MIT in the Hanle configuration were measured to be 0.6 mG (425 Hz) and 1.2 mG, respectively. MIT depended on the long preservation time of the ground-state coherent spin states and the transverse magnetic field. From the numerical results, the crossover between the Ramsey EIA and the MIT could be illustrated as the superposition of both signals.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Atomic coherence, generated by the interaction of multi-level atoms and light, is of interest for applications in various fields of atomic physics such as atomic spectroscopy, precision measurement, and quantum optics [1

1. K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photon. 3(12), 706–714 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Important well-known atomic coherence phenomena caused by the quantum interference of atomic states include electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), and coherent population trapping (CPT) [1

1. K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, quantum coherent processes have been intensively studied in artificial atomic systems such as superconducting circuits [11

11. A. A. Abdumalikov Jr, O. Astafiev, A. M. Zagoskin, Y. A. Pashkin, Y. Nakamura, and J. S. Tsai, “Electromagnetically induced transparency on a single artificial atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(19), 193601 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], quantum dots [12

12. W. W. Chow, H. C. Schneider, and M. C. Phillips, “Theory of quantum-coherence phenomena in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053802 (2003). [CrossRef]

], metamaterials [13

13. Y. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, H. Chen, and S. Zhu, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials: Influence of intrinsic loss and dynamic evolution,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195140 (2011). [CrossRef]

], optomechanics [14

14. A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond [15

15. K. Jensen, N. Leefer, A. Jarmola, Y. Dumeige, V. M. Acosta, P. Kehayias, B. Patton, and D. Budker, “Cavity-enhanced room-temperature magnetometry using absorption by nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(16), 160802 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Comparing the EIA due to spontaneous coherence transfer with the EIT due to two-photon coherence, the generation mechanism of atomic coherence for EIA is completely different from that for EIT, due to the destructive quantum interference on the two-photon resonance with two optical fields. In EIA, atomic coherence between degenerate excited levels is transferred spontaneously to degenerate ground levels; a process known as spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) [16

16. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999). [CrossRef]

25

25. Y.-S. Lee, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Moon, “Phase measurement of fast light pulse in electromagnetically induced absorption,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22464–22470 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Although a narrow spectral width is an important characteristic of the atomic coherence phenomena, it is difficult to observe the EIA effect in atomic vapor cells with buffer gases which is typically used for narrow EIT spectrum [16

16. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999). [CrossRef]

23

23. A. M. Akulshin and R. J. McLean, “Fast light in atomic media,” J. Opt. 12(10), 104001 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. This is so because the EIA is sensitive to the decay rates of the excited states, which is determined by the atomic collisions in the buffer gas or with the cell walls. Almost all studies of EIA have been limited by wall collisions and transit-time broadening in pure atomic vapor cells. Recently, Ramsey EIA with a narrow sub-kHz spectral width has been reported using a paraffin-coated Rb vapor [24

24. H.-J. Kim and H. S. Moon, “Electromagnetically induced absorption with sub-kHz spectral width in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell,” Opt. Express 19(1), 168–174 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

However, the atomic transitions between Zeeman sublevels have different routes according to the laser polarization, and the atomic-magnetic-momentum changes according to the static magnetic fields. The effects of the static magnetic field and the polarization of the incident laser on the EIT, CPT, and EIA resonances have been reported for pure vapor cells [26

26. V. S. Smirnov, A. M. Tumaĭkin, and V. I. Yudin, “Stationary coherent states of atoms in resonant interaction with elliptically polarized light. Coherent trapping of populations (general theory),” Sov. Phys. JETP 69, 913–921 (1989).

