Optical three-dimensional refocusing from elemental images based on a sifting property of the periodic δ-function array in integral-imaging |
Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 1533-1550 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.001533
Acrobat PDF (5488 KB)
Abstract
We propose a novel approach to optically refocus three-dimensional (3-D) objects on their real depth from the captured elemental image array (EIA) by using a sifting property of the periodic δ-function array (PDFA) in integral-imaging. By convolving the PDFAs whose spatial periods correspond to each object’s depth with the sub-image array (SIA) transformed from the EIA, a set of spatially filtered-SIAs (SF-SIAs) for each object’s depth can be extracted. These SF-SIAs are then inverse-transformed into the corresponding versions of the EIAs, and from these, 3-D objects with their own perspectives can be reconstructed to be refocused on their depth in the space. The feasibility of the proposed method has been confirmed through optical experiments as well as ray-optical analysis.
© 2014 Optical Society of America
1. Introduction
11. H.-J. Lee, D.-H. Shin, H. Yoo, J.-J. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Computational integral imaging reconstruction scheme of far 3D objects by additional use of an imaging lens,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2026–2032 (2008). [CrossRef]
12. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 591–607 (2006). [CrossRef]
19. D.-H. Shin, S.-H. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Optical display of ture 3D objects in depth-priority integral imaging using an active sensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 330–334 (2007). [CrossRef]
8. S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12(3), 483–491 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
11. H.-J. Lee, D.-H. Shin, H. Yoo, J.-J. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Computational integral imaging reconstruction scheme of far 3D objects by additional use of an imaging lens,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2026–2032 (2008). [CrossRef]
20. B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1106–1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
26. J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
26. J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
27. J.-Y. Jang, D. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Improved 3-D image reconstruction using the convolution property of periodic functions in curved integral-imaging,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 54, 14–20 (2014). [CrossRef]
21. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5116–5126 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
26. J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
2. Proposed PDFA-based optical 3-D refocusing
2.1 Capturing the EIA of 3-D objects
26. J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
27. J.-Y. Jang, D. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Improved 3-D image reconstruction using the convolution property of periodic functions in curved integral-imaging,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 54, 14–20 (2014). [CrossRef]
2.2 Operational limitation of the PDFA to the captured EIA
26. J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
2.3 Transformation of the EIAs to the corresponding SIAs
21. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5116–5126 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
2.4 Analysis of a spatial periodicity of the SIA for the PDFA’s sifting operation
21. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5116–5126 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
26. J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
2.5 Spatial-filtering of the SIAs with the corresponding PDFAs and their reconstruction
3. Experiments on the optical 3-D refocusing with 3-D volumetric objects
4. Conclusions
Acknowledgments
References and links
1. | M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light Field Microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph. 25(3), 924–934 (2006). |
2. | R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenoptic Camera,” Technical Report CTSR 2005–02, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ., 2005. |
3. | M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Rendering,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, (1996), pp. 31–42. |
4. | R. Ng, “Digital light field photography,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, 2006). |
5. | T. Bishop, S. Zanetti, and P. Favaro, “Light Field Superresolution,” Proc. International Conference on Computational Photography, (2009), pp. 1–9. |
6. | A. Lumsdaine and T. Georgiev, “The focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. International Conference on Computational Photography, (2009), pp. 1–8. |
7. | R. Raskar and A.-K. Agrawal, “4D light field cameras,” US patent 772423 (September 2010). |
8. | S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12(3), 483–491 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
9. | D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Improved viewing quality of 3-D images in computational integral imaging reconstruction based on lenslet array model,” ETRI Journal 28(4), 521–524 (2006). [CrossRef] |
10. | J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Enhanced-resolution computational integral imaging reconstruction using an intermediate-view reconstruction technique,” Opt. Eng. 45(11), 117004 (2006). [CrossRef] |
11. | H.-J. Lee, D.-H. Shin, H. Yoo, J.-J. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Computational integral imaging reconstruction scheme of far 3D objects by additional use of an imaging lens,” Opt. Commun. 281(8), 2026–2032 (2008). [CrossRef] |
12. | A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 591–607 (2006). [CrossRef] |
13. | F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 36(7), 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
14. | J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 324–326 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
15. | Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Research, vol. 1, 17–27 (2010). |
16. | B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 818–820 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
17. | M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude-modulated microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt. 43(31), 5806–5813 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
18. | J.-H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimension / two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1875–1884 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
19. | D.-H. Shin, S.-H. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Optical display of ture 3D objects in depth-priority integral imaging using an active sensor,” Opt. Commun. 275(2), 330–334 (2007). [CrossRef] |
20. | B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1106–1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
21. | J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5116–5126 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
22. | J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Resolution-enhanced 3D image correlator using computationally reconstructed integral images,” Opt. Commun. 276(1), 72–79 (2007). [CrossRef] |
23. | M. Zhang, Y. Piao, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion-removed scheme using depth-reversed method in computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(14), 2571–2580 (2010). [CrossRef] |
24. | D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging and visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed stereo image sensing,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1394–1396 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
25. | B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research, 1:2 (2010). |
26. | J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed] |
27. | J.-Y. Jang, D. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Improved 3-D image reconstruction using the convolution property of periodic functions in curved integral-imaging,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 54, 14–20 (2014). [CrossRef] |
OCIS Codes
(110.4190) Imaging systems : Multiple imaging
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(150.5670) Machine vision : Range finding
ToC Category:
Imaging Systems
History
Original Manuscript: November 8, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 27, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: January 9, 2014
Published: January 15, 2014
Citation
Jae-Young Jang, Donghak Shin, and Eun-Soo Kim, "Optical three-dimensional refocusing from elemental images based on a sifting property of the periodic δ-function array in integral-imaging," Opt. Express 22, 1533-1550 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-2-1533
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References
- M. Levoy, R. Ng, A. Adams, M. Footer, and M. Horowitz, “Light Field Microscopy,” ACM Trans. Graph.25(3), 924–934 (2006).
