## Non-rectangular perfect reconstruction pulse shaping based ICI reduction in CO-OFDM |

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 1749-1759 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.001749

Acrobat PDF (1356 KB)

### Abstract

In this paper, we propose to increase residual carrier frequency offset tolerance based on short perfect reconstruction pulse shaping for coherent optical-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. The proposed method suppresses the residual carrier frequency offset induced penalty at the receiver, without requiring any additional overhead and exhaustive signal processing. The Q-factor improvement contributed by the proposed method is 1.6 dB and 1.8 dB for time-frequency localization maximization and out-of-band energy minimization pulse shapes, respectively. Finally, the transmission span gain under the influence of residual carrier frequency offset is ~62% with out-of-band energy minimization pulse shape.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

## 1. Introduction

2. Z. Jian and A. Ellis, “Advantage of optical fast OFDM over OFDM in residual frequency offset compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(24), 2284–2287 (2012). [CrossRef]

3. C. Simin, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photonics J. **2**(3), 454–459 (2010). [CrossRef]

5. Y. Chun Ju, L. Xiang, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Yong-Hwan, K. Jong-Hoi, J.-S. Choe, C. Kwang-Seong, and N. Eun-Soo, “An efficient and frequency-offset-tolerant channel estimation and synchronization method for PDM CO-OFDM transmission,” in *2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)* (2010), pp. 1–3.

2. Z. Jian and A. Ellis, “Advantage of optical fast OFDM over OFDM in residual frequency offset compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(24), 2284–2287 (2012). [CrossRef]

2. Z. Jian and A. Ellis, “Advantage of optical fast OFDM over OFDM in residual frequency offset compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **24**(24), 2284–2287 (2012). [CrossRef]

6. A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, “OFDM versus single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. **28**(17), 2537–2551 (2010). [CrossRef]

6. A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, “OFDM versus single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. **28**(17), 2537–2551 (2010). [CrossRef]

7. N. Kaneda, Y. Qi, L. Xiang, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. **28**(4), 494–501 (2010). [CrossRef]

3. C. Simin, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photonics J. **2**(3), 454–459 (2010). [CrossRef]

*et al*[9

9. T. Li, Y. Jianjun, Z. Junwen, S. Yufeng, and C. Nan, “Reduction of intercarrier interference based on window shaping in OFDM RoF systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **25**(9), 851–854 (2013). [CrossRef]

## 2. Principal of proposed pulse shapes and impact of residual CFO

10. W. Kozek and A. F. Molisch, “On the eigenstructure of underspread WSSUS channels,” in First IEEE Signal Processing Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (1997), pp. 325–328. [CrossRef]

11. D. Roque and C. Siclet, “Performances of weighted cyclic prefix OFDM with low-complexity equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. **17**(3), 439–442 (2013). [CrossRef]

### 2.1 Input-output relationship

*c*

_{m}_{,}

*}*

_{n}_{(}

_{m}_{,}

_{n}_{)}, where

*m*is the subcarrier index,

*n*is the block index. The symbols are assumed to be independent and identically distributed. Each

*c*

_{m}_{,}

*is placed in the time-frequency plane at coordinates (*

_{n}*m*/

*M*,

*nN*), where

*M*is the number of subcarriers and

*N*represents the number of sample per sub-channel symbol period. The transmitted signal can be written as a function of discrete time

*k*:where

**Z**is the integer set, γ

_{m,}

*[*

_{n}*k*] is a time-frequency shifted version of the prototype pulse shape

*γ*[

*k*] defined as:where

*γ*

_{m}_{,}

*}. This requires*

_{n}*N*/

*M*≥ 1, but orthogonality and completeness are not mandatory [12

12. W. Kozek and A. F. Molisch, “Nonorthogonal pulseshapes for multicarrier communications in doubly dispersive channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. **16**(8), 1579–1589 (1998). [CrossRef]

*x*and

*y*be two sequences of

*x*\\ = ‹

*x*,

*x*›

^{1/2}. At the receiver side, the dual family of {

*γ*

_{m}_{,}

*} is written as {*

_{n}*r*[

*k*] =

*s*[

*k*], the received signal is projected on the dual family and if we let (

*m*,

*n*) ≠ (

*p*,

*q*), where the

*q*th received symbol on the

*p*th sub-channel can be written as:We notice from this expression that perfect reconstruction of the transmitted symbols needs biorthogonality, namely

