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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Jan. 27, 2014
  • pp: 1336–1341
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Optical investigation of the J-pole and Vee antenna families

Timothy D. James, Timothy J. Davis, and Ann Roberts  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 1336-1341 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.001336


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Abstract

The J-pole and Vee RF antenna design families are investigated for their suitability as optical antennas. The modal and spectral properties are experimentally examined to select the most suitable resonant optical plasmonic mode, which is used to inform the optimal positioning of a quantum emitter in relation to the antennas.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Antennas have become an integral part of a wide variety of modern technologies, from millimeter wave scanning [1

1. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001). [CrossRef]

] and cellular communication technologies [2

2. Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, and D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997). [CrossRef]

] through to Magnetic Resonance Imaging [3

3. W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, and H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000). [CrossRef]

] and radio astronomy [4

4. E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, and K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. These antenna applications range in frequency from MHz for radio up to THz in the case of millimeter wave scanners. There is now a significant research effort into creating antennas for operation at frequencies above 100 THz, in the near infrared and optical range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The frequency of operation and size of an antenna are inversely related, such that radio antennas are typically meters in size, whereas the dimensions of optical antennas are well below 1 micron. Nanofabrication technologies such as E-Beam Lithography (EBL) and Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling have enabled scientists and engineers to fabricate optical antennas in this size scale, resulting in a surge in optical antenna research [5

5. P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The most common antennas studied are based on widely used radio frequency (RF) designs, such the simple dipole antenna and the multi-element Yagi Uda antenna [6

6. I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. It is well-known [7

7. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] that a simple geometric scaling is inappropriate for adapting designs for use in the visable and near-infrared regions of the spectrum and a challenge has recently been put forward to further explore the range of RF designs for optics and associated applications [8

8. L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. This work aims to take up this challenge and expand the range of useful optical antenna designs.

Antennas of all varieties operate on sub-wavelength scales. In addition to the sub-wavelength size of antennas, the electromagnetic radiation interaction volumes with which the antennas interact are also sub-wavelength in dimension. This has significant implications for optical antennas - nano-antennas enable optical radiation to be localized to volumes much smaller than the wavelength, thus overcoming the diffraction limit of conventional far-field optics [8

8. L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The sub-wavelength sized interaction volume also allows optical antennas to enhance the optical emission from individual nano-dimensioned semiconductors such as quantum dots (QD) and nano-diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. The aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of two RF antenna families to optical antenna design, and how the optical versions of the antennas interact with local dipole excitation source. The spectral properties of the J-pole and Vee family of antennas are experimentally investigated, and the most suitable resonant mode of each antenna is determined for the enhancement of fluorescence in the 600-700nm spectral range. In addition the directionality of the far-field emission spectra for the selected antenna modes are calculated numerical and discussed.

2. Experimental and simulation methods

Antennas were fabricated using EBL and a bi-layer resist lift-off process. The substrate was a colorless, non-auto fluorescent, microscope slide with a refractive index of 1.52. The substrate was cleaned via sonication in a solvent bath and then rinsed in de-ionized water prior to the spinning of e-beam resist. The bi-layer resist consists of a low-resolution methyl methacrylate (MMA) EL6 resist, which is used for creating an undercut to aid lift-off underneath the second layer of high-resolution resist, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) A2. Both resists were spun at 4000 rpm and sequentially baked at 180°C for 5 minutes. The exposure was carried out with a Vistec EBPG 5000 EBL system, after which the sample was developed in a 3:1 mixture of isopropanol:methyl isobutyl ketone at a solution temperature of 4°C for 1 minute. The metallic films used for the antenna structures were then deposited via e-beam evaporation, which were a multilayer stack of Ge/Ag/SiO2 with thicknesses of 2/40/5nm, respectively. The Ge layer is used as a seeding layer for the Ag film [9

9. V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

], as it greatly reduces the roughness and grain size of the Ag film while also improving film adhesion. The SiO2 acts as a capping layer for the Ag film to help retard ambient Ag oxidation to increase the operational life of the nano-antennas. The lift-off step was performed after evaporation by placing the sample in a heated bath of acetone, where minimal agitation was used to remove the resist/metal layer from the substrate.

The scattering spectrum of each antenna structure was obtained with a CytoViva Hyperspectral Imaging System. The system is based on a conventional dark-field microscope, where the sample is imaged and each pixel of the image contains the dark-field spectra of the given pixel location. The tungsten halogen light source of the Hyperspectral Imaging System is unpolarized.

The Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics was used to numerically investigate the scattering by the optical antennas [10

10. “COMSOL,” (COMSOL, Inc, 2012).

]. The background incident field was taken to be an unpolarized normally incident plane wave, and the background field incorporates the reflection at the substrate/air boundary. The total scattered power was found by integrating the outgoing component of the scattered Poynting vector over a surface surrounding the antenna. Simulations were also performed with linearly polarized light (not shown) to assist in the interpretation of spectral features. A full investigation of the complex polarisation response of these antennas is outside the scope of this work. The optical properties of Ag were taken from Palik [11

11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).

] and the refractive index of the glass substrate was 1.52.

3. Antenna spectral properties

Figure 1
Fig. 1 The RF and optical versions of the (a) J-pole, (b) M-J, (c) Vee and (d) AWX antennas, where the antenna and supports of the RF antennas are displayed in orange and black, respectively. The dimensions of the optical versions are noted, along with the initial gap between elements for the (c) Vee and (b) AWX. The scale bar in the SEM images represents 100 nm.
presents two families of RF antennas and their optical equivalents, namely the J-pole, Mirrored J-pole (MJ), Vee and All Wave X-shaped (AWX) antennas. The J-pole antenna is best understood as a bent dipole antenna. Unlike the dipole antenna, the asymmetric J-pole design enables a bright quadrupole mode [12

12. T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, and A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. The bright J-pole quadrupole mode is the selected resonant mode of operation for RF applications such as amateur radio, where the long arm of the antenna acts as a radiating dipole connected to matched feed arms, as shown in Fig. 1. The other member of the J-pole family we investigated, the M-J, is used in similar RF applications as the J-pole antenna, where extra room or support is available for the larger M-J antenna. The RF design rule for the J-pole/M-J is based on the long arm and short arms being ¾ and ¼ the resonant wavelength, respectively. However, as is well known, the RF design rules break down at optical wavelengths as the metals used for the antennas cannot be treated as perfect electrical conductors resulting in the dimensions used in this work [7

7. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The Vee antenna is typically used as a “Field Expedient” antenna in the military, which refers to antenna designs that can be easily improvised on the battlefield to improve communication systems [13

13. U. M. Corps, Antenna Handbook (Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 20380- 1775, 1999).

]. The antenna is essentially a dipole pair rotated perpendicular to each other, where the feed point is located at the closest ends of the pair. The AWX antenna, much like the M-J antenna is a doubled version of its simpler cousin, where a second pair ofdipole antennas is joined to the first pair to create to inward pointing V shapes. The AWX is used in RF applications for its large bandwidth range and high sensitivity, hence the name “All-Wave”, and as such is widely used in communications systems needing to access shortwave/longwave radio and military radio frequencies. Again, as these are optical versions of RF antennas, the ½ wavelength design rules for the arm lengths of the Vee and AWX do not apply, and the dimensions of the optical versions are illustrated in Fig. 1. All four optical antennas are designed to operate at wavelengths of 600-700nm, to correlate with the typical spectral location of semiconductor quantum dot fluorescence.

The spectral properties of the four optical-plasmonic versions of each antenna are presented in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectral response of (a) J-pole, (b) M-J, (c) Vee and (d) AWX obtained via dark-field microscopy plotted with simulated scattering spectra, where the respective surface charge profiles of the resonant modes for each of the antennas are shown. The two orthogonal resonances are plotted along with the unpolarized scattering spectra for the (c) Vee antenna.
, along with the surface charge profile for the dominant resonant mode, or modes in the case of the Vee antenna. The observed resonant mode of the J-pole antenna presented in Fig. 2(a) is the quadrupole mode, which is the mode typically used in RF applications. The benefit of using the quadrupole mode for optical plasmonic applications is the relatively narrow bandwidth of the resonance, along with a marginally improved directionality compared to the dipole resonance, which is discussed later. The slight wavelength variation between the resonance of the measured scattering intensity of the antenna and that of the simulation is due to inaccuracies in the material property data used for Ag, which is based on bulk material properties, and due to small variations in the fabricated structure compared with the model.