30

30. L. Margalit, M. Rosenbluh, and A. D. Wilson-Gordon, “Degenerate two-level system in the presence of a transverse magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033808 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, it was reported that the CPT of the Hanle configuration could be transformed into a narrow absorption signal in both the vapor cell with buffer gas and the paraffin-coated call in a weak transverse magnetic field, when the laser polarization was changed from linear to circular [31

31. Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010). [CrossRef]

, 32

32. H. J. Lee and H. S. Moon, “Magnetic-field-induced absorption with sub-milligauss spectral width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cell,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2301–2305 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. This narrow absorption in the Hanle configuration, induced by the transverse magnetic field in the CPT medium, was termed magnetic-field-induced absorption (MIA) [32

32. H. J. Lee and H. S. Moon, “Magnetic-field-induced absorption with sub-milligauss spectral width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cell,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2301–2305 (2013). [CrossRef]

], and we speculated on whether it was possible to also observe magnetic-field-induced transparency (MIT), which is the counterpart phenomenon of MIA. To the best of our knowledge, MIT has not been observed under conditions of narrow Ramsey EIA in an anti-relaxation-coated vapor cell.

Here, we report the observation of the MIT phenomenon of the 5S1/2 (F = 2) → 5P3/2 (F′ = 3) transition of 87Rb in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell under conditions of EIA due to the wall-induced Ramsey effect. We investigated the crossover between the narrow Ramsey EIA and MIT spectra as a function of the laser polarization varying from linear to circular, and the features of the transformation of EIA into MIT in a paraffin-coated cell are compared with those in a pure cell. The Ramsey EIA and MIT spectra in an anti-relaxation-coated cell were investigated theoretically for an eight-level closed W-type atomic system by considering multiple atomic interactions through the laser beam in the presence of a weak residual magnetic field.

2. Experimental setup

The effective EIA has been found under conditions of a closed atomic system of the Fg → Fe = Fg + 1 transition [16

16. A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999). [CrossRef]

19

19. S. K. Kim, H. S. Moon, K. Kim, and J. B. Kim, “Observation of electromagnetically induced absorption in open systems regardless of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063813 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Our experiment for EIA was achieved with the 5S1/2 (F = 2) → 5P3/2 (F′ = 3) cycling transition of 87Rb, which is a closed atomic system without population leakage, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Energy level diagram of the 5S1/2-5P3/2 transitions of 87Rb (I = 3/2) and Zeeman sublevels of the 5S1/2(F = 2)-5P3/2(F′ = 3) transition.
. Considering a transverse magnetic field (Bt) in the Hanle configuration with scanning of the longitudinal magnetic field (Bl), we deal with all transitions between the magnetic sublevels: σ+m = + 1), σm = −1), and π (Δm = 0) transitions. When Bl is used as the quantization axis, the linearly polarized laser induces the σ+m = + 1) and σm = −1) transitions between the magnetic sublevels because the linearly polarized light may be considered as being composed of counter-rotating circularly polarized components. As shown in Fig. 1, the W-type configuration is generated between the Zeeman sublevels of the 5S1/2 (F = 2) → 5P3/2 (F′ = 3) transition by the σ+ and σ transitions. However, if the quantization axis is taken to be in the direction of the external magnetic field in the presence of a transverse magnetic-field component, then a circularly polarized laser can induce the π (Δm = 0) and σ ±m = ± 1) transitions between the magnetic sublevels [24

24. H.-J. Kim and H. S. Moon, “Electromagnetically induced absorption with sub-kHz spectral width in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell,” Opt. Express 19(1), 168–174 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for EIA and MIT in the Hanle configuration in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell; optical isolator (IO), polarizer (P), longitudinal magnetic field (Bl), transverse magnetic field (Bt), and laser polarization vector (E).
shows our experimental setup for investigating Ramsey EIA and MIT in the Hanle configuration. The laser system is an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) stabilized to the 5S1/2 (F = 2) → 5P3/2 (F′ = 3) transition. The laser polarization was controlled using a half-wave plate (HWP) and a quarter-wave plate (QWP). The laser beam size was fixed by using an aperture with a diameter of 2 mm. A 5-cm-long 2.5-cm-diameter paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell at room temperature was installed in a solenoid coil surrounded by a μ-metal chamber. When the directions of the linearly polarized laser and laser propagation are set to be along the x- and z-axes, respectively, Bt and Bl are parallel to the linearly polarized laser (x-axis) and laser propagation direction (z-axis), respectively. For observation of the EIA and MIT spectra in the Hanle configuration, Bl was slowly scanned over a range of ± 20 mG. The laser power was measured passing through the paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell with a photo-detector (PD).