*m*,

*n*) and (

*p*,

*q*);

*δ*represents the Kronecker delta. If

*N*-size block processing, we restrict our analysis on short filters, that is to say

*k*>

*N*– 1 or

*k*< 0. This particular condition allows an

*N*-size block processing. The resulting transmission scheme can be efficiently realized thanks to the use of fast algorithms [13]. Thus, this generalizes the conventional OFDM transceiver by allowing non-rectangular pulse shapes while preserving a low complexity, as shown in Fig. 2 (detailed system description will be given in the Section 3). If we denote

*x*[

*k*], 0 ≤

*k*≤

*M*– 1, entering the cyclic prefix Insertion block, and its output as

*y*[

*k*], 0 ≤

*k*≤

*N*– 1, then we have

*y*[

*k*] =

*x*[2

*M – N*+

*k*] for 0 ≤

*k*≤

*N – M –*1 and

*y*[

*k*] =

*x*[

*N – M*+

*k*] for

*N – M*≤

*k*≤

*N –*1. The resulting

*N*samples are weighted by

*r*[

*k*] =

*s*[

*k*]. In particular, cyclic prefix Folding block is defined by the following: if we denote

*x*[

*k*], 0 ≤

*k*≤

*N*– 1 as entering cyclic prefix Folding block, and its output is

*y*[

*k*], 0 ≤

*k*≤

*M*– 1, then we have

*y*[

*k*] =

*x*[

*N –M*+

*k*] for 0 ≤

*k*≤ 2

*M – N –*1 and

*y*[

*k*] =

*x*[

*k –*(2

*M – N*)] +

*x*[

*k –*(

*M – N*)] for 2

*M – N*≤

*k*≤

*M –*1.

*r*[

*k*] is equal to the transmitted signal

*s*[

*k*], then the complex symbols {

*c*

_{m}_{,}

*} can be exactly reconstructed provided that the following perfect reconstruction conditions are fulfilled:Through this relation, one may recover the expression of rectangular pulse shape used for cyclic prefix based OFDM: if*

_{n}*k*≤

*N –*1 and 0 otherwise and perfect reconstruction is satisfied when

*N –M*≤

*k*≤

*N –*1 and 0 otherwise.

### 2.2 CO-OFDM in the presence of residual CFO

*ϕ*is the residual CFO, and

*z*[

*k*] is a complex white Gaussian noise sequence. Taking into account (1), (4), and (6), we derive the expression of the

*q*th estimated symbol on the

*p*th subcarrier:

*n*≠

*q*, so that there is no interference between OFDM symbols. Consequently, we can focus on a single OFDM symbols estimation and omit

*n*and

*q*indices:where

*s*is the useful part of the signal,

_{p}*i*is ICI term, and

_{p}*z*is the filtered noise. The useful part of the signal should be maximized and the rest should be minimized in terms of mean power. First of all, in presence of a small residual CFO such that

_{p}*ϕ*< 1/

*M*, with overlapped frequency domain signals, ICI mitigation suggests using frequency localized pulse shapes. On the other hand, the presence of additive white Gaussian noise justifies the use of orthogonal signaling (

*i*.

*e*. matched filtering) [14].

### 2.3 Perfect reconstruction filters

#### 2.3.1 Biorthogonal rectangular pulse shapes

15. B. Farhang-Boroujeny, “OFDM versus filter bank multicarrier,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. **28**(3), 92–112 (2011). [CrossRef]

16. T. Strohmer and S. Beaver, “Optimal OFDM design for time-frequency dispersive channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. **51**(7), 1111–1122 (2003). [CrossRef]

*N – M*coefficients of

*γ*

_{RECT}form the cyclic prefix in order to mitigate inter-symbol interference introduced by time-dispersive channels. At the receiver side, the cyclic prefix is removed by

#### 2.3.2 Orthogonal perfect reconstruction filters

17. D. Pinchon and P. Siohan, “Closed-form expressions of optimal short PR FMT prototype filters,” in 2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011) (2011), pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]

*N – M*, closed-form expressions are given for both filters: where

17. D. Pinchon and P. Siohan, “Closed-form expressions of optimal short PR FMT prototype filters,” in 2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011) (2011), pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]

*M /*∆. The time-frequency analysis of the prototype pulse shapes are shown in Fig. 1, and plotted against rectangular pulse as a reference. From Fig. 1, TFL pulse shape exhibits better localization in time and frequency than OBE. In principal, both OBE and TFL are short length, perfect reconstruction (orthogonal) and have symmetric impulse response. The difference between these pulse shapes is that TFL has higher sidelobe power (lower than rectangular pulse shape) and quick power decay; on the other hand OBE has lower sidelobe power and slow power decay.