Due to the unpolarized nature of the hyperspectral darkfield system used to collect the antenna spectra, all bright-modes are excited irrespective of their polarization sensitivity. This is clearly observed for the Vee antenna, where two spectrally close modes are excited resulting in a double peak in the scattering spectra, which was further confirmed by the simulations carried out for orthogonal polarizations where the results are presented in addition to the unpolarized spectrum in Fig. 2(c). The spectral position of the resonance for both the Vee and AWX antennas are dependent on the relative distance between the two elements that make up each antenna. As previously observed by Fischer et al. [14

14. H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], moving the elements of a paired antenna system together results in red-shifting of the resonance due to the paired antennas behaving more as a large single antenna, rather than a coupled pair. However, the very large spectral red-shift due to reducing the gap between antennas observed for aligned dipole antennas of approximately 300nm is not observed for the Vee antennas presented in this work, where the shift is an order of magnitude less. The resonance of the Vee antenna is red-shifted as the gap is reduced, yet the amount of red-shift is close to that of a bow-tie antenna, where the shape of the individual elements has a greater influence factor on the resonance wavelength rather than the relative locations of each element [14

14. H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Antenna field properties

A detailed understanding of the electric field profile of the resonant modes of an optical antenna is critical to achieving the greatest possible emission enhancement from a dipole source. The maximum emission enhancement occurs when the emitter is placed and orientated in the location of the greatest electric field intensity of the antenna when at resonance aligned with the field. Hence, matching the spectral position of the resonance wavelength of the antenna with the emission spectrum of the emitter is crucial to maximizing emission enhancement.

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Electric field magnitude map for (a) J-pole, (b) M-J, (c) Vee and (d) AWX antennas, where the optimal dipole location and orientation is shown, along with the corresponding far-field spectra in the xy plane, (e) local electric field enhancement for each antenna with variable gaps for the Vee and AWX antennas.
presents the electric field intensity maps for the four studied antennas resonating at the mode illustrated in Fig. 2, which were achieved using the simulation method described in Sec. 2.2, where the optimal dipole orientation and location are also noted. The far-field spectra presented in Fig. 3 were numerically calculated via the FEM using an optimally located and orientated dipole at the respective illustrated locations for each antenna as the excitation source instead of the previously described background electric field.

The quadrupole mode of the J-pole antenna provides three “hot-spots” of high electric field intensity at which to place the dipole emitter. However, the region of greatest electric field intensity is at the base of the long arm, where the orientation of the dipole matches the excitation polarization angle of the J-pole quadrupole resonance [15

15. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The asymmetric design of the J-pole antenna results in a somewhat asymmetric far-field profile, indicating some directionality is possible, and could be further enhanced by manipulating the relative length of the short and long arms [12

12. T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, and A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013). [CrossRef]

].

Unlike the J-pole antenna, the regions of high electric field intensity of the quadrupole mode of the M-J antenna are located at the ends of the short arm of the structure. This is due to two quadrupole-like modes for the M-J antenna, where the mode displayed in Fig. 3(b) is bright and the other quadrupole mode, which involves the long arm in the resonance profile, is dark. The dark quadrupole mode has a zero dipole moment due to the symmetric nature of the mode, and is a much weaker mode compared to that of the bright quadrupole mode. The dark quardrupole mode cannot be excited from the far-field, so it requires an emitter to be located along the mid-point of the long arm with dipole angle of 0° for excitation, and hence it is not observed in Fig. 2. To achieve the greatest enhancement from the bright quardupole mode the dipole emitter is located at the base of the short arm of the M-J antenna and orientated parallel with the arm, much like that of a simple dipole antenna [16

16. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

], resulting in a far-field profile also similar to that of a dipole antenna as shown in Fig. 3(b).

The position of greatest electric field intensity for the Vee and AWX antenna is directly between the two elements, due to the coupling between the separate antenna arms. As is the case any other two element antenna system, such as the dimer and bowtie antennas [16

16. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

], the closer the arms are together the greater the electric field intensity in the gap, and thereforepotentially the greater the enhancement of emission. There are practical limits to how close two elements can be fabricated together, typically distances less than 10 nm are very challenging and require very novel fabrication procedures to achieve such gap length scales [17

17. W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, and K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The other practical concern with such small gaps is being able to reliably place the emitter in the gap accurately, which can be achieved with significant effort via electron beam lithography in the case with semiconductor quantum dots [18

18. C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012). [CrossRef]

], or via “pick-and-place” for nano-diamond for example [19

19. A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, and T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The orientation of the dipole emitter in the antenna pair structures is at 0°, matching the dipole moment of the given mode for each antenna. The excellent directivity of the Vee antenna is illustrated in Fig. 3(c), which is primarily why it is used in the field in military applications; simplicity of design combined with directionality sensitivity [13

13. U. M. Corps, Antenna Handbook (Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 20380- 1775, 1999).

]. As presented in Fig. 3(d), the downside of the AWX antenna is the poor directionality, due to the symmetric shape of the design, where the far-field pattern matches that of a bowtie antenna.