- R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Brédif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Photography with a Hand-Held Plenoptic Camera,” Technical Report CTSR 2005–02, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford Univ., 2005.
- M. Levoy and P. Hanrahan, “Light Field Rendering,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, (1996), pp. 31–42.
- R. Ng, “Digital light field photography,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA, 2006).
- T. Bishop, S. Zanetti, and P. Favaro, “Light Field Superresolution,” Proc. International Conference on Computational Photography, (2009), pp. 1–9.
- A. Lumsdaine and T. Georgiev, “The focused plenoptic camera,” Proc. International Conference on Computational Photography, (2009), pp. 1–8.
- R. Raskar and A.-K. Agrawal, “4D light field cameras,” US patent 772423 (September 2010).
- S.-H. Hong, J.-S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express12(3), 483–491 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.-H. Shin, B. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Improved viewing quality of 3-D images in computational integral imaging reconstruction based on lenslet array model,” ETRI Journal28(4), 521–524 (2006). [CrossRef]
- J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Enhanced-resolution computational integral imaging reconstruction using an intermediate-view reconstruction technique,” Opt. Eng.45(11), 117004 (2006). [CrossRef]
- H.-J. Lee, D.-H. Shin, H. Yoo, J.-J. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Computational integral imaging reconstruction scheme of far 3D objects by additional use of an imaging lens,” Opt. Commun.281(8), 2026–2032 (2008). [CrossRef]
- A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE94(3), 591–607 (2006). [CrossRef]
- F. Okano, H. Hoshino, J. Arai, and I. Yuyama, “Real-time pickup method for a three-dimensional image based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt.36(7), 1598–1603 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging by use of nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett.27(5), 324–326 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Kim, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent researches based on integral imaging display method,” 3D Research, vol. 1, 17–27 (2010).
- B. Lee, S. Jung, and J.-H. Park, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging by lens switching,” Opt. Lett.27(10), 818–820 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Integral imaging with improved depth of field by use of amplitude-modulated microlens arrays,” Appl. Opt.43(31), 5806–5813 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Resolution-enhanced three-dimension / two-dimension convertible display based on integral imaging,” Opt. Express13(6), 1875–1884 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D.-H. Shin, S.-H. Lee, and E.-S. Kim, “Optical display of ture 3D objects in depth-priority integral imaging using an active sensor,” Opt. Commun.275(2), 330–334 (2007). [CrossRef]
- B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Díaz, and S.-H. Hong, “Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Lett.31(8), 1106–1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array,” Opt. Express13(13), 5116–5126 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-S. Park, D.-C. Hwang, D.-H. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Resolution-enhanced 3D image correlator using computationally reconstructed integral images,” Opt. Commun.276(1), 72–79 (2007). [CrossRef]
- M. Zhang, Y. Piao, and E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion-removed scheme using depth-reversed method in computational integral imaging,” Appl. Opt.49(14), 2571–2580 (2010). [CrossRef]
- D. Shin and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging and visualization of partially occluded objects using axially distributed stereo image sensing,” Opt. Lett.37(9), 1394–1396 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- B.-G. Lee, H.-H. Kang, E.-S. Kim, “Occlusion removal method of partially occluded object using variance in computational integral imaging,” 3D Research, 1:2 (2010).
- J.-Y. Jang, J.-I. Ser, S. Cha, and S.-H. Shin, “Depth extraction by using the correlation of the periodic function with an elemental image in integral imaging,” Appl. Opt.51(16), 3279–3286 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J.-Y. Jang, D. Shin, and E.-S. Kim, “Improved 3-D image reconstruction using the convolution property of periodic functions in curved integral-imaging,” Opt. Lasers Eng.54, 14–20 (2014). [CrossRef]
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