## 3. System Overview

^{TM}, as shown in Fig. 2.

*M*= 512 parallel structured data prior to being mapped into gray coded QPSK modulation format. The first symbol is used for channel estimation, and 8 pilot symbols are placed in an interval of every 64 subcarriers for phase noise estimation. The QPSK data is then transformed into OFDM signal by performing IFFT of size 1024 operation, apart from the data subcarriers, the rest are padded with zeros for oversampling purpose. The duration of OFDM symbol is 40.1 ns. The OFDM signal is then appended by cyclic prefix at the rate of 25% to combat inter-symbol interference in long haul transmission. The extended OFDM symbol is then weighted with various pulse shapes, including rectangular, RRC with

*α*of 0.1, 0.2, and 1, and the newly introduced TFL and OBE.

^{1/2}, CD coefficient: 16 ps/nm.km, and optical fiber nonlinearity coefficient: 1.22 W

^{−1}km

^{−1}. The optical fiber loss is compensated for every 80 km span by utilizing erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with 16 dB gain and noise figure of 6 dB. The laser phase noise is modeled using the Wiener-Levy process, expressed as the variance

*σ*

^{2}= 2π

*vt*, where

*v*is the combined laser linewidth and

*t*is the time difference between two samples [19

19. S. Randel, S. Adhikari, and S. L. Jansen, “Analysis of RF-pilot-based phase noise compensation for coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **22**(17), 1288–1290 (2010). [CrossRef]

## 4. Results and discussions

20. A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, E. Yamada, Y. Miyamoto, F. Inuzuka, Y. Hibino, Y. Takatori, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, and Y. Sakamaki, “30 x 100-Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes,” in *2007 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication - Post-Deadline Papers *(published 2008) (2007), pp. 1–2.

*α*of 0.1 and 0.2 is 9.3 dB and 9.1 dB, respectively, unveiling the optimum

*α*as 0.1 and consequently agreeing with [9

9. T. Li, Y. Jianjun, Z. Junwen, S. Yufeng, and C. Nan, “Reduction of intercarrier interference based on window shaping in OFDM RoF systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. **25**(9), 851–854 (2013). [CrossRef]

*α*to 1 introduces excessive inter-symbol interference, resulting in very worsen Q-factor, where at −8 dBm optical launch power, the Q-factor is 7.3 dB. One important aspect that needs to be addressed here is that theoptimum optical launch power point decreases with respect to the increasing

*α*. This is due to the proportional increase of PAPR relative to the increase in

*α*. Now we have shown the impact of applying RRC and confirmed the optimum

*α*, although applying RRC resulted in Q-factor above the FEC limit, but the improvement is rather insignificant. Henceforth, the investigation on RRC will be dropped from rest of the paper.

*et al*can be referred for further information [21

21. D. Roque, C. Siclet, J. Brossier, and P. Siohan, “Weighted cyclic prefix OFDM: PAPR analysis and performances comparison with DFT-precoding,” in 2012 Conference Record of the Forty Sixth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR) (2012), pp. 1065–1068. [CrossRef]

*x*), 0 ≤

*x*≤ 4 MHz; for the transmission span of 1600 km, as shown in Fig. 4. At CFO of 0, all three pulse shapes exhibit almost similar performance. For residual CFO > 0.5 MHz, rectangular pulse shape performs worse than both TFL and OBE with continuous degradation in Q-factor with a very sharp slope, effectively demonstrating the rectangular pulse shape's sensitivity towards ICI. Since TFL pulse shape's side lobe is lower than rectangular pulse shape and higher than OBE, it provides an optimum compensation for ICI up to 1 MHz. However, OBE closely follows the trend of TFL up to 1 MHz. Beyond 1 MHz, due to OBE's much lower power based sidelobes, it exhibits better resilience towards increasing ICI compared to TFL and rectangular.

