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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Jan. 27, 2014
  • pp: 1629–1635
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Carrier-envelope offset locking with a 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer using a dual-pitch PPLN ridge waveguide

Kenichi Hitachi, Atsushi Ishizawa, Tadashi Nishikawa, Masaki Asobe, and Tetsuomi Sogawa  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 1629-1635 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.001629


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Abstract

We demonstrate that a 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer (SRI) becomes a useful tool for stabilizing a carrier-envelope offset frequency of an Er-doped fiber laser. A dual-pitch periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide, consisting of two monolithically integrated segments with different quasi-phase matching pitch sizes, allows us to generate third-harmonic light with high efficiency. By using this device, we obtain a 45-dB signal-to-noise ratio in 100-kHz bandwidth of a heterodyne beat signal and instability of the in-loop fCEO of 8 × 10−18 at 1 s of averaging time. This result is important for fCEO stabilization of a frequency comb, for which it is difficult to obtain a one-octave supercontinuum spectrum.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Stabilizing the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency in an optical frequency comb has dramatically advanced the fields of precision spectroscopy [1

1. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 2

2. M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], femtosecond pulse shaping [3

3. C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008). [CrossRef]

], and astronomical physics [4

4. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In these fields, a widely mode-spaced optical frequency comb is desired because each frequency mode can be spectrally resolved in a simple manner and become accessible for individual use. In the past few years, the repetition rate of 10 GHz has been achieved with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser [5

5. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Also, phase/intensity-modulated lasers are able to produce higher mode spacing (in our case 25 GHz) of a frequency comb, which is achieved by sinusoidally modulating the phase and intensity of a continuous-wave laser diode with electro-optic modulators [6

6. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, and M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010). [CrossRef]

8

8. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, and M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, microresonator-based optical frequency combs (micro-combs) increase frep drastically with miniaturized and chip-scale microphotonic devices [9

9. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11

11. P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

2. Devices and the experimental setup

For the TH generation, we used 38 mm of the DP-PPLN ridge waveguide, which consists of two monolithically integrated segments with different quasi-phase matching (QPM) pitch sizes (Λ1 and Λ2) [Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of a DP-PPLN ridge waveguide for generating TH light. (b) Experimental setup for detecting and stabilizing fCEO with a 2f-to-3f SRI.
] [20

20. K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, and T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013). [CrossRef]

, 21

21. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. Efficient TH generation is achieved by confining the frequency comb with a ridge waveguide structure. In addition, a monolithic design free from optical coupling loss provides high conversion efficiency. Further advantages are discussed in [20

20. K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, and T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013). [CrossRef]

], K. Hitachi et al. The TH light is generated as follows: First, the longer-wavelength component at around 1800 nm (f1) of the frequency comb is frequency-doubled (2f1) in the first segment with the pitch size of Λ1 (23.55 μm). Then, the sum frequency (f3) is generated in the second segment with Λ2 (10.51 μm), using the SH component at around 900 nm (2f1) and f1’, which is close to f1. Even though f1f1’, a carrier-envelope offset frequency of f3 at around 600 nm is 3fCEO. For the SH generation, we used a SP-PPLN ridge waveguide with the pitch size of 9.55 μm, in which the quasi-phase was matched for SH light at around 1200-nm fundamental wavelength.

Figure 1(b) shows the experimental setup for detecting fCEO. We used a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser system, which delivers 100-fs, 1.2-nJ laser pulses at a repetition rate of 250 MHz with a center wavelength of 1560 nm. The light is launched into the HNLF, in which more than 2/3-octave bandwidth of the SC spectrum is generated. Then, a dichroic mirror spectrally separates the frequency comb at 1500 nm and guides the short- (long-) wavelength component of frequency comb into the SP- (DP-) PPLN devices to produce the SH (TH) light at the wavelength of 600 nm. Finally, the two beams are superimposed by a polarization beam splitter and focused on an Si photodetector. The fCEO is observed when we inject the output of the photodetector with an RF spectrum analyzer. To increase SNR of a heterodyne beat signal, we adjusted the powers of SH and TH light with a half-wave plate, which is placed between a polarization beam splitter and the photodetector. From the CEO signal, the heterodyne beat note between the interference components yields a frequency difference fCEO. This is phase-locked to fCEO = 20 MHz using a PLL circuit, which is detected by the phase difference between the CEO beat and a local oscillator based on the GPS reference signal. Note that frep of the fiber laser is also phase-locked with a PLL circuit.