The electric field enhancement for each antenna, which is critical to their fluorescence enhancement abilities [16

16. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

], was calculated at the dipole excitation position illustrated in Fig. 3. The M-J antenna displayed the lowest electric field enhancement out of the four antennas, which contrasts with the RF version that is typically used as an improvement over the standard J-pole antenna. The poor performance of the M-J is primarily a consequence of the quadrupole resonance in this case being a ‘dark mode’, unlike the less symmetric J-pole antenna. The AWX antenna with close spaces between the two elements provided the greatest field enhancment, which compensates somewhat for the poor directivity, meaning it may prove to be the most efficient out of the four antennas for quantum source enhancement.

5. Conclusion

Four RF antenna designs have been studied for their applicability to the development of optical plasmonic antennas. The J-pole antenna displays narrow resonance bandwidth and some directionality via the quadrupole resonance, while its cousin the M-J lacks any improved directionality compared to a simple dipole antenna and with a large portion of the antenna left unexcited. The Vee antenna is a promising design, where strong directionality in the far-field pattern was extracted from simulations, qualitatively correlating with the RF version of the antenna, where again its cousin the AWX antenna provided no improvement in directionality over a simple dipole antenna.

Acknowledgments

This research was supported under the Australian Research Council's Discovery Projects funding scheme (DP110100221), and through the Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication Technical Fellowship program in the Victorian Node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility (ANFF), and the University of Melbourne Early Career Researcher Grant Scheme.

References and links

1.

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, and T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, and D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997). [CrossRef]

3.

W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, and H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000). [CrossRef]

4.

E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, and K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012). [CrossRef]

5.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]

9.

V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).

10.

“COMSOL,” (COMSOL, Inc, 2012).

11.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).

12.

T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, and A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013). [CrossRef]

13.

U. M. Corps, Antenna Handbook (Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 20380- 1775, 1999).

14.

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]

17.

W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, and K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012). [CrossRef]

19.

A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, and T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics
(350.4238) Other areas of optics : Nanophotonics and photonic crystals
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Plasmonics

History
Original Manuscript: September 27, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 20, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 5, 2014
Published: January 14, 2014

Citation
Timothy D. James, Timothy J. Davis, and Ann Roberts, "Optical investigation of the J-pole and Vee antenna families," Opt. Express 22, 1336-1341 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-2-1336


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References

  1. D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, “Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(9), 1581–1592 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Li, N. J. Feuerstein, D. O. Reudink, “Performance evaluation of a cellular base station multibeam antenna,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 46(1), 1–9 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. W. Schnell, W. Renz, M. Vester, H. Ermert, “Ultimate signal-to-noise-ratio of surface and body antennas for magnetic resonance imaging,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 48(3), 418–428 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. E. W. Reid, L. Ortiz-Balbuena, A. Ghadiri, K. Moez, “A 324-Element Vivaldi Antenna Array for Radio Astronomy Instrumentation,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(1), 241–250 (2012). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 75(2), 024402 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. S. Maksymov, I. Staude, A. E. Miroshnichenko, Y. S. Kivshar, “Optical Yagi-Uda nanoantennas,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 65–81 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(26), 266802 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Novotny, N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011). [CrossRef]
  9. V. Logeeswaran, N. P. Kobayashi, M. S. Islam, W. Wu, P. Chaturvedi, N. X. Fang, S. Y. Wang, R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth Silver Thin Films Deposited with a Germanium Nucleation Layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
  10. “COMSOL,” (COMSOL, Inc, 2012).
  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).
  12. T. D. James, Z. Q. Teo, D. E. Gomez, T. J. Davis, A. Roberts, “The plasmonic J-pole antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(3), 033106 (2013). [CrossRef]
  13. U. M. Corps, Antenna Handbook (Department of the Navy Headquarters United States Marine Corps, 20380- 1775, 1999).
  14. H. Fischer, O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional Emission of a Quantum Dot Coupled to a Nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 654–657 (2009). [CrossRef]
  17. W. Zhu, M. G. Banaee, D. Wang, Y. Chu, K. B. Crozier, “Lithographically Fabricated Optical Antennas with Gaps Well Below 10 nm,” Small 7(13), 1761–1766 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Gruber, P. Kusar, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, “Controlled addressing of quantum dots by nanowire plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(23), 231102 (2012). [CrossRef]
  19. A. W. Schell, G. Kewes, T. Hanke, A. Leitenstorfer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Benson, T. Aichele, “Single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals as quantum probes for plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7914–7920 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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