3. Experimental results and discussion

We investigated the laser polarization effects of the Ramsey EIA medium in the presence of the weak transverse magnetic field, as shown in Fig. 4(a)
Fig. 4 Transformation of EIA into MIT of the 5S1/2(F = 2)-5P3/2(F′ = 3) transition of 87Rb in (a) the paraffin-coated cell and (b) the pure vapor cell.
. The QWP angle indicated in the figure is that between the linear polarization direction and the fast axis of the QWP. When the polarization of the laser was changed from linear to circular by the QWP, we found that the narrow absorption resonance due to the Ramsey EIA effect gradually transformed into transparency resonance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of the narrow MIT phenomenon in a paraffin-coated cell.

In the case of atoms interacting with circularly polarized light, if Bl is used as the quantization axis, almost all the population is focused on the transition between the two magnetic sublevels mF = ± 2 of 5S1/2 (F = 2) and mF′ = ± 3 of 5P3/2 (F′ = 3) because of the optical pumping effect. The relative transition probability of this transition is higher than that of the other transitions, and the relative absorption in the circular polarization configuration is higher than that in the case of linear polarization. We can see in Fig. 4(a) that the background absorption increases with the circular polarization. In this configuration and with the quantization axis parallel to the laser propagation direction, there are no atomic coherence effects due to STAC or two-photon resonance. Intuitively, a signal with a sub-natural width would not be expected in the circular polarization configuration.

However, if there is a weak Bt, then the atomic magnetic momentum can be changed by changing the direction of the external magnetic field because the external magnetic-field direction dominates the weak Bt around Bl = 0. When the direction of Bt is used as the quantization axis, the circularly polarized laser induces π- and σ ± -transitions between the magnetic sublevels. Near Bl = 0, we can observe the narrow transparency phenomenon due to the external-magnetic-field-induced atomic magnetic momentum in the presence of a weak Bt, and the π- and σ ± -transitions contribute to TOC and two-photon atomic coherence effects, which are unexpected in the σ+ or σ transition configurations. Therefore, the main cause of the spectral narrowing of the MIT resonance is the long atomic coherence in the anti-relaxation-coated cell. The MIT resonance width was measured to be 1.1 mG and is limited by the Ramsey EIA resonance width.

To confirm the atomic coherence effect in MIT, we investigated EIA and MIT in the pure Rb vapor cell in the presence of a weak transverse magnetic field. Figure 4(b) shows the transmittance spectrum in the pure Rb vapor cell as a function of the laser polarization under the same conditions as those for Fig. 4(a). Here, the spectral width of the EIA resonance for an incident linear polarization was measured to be approximately 150 mG. From the EIA resonance widths in the paraffin-coated cell and the pure cell, we estimated the atomic coherence time in the pure cell to be more than 200 times shorter than that in the paraffin-coated cell. When the laser polarization was changed to be circular, the magnitude of the EIA resonance decreased to zero without any MIT effect, as shown in Fig. 4(b). The MIT effect was not observed in the pure Rb cell because of the short atomic coherence. Therefore, the narrow MIT in the paraffin-coated cell can be understood as sensitive detection of the external-magnetic-field-induced atomic magnetic momentum change in the EIA medium with a long atomic coherence.