22. W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express **16**(9), 6378–6386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23. Q. Dayou, H. Ming-Fang, Z. Shaoliang, P. Nan Ji, S. Yin, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, W. Ting, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in *2011 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC)* (2011), pp. 1–3.

## 7. Conclusion

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | Z. Benyuan, D. Peckham, Y. Man, T. Taunay, and J. Fini, “Recent progress in transmission fibers for capacity beyond 100-Tbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3. |

2. | Z. Jian and A. Ellis, “Advantage of optical fast OFDM over OFDM in residual frequency offset compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

3. | C. Simin, Y. Ma, and W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photonics J. |

4. | X. Zhou, K. Long, R. Li, X. Yang, and Z. Zhang, “A simple and efficient frequency offset estimation algorithm for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems,” Opt. Express |

5. | Y. Chun Ju, L. Xiang, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Yong-Hwan, K. Jong-Hoi, J.-S. Choe, C. Kwang-Seong, and N. Eun-Soo, “An efficient and frequency-offset-tolerant channel estimation and synchronization method for PDM CO-OFDM transmission,” in |

6. | A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, and G. Prati, “OFDM versus single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

7. | N. Kaneda, Y. Qi, L. Xiang, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, and Y. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. |

8. | C. Simin, Y. Qi, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in |

9. | T. Li, Y. Jianjun, Z. Junwen, S. Yufeng, and C. Nan, “Reduction of intercarrier interference based on window shaping in OFDM RoF systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

10. | W. Kozek and A. F. Molisch, “On the eigenstructure of underspread WSSUS channels,” in First IEEE Signal Processing Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (1997), pp. 325–328. [CrossRef] |

11. | D. Roque and C. Siclet, “Performances of weighted cyclic prefix OFDM with low-complexity equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. |

12. | W. Kozek and A. F. Molisch, “Nonorthogonal pulseshapes for multicarrier communications in doubly dispersive channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. |

13. | D. Roque, “Modulations multiporteuses WCP-OFDM: evaluation des performances en environment radiomobile,” PhD Dissertation (Universite de Grenoble, 2012). |

14. | J. Proakis and M. Salehi, |

15. | B. Farhang-Boroujeny, “OFDM versus filter bank multicarrier,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. |

16. | T. Strohmer and S. Beaver, “Optimal OFDM design for time-frequency dispersive channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. |

17. | D. Pinchon and P. Siohan, “Closed-form expressions of optimal short PR FMT prototype filters,” in 2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011) (2011), pp. 1–5. [CrossRef] |

18. | P. Siohan, C. Siclet, and N. Lacaille, “Analysis and design of OFDM/OQAM systems based on filterbank theory,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. |

19. | S. Randel, S. Adhikari, and S. L. Jansen, “Analysis of RF-pilot-based phase noise compensation for coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. |

20. | A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, E. Yamada, Y. Miyamoto, F. Inuzuka, Y. Hibino, Y. Takatori, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, and Y. Sakamaki, “30 x 100-Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes,” in |

21. | D. Roque, C. Siclet, J. Brossier, and P. Siohan, “Weighted cyclic prefix OFDM: PAPR analysis and performances comparison with DFT-precoding,” in 2012 Conference Record of the Forty Sixth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR) (2012), pp. 1065–1068. [CrossRef] |

22. | W. Shieh, Q. Yang, and Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express |

23. | Q. Dayou, H. Ming-Fang, Z. Shaoliang, P. Nan Ji, S. Yin, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, W. Ting, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in |

**OCIS Codes**

(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications

(060.1660) Fiber optics and optical communications : Coherent communications

**ToC Category:**

Optical Communications

**History**

Original Manuscript: November 1, 2013

Revised Manuscript: January 3, 2014

Manuscript Accepted: January 7, 2014

Published: January 17, 2014

**Citation**

Thavamaran Kanesan, Son Thai Le, Damien Roque, and Andrew D. Ellis, "Non-rectangular perfect reconstruction pulse shaping based ICI reduction in CO-OFDM," Opt. Express **22**, 1749-1759 (2014)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-2-1749