3. The SC spectrum and the SH (TH) light from SP- (DP-) PPLN devices

Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 (a) SC spectrum generated from the HNLF. (b) SH light generated from the SP-PPLN ridge waveguide. The observed peak at 605 nm (labeled with a triangle) satisfies the QPM condition. (c) Spectrum from the DP-PPLN device after bandpass filtering (center wavelength at 607 nm). Only TH light (at around 605 nm, labeled with a traingle) is transmitted through the filter. (Inset to b and c) The input power dependence of SH and TH light.
shows the SC spectrum (average power: 288 mW) from the HNLF measured with a spectrometer. The power of the frequency comb at 1200 (1800) nm, which is a fundamental wavelength of (the first part of a) quasi-phase matched SP- (DP-) PPLN device, is −9 (−9) dB from the maximum, respectively, which is enough for generating SH (TH) light with high power. It should be mentioned that the SC spectrum from an HNLF can be easily altered by adjusting the input power of the fiber laser. We adjusted the input power so as to maximize SNR of fCEO.

For setting up a 2f-to-3f SRI, the SH and TH light should be spectrally overlapped. We can see that this condition is satisfied by comparing Figs. 2(b) and 2(c). The linewidth of the SH and TH light estimated with a high-resolution spectrometer is about 0.3 nm. In our experiment, we actually investigated the converted wavelength of the SH and TH light for several PPLN ridge waveguides with different QPM pitch sizes [20

20. K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, and T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013). [CrossRef]

], and selected a pair of SP- and DP-PPLN devices so that both SH and TH light are spectrally well overlapped. To obtain the further spectral overlap, we also investigated the temperature dependence of the wavelength of the SH and TH light, and optimized the temperature of both devices. We found that the wavelength increases 1 nm as the temperature increases 20 deg. The temperature controller is also important for stabilizing the spectrum from the SH and TH light, because, without it, the heat from the input frequency comb would significantly increase the temperature of both devices. Here, we adjusted the temperature of the SP- (DP-) PPLN device to be 30 (33) deg.

4. Stabilization of CEO signal

Now, we turn our attention to the heterodyne beat note and the stability of the CEO signal fed by the PLL circuit. For detecting fCEO, the two beams should be spectrally, spatially, and temporally overlapped. The spectral overlap is obtained by selecting an appropriate pair of SP- and DP-PPLN ridge waveguides and optimizing their temperature as discussed above, while the spatial overlap is attained by carefully tilting the angle of the mirrors so that the two beams are collinearly aligned before the light is injected into the photodetector. For the temporal overlap, we utilized the delay line in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer [Fig. 1(b)]. It is also important to decrease the broadband noise irrelevant to the detection of fCEO by utilizing a bandpass filter at the wavelength of 607 nm with 36-nm bandwidth, which is placed after DP-PPLN ridge waveguides [Fig. 1(b)]. This filter blocks the SH light at around 900 nm (not shown) from the DP-PPLN device. Note that it is not necessary to remove the original frequency comb from the SP- and DP-PPLN device, because an Si photodetector has almost no sensitivity above the wavelength of 1000 nm, and the contribution of broadband noise is weak.

Figure 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) RF signal from a heterodyne beat note observed with a spectrum analyzer at a 100-kHz bandwidth. The SNR of fCEO at 20 MHz is 45-dB at 100 kHz bandwidth. (b) Detailed observation of the beat signal with a 10-kHz bandwidth at around fCEO equal to 20 MHz.
shows the beat signal detected with a RF spectrum analyzer. We observed fCEO at 20 MHz with 45-dB SNR at 100-kHz bandwidth, which is enough for stabilizing fCEO as described below. The 10-kHz bandwidth of fCEO is shown in Fig. 3(b). The full width half maximum linewidth of the beat signal is about 100 kHz, which is comparable to our developed frequency stabilized f-to-2f SRI [22

22. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The beat signal is then phase locked, as shown in Fig. 1(b), by feedback to a photo-excited current fed from the pump laser diode. We estimated the instability of the locked fCEO with a frequency counter (Agilent 53230A), in which fCEO at n-th point, fCEOn is defined as follows:
fCEOn=1τnτ(n+1)τfCEO(t)dt
(1)
where τ is the averaging time in the frequency counter. This counter provides overlapped Allan deviation. We used the “RCON” mode in this counter, which gives continuous gap-free measurements by means of a reciprocal counting method. In this mode, the counter functions are π type. Figure 4(a)
Fig. 4 (a) Real-time observation of an output from a frequency counter at a 1-s gate time for a fCEO. (b) The measured Allan deviation for various gate time τ.
shows the counted fCEO as a function of time with τ = 1 s. Indeed, during the period of more than 1 h, there is no significant jump of fCEO in the frequency domain. The standard deviation of fCEO is 1 mHz.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated fCEO stabilization with a 2f-to-3f SRI using SP- and DP-PPLN ridge waveguides. The monolithic design of the DP-PPLN ridge waveguide allows us to generate TH light with high power. By using the SP- and DP-PPLN ridge waveguides, we generated a SNR of the heterodyne beat (45 dB) and stabilized fCEO (the in-loop fCEO is σ = 8 × 10−18 at 1 s of averaging time). This approach is important for fCEO stabilization of a frequency comb for which it is difficult to obtain a one-octave SC spectrum with an HNLF.