To investigate theoretically the transformation of Ramsey EIA into MIT in an anti-relaxation-coated vapor cell, we numerically calculated an eight-level atomic system based on the F = 1 → F′ = 2 transition that includes degenerate magnetic sublevels, with the STAC term between degenerate excited levels transferring spontaneously to degenerate ground levels. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be expressed as:
ρ^t=1i[H0+Hint,ρ^]+ρ^spt,
(1)
where ρ^ is a density-matrix element, H0 and Hint are the atomic and interaction Hamiltonians, respectively. Also, ρ^spt is the relaxation term describing all relaxation processes, included spontaneous transfer of excited-state coherence to ground-state coherence. We considered all transitions for an arbitrarily polarized laser beam in a weak residual magnetic field [28

28. H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the 87Rb D1 line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033407 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Furthermore, repeated interactions between the atoms and walls in the anti-relaxation-coated vapor cell were considered, and it should be noted that changing the quantization axis to be along one direction of the external magnetic field (Bl or Bt) affects the effective transitions among the degenerate magnetic sublevels.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

We thank Heung-Ryoul Noh for valuable discussion. This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Grant#2012R1A2A1A01006579).

References and links

1.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57(4), 2996–3002 (1998). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81(4), 421–442 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(26), 5788–5791 (1998). [CrossRef]

5.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys. 3(4), 227–234 (2007). [CrossRef]

6.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409(6819), 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

I. Novikova, A. V. Gorshkov, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Sørensen, M. D. Lukin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(24), 243602 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(9), 093602 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452(7183), 67–71 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photon. 3(12), 706–714 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

A. A. Abdumalikov Jr, O. Astafiev, A. M. Zagoskin, Y. A. Pashkin, Y. Nakamura, and J. S. Tsai, “Electromagnetically induced transparency on a single artificial atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(19), 193601 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

W. W. Chow, H. C. Schneider, and M. C. Phillips, “Theory of quantum-coherence phenomena in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A 68(5), 053802 (2003). [CrossRef]

13.

Y. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Yang, Y. Zhang, H. Chen, and S. Zhu, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials: Influence of intrinsic loss and dynamic evolution,” Phys. Rev. B 83(19), 195140 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

K. Jensen, N. Leefer, A. Jarmola, Y. Dumeige, V. M. Acosta, P. Kehayias, B. Patton, and D. Budker, “Cavity-enhanced room-temperature magnetometry using absorption by nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(16), 160802 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. V. Taichenachev, A. M. Tumaikin, and V. I. Yudin, “Electromagnetically induced absorption in a four-state system,” Phys. Rev. A 61(1), 011802 (1999). [CrossRef]

17.

F. Renzoni, S. Cartaleva, G. Alzetta, and E. Arimondo, “Enhanced absorption Hanle effect in the configuration of crossed laser beam and magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 065401 (2001). [CrossRef]

18.

C. Goren, A. D. Wilson-Gordon, M. Rosenbluh, and H. Friedmann, “Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population,” Phys. Rev. A 67(3), 033807 (2003). [CrossRef]

19.

S. K. Kim, H. S. Moon, K. Kim, and J. B. Kim, “Observation of electromagnetically induced absorption in open systems regardless of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. A 68(6), 063813 (2003). [CrossRef]

20.

H. Failache, P. Valente, G. Ban, V. Lorent, and A. Lezama, “Inhibition of electromagnetically induced absorption due to excited-state decoherence in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 67(4), 043810 (2003). [CrossRef]

21.

D. V. Brazhnikov, A. M. Tumaikin, V. I. Yudin, and A. V. Taichenachev, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency in magneto-optical resonances in an elliptically polarized field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(1), 57–64 (2005). [CrossRef]

22.

M. M. Mijailovic, J. Dimitrijevic, A. J. Krmpot, Z. D. Grujic, B. M. Panic, D. Arsenovic, D. V. Pantelic, and B. M. Jelenkovic, “On non-vanishing amplitude of Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption in Rb,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1328–1339 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

A. M. Akulshin and R. J. McLean, “Fast light in atomic media,” J. Opt. 12(10), 104001 (2010). [CrossRef]

24.

H.-J. Kim and H. S. Moon, “Electromagnetically induced absorption with sub-kHz spectral width in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell,” Opt. Express 19(1), 168–174 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

25.

Y.-S. Lee, H. J. Lee, and H. S. Moon, “Phase measurement of fast light pulse in electromagnetically induced absorption,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22464–22470 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

V. S. Smirnov, A. M. Tumaĭkin, and V. I. Yudin, “Stationary coherent states of atoms in resonant interaction with elliptically polarized light. Coherent trapping of populations (general theory),” Sov. Phys. JETP 69, 913–921 (1989).

27.

J. Dimitrijević, A. Krmpot, M. Mijailović, D. Arsenović, B. Panić, Z. Grujić, and B. M. Jelenković, “Role of transverse magnetic fields in electromagnetically induced absorption for elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 013814 (2008). [CrossRef]

28.

H.-R. Noh and H. S. Moon, “Calculated Hanle transmission and absorption spectra of the 87Rb D1 line with residual magnetic field for arbitrarily polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033407 (2010). [CrossRef]

29.

N. Ram, M. Pattabiraman, and C. Vijayan, “Effect of ellipticity on Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency resonances with longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82(3), 033417 (2010). [CrossRef]

30.

L. Margalit, M. Rosenbluh, and A. D. Wilson-Gordon, “Degenerate two-level system in the presence of a transverse magnetic field,” Phys. Rev. A 87(3), 033808 (2013). [CrossRef]

31.

Y. J. Yu, H. J. Lee, I.-H. Bae, H.-R. Noh, and H. S. Moon, “Level-crossing absorption with narrow spectral width in Rb vapor with buffer gas,” Phys. Rev. A 81(2), 023416 (2010). [CrossRef]

32.

H. J. Lee and H. S. Moon, “Magnetic-field-induced absorption with sub-milligauss spectral width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cell,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(8), 2301–2305 (2013). [CrossRef]

33.

A. M. Akulshin, R. J. McLean, A. I. Sidorov, and P. Hannaford, “Probing degenerate two-level atomic media by coherent optical heterodyning,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 44(17), 175502 (2011). [CrossRef]

34.

T. Lauprêtre, S. Kumar, P. Berger, R. Faoro, R. Ghosh, F. Bretenaker, and F. Goldfarb, “Ultranarrow resonance due to coherent population oscillations in a Λ-type atomic system,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 033808 (2013).

OCIS Codes
(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
(020.3690) Atomic and molecular physics : Line shapes and shifts
(020.4180) Atomic and molecular physics : Multiphoton processes
(300.6210) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, atomic

ToC Category:
Atomic and Molecular Physics

History
Original Manuscript: May 13, 2014
Revised Manuscript: July 2, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: July 2, 2014
Published: July 24, 2014

Citation
Han Seb Moon and Ho-Jung Kim, "Transformation of Ramsey electromagnetically induced absorption into magnetic-field induced transparency in a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell," Opt. Express 22, 18604-18611 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-15-18604


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References

  1. K. J. Boller, A. Imamolu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett.66(20), 2593–2596 (1991). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A57(4), 2996–3002 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B81(4), 421–442 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Budker, V. V. Yashchuk, and M. Zolotorev, “Nonlinear magneto-optic effects with ultranarrow widths,” Phys. Rev. Lett.81(26), 5788–5791 (1998). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, “Optical magnetometry,” Nat. Phys.3(4), 227–234 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature409(6819), 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. Novikova, A. V. Gorshkov, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Sørensen, M. D. Lukin, and R. L. Walsworth, “Optimal control of light pulse storage and retrieval,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(24), 243602 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(9), 093602 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature452(7183), 67–71 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Optical quantum memory,” Nat. Photon.3(12), 706–714 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Abdumalikov, O. Astafiev, A. M. Zagoskin, Y. A. Pashkin, Y. Nakamura, and J. S. Tsai, “Electromagnetically induced transparency on a single artificial atom,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(19), 193601 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. W. Chow, H. C. Schneider, and M. C. Phillips, “Theory of quantum-coherence phenomena in semiconductor quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A68(5), 053802 (2003). [CrossRef]
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