Acknowledgment

We thank H. Gotoh and H. Mashiko for helpful discussions. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24360143.

References and links

1.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, and M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, H. Nakano, T. Sogawa, A. Takada, and M. Koga, “Generation of 120-fs laser pulses at 1-GHz repetition rate derived from continuous wave laser diode,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22402–22409 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, and M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013). [CrossRef]

9.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999). [CrossRef]

13.

U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and A. Bartels, “Phase-coherent link from optical to microwave frequencies by means of the broadband continuum from a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire femtosecondoscillator,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1842–1844 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

F. L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, and M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1516–1518 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Integrated fiber-frequency comb using a PPLN waveguide for spectral broadening and CEO phase detection,” Conf. on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO), Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2006, paper CTuH5.

17.

C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Generation of octave-spanning spectra inside reverse-photon-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2478–2480 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, and A. N. Luiten, “Frequency stabilisation of a fibre-laser comb using a novel microstructured fibre,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5897–5904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, and C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, and T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013). [CrossRef]

21.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003). [CrossRef]

22.

A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.7090) Lasers and laser optics : Ultrafast lasers
(140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation
(230.7405) Optical devices : Wavelength conversion devices

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: October 22, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 21, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 27, 2013
Published: January 16, 2014

Citation
Kenichi Hitachi, Atsushi Ishizawa, Tadashi Nishikawa, Masaki Asobe, and Tetsuomi Sogawa, "Carrier-envelope offset locking with a 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer using a dual-pitch PPLN ridge waveguide," Opt. Express 22, 1629-1635 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-2-1629


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References

  1. T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy: application to human breath analysis,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2387–2397 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, J. Caraquitena, A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line shaping for optical and microwave arbitrary waveform generations,” Laser and Photon. Rev. 2(4), 227–248 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, T. Udem, “Laser frequency combs for astronomical observations,” Science 321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz self-referenced optical frequency comb,” Science 326(5953), 681 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, H. Nakano, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Octave-spanning frequency comb generated by 250 fs pulse train emitted from 25 GHz externally phase-modulated laser diode for carrier-envelope-offset-locking,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1343–1344 (2010). [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, H. Nakano, T. Sogawa, A. Takada, M. Koga, “Generation of 120-fs laser pulses at 1-GHz repetition rate derived from continuous wave laser diode,” Opt. Express 19(23), 22402–22409 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, A. Mizutori, H. Takara, A. Takada, T. Sogawa, M. Koga, “Phase-noise characteristics of a 25-GHz-spaced optical frequency comb based on a phase- and intensity-modulated laser,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29186–29194 (2013). [CrossRef]
  9. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172(1-6), 59–68 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. U. Morgner, R. Ell, G. Metzler, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(24), 5462–5465 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. M. Ramond, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, A. Bartels, “Phase-coherent link from optical to microwave frequencies by means of the broadband continuum from a 1-GHz Ti:sapphire femtosecondoscillator,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1842–1844 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. L. Hong, K. Minoshima, A. Onae, H. Inaba, H. Takada, A. Hirai, H. Matsumoto, T. Sugiura, M. Yoshida, “Broad-spectrum frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope offset frequency measurement by second-harmonic generation of a mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 28(17), 1516–1518 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, J. W. Nicholson, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Integrated fiber-frequency comb using a PPLN waveguide for spectral broadening and CEO phase detection,” Conf. on Lasers and Electro-optics (CLEO), Long Beach, CA, USA, May 2006, paper CTuH5.
  17. C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, I. Hartl, M. E. Fermann, “Generation of octave-spanning spectra inside reverse-photon-exchanged periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2478–2480 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. R. Locke, E. N. Ivanov, P. S. Light, F. Benabid, A. N. Luiten, “Frequency stabilisation of a fibre-laser comb using a novel microstructured fibre,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5897–5904 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. R. Washburn, S. A. Diddams, N. R. Newbury, J. W. Nicholson, M. F. Yan, C. G. Jørgensen, “Phase-locked, erbium-fiber-laser-based frequency comb in the near infrared,” Opt. Lett. 29(3), 250–252 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Hitachi, A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, M. Asobe, T. Sogawa, “Periodically poled lithium niobate ridge waveguides with high conversion efficiency for 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer,” Elec. Lett. 49(2), 145–146 (2013). [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Suzuki, “Direct-bonded QPM-LN ridge waveguide with high damage resistance at room temperature,” Elec. Lett. 39(7), 609–610 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. A. Ishizawa, T. Nishikawa, S. Aozasa, A. Mori, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Nakano, “Demonstration of carrier envelope offset locking with low pulse energy,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4706–4712 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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