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### References

- Z. Benyuan, D. Peckham, Y. Man, T. Taunay, J. Fini, “Recent progress in transmission fibers for capacity beyond 100-Tbit/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2012), pp. 1–3.
- Z. Jian, A. Ellis, “Advantage of optical fast OFDM over OFDM in residual frequency offset compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(24), 2284–2287 (2012). [CrossRef]
- C. Simin, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, “Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 454–459 (2010). [CrossRef]
- X. Zhou, K. Long, R. Li, X. Yang, Z. Zhang, “A simple and efficient frequency offset estimation algorithm for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7350–7361 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Y. Chun Ju, L. Xiang, S. Chandrasekhar, K. Yong-Hwan, K. Jong-Hoi, J.-S. Choe, C. Kwang-Seong, and N. Eun-Soo, “An efficient and frequency-offset-tolerant channel estimation and synchronization method for PDM CO-OFDM transmission,” in 2010 36th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2010), pp. 1–3.
- A. Barbieri, G. Colavolpe, T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, “OFDM versus single-carrier transmission for 100 Gbps optical communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(17), 2537–2551 (2010). [CrossRef]
- N. Kaneda, Y. Qi, L. Xiang, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y. Chen, “Real-Time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 494–501 (2010). [CrossRef]
- C. Simin, Y. Qi, and W. Shieh, “Demonstration of 12.1-Gb/s single-band real-time coherent optical OFDM reception,” in 2010 15th OptoeElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) (2010), pp. 472–473.
- T. Li, Y. Jianjun, Z. Junwen, S. Yufeng, C. Nan, “Reduction of intercarrier interference based on window shaping in OFDM RoF systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 851–854 (2013). [CrossRef]
- W. Kozek, A. F. Molisch, “On the eigenstructure of underspread WSSUS channels,” in First IEEE Signal Processing Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (1997), pp. 325–328. [CrossRef]
- D. Roque, C. Siclet, “Performances of weighted cyclic prefix OFDM with low-complexity equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 17(3), 439–442 (2013). [CrossRef]
- W. Kozek, A. F. Molisch, “Nonorthogonal pulseshapes for multicarrier communications in doubly dispersive channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 16(8), 1579–1589 (1998). [CrossRef]
- D. Roque, “Modulations multiporteuses WCP-OFDM: evaluation des performances en environment radiomobile,” PhD Dissertation (Universite de Grenoble, 2012).
- J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2006).
- B. Farhang-Boroujeny, “OFDM versus filter bank multicarrier,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 28(3), 92–112 (2011). [CrossRef]
- T. Strohmer, S. Beaver, “Optimal OFDM design for time-frequency dispersive channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 51(7), 1111–1122 (2003). [CrossRef]
- D. Pinchon, P. Siohan, “Closed-form expressions of optimal short PR FMT prototype filters,” in 2011 IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM 2011) (2011), pp. 1–5. [CrossRef]
- P. Siohan, C. Siclet, N. Lacaille, “Analysis and design of OFDM/OQAM systems based on filterbank theory,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 50(5), 1170–1183 (2002). [CrossRef]
- S. Randel, S. Adhikari, S. L. Jansen, “Analysis of RF-pilot-based phase noise compensation for coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(17), 1288–1290 (2010). [CrossRef]
- A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, E. Yamada, Y. Miyamoto, F. Inuzuka, Y. Hibino, Y. Takatori, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, and Y. Sakamaki, “30 x 100-Gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes,” in 2007 33rd European Conference and Exhibition of Optical Communication - Post-Deadline Papers (published 2008) (2007), pp. 1–2.
- D. Roque, C. Siclet, J. Brossier, P. Siohan, “Weighted cyclic prefix OFDM: PAPR analysis and performances comparison with DFT-precoding,” in 2012 Conference Record of the Forty Sixth Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (ASILOMAR) (2012), pp. 1065–1068. [CrossRef]
- W. Shieh, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, “107 Gb/s coherent optical OFDM transmission over 1000-km SSMF fiber using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6378–6386 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Q. Dayou, H. Ming-Fang, Z. Shaoliang, P. Nan Ji, S. Yin, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, W. Ting, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in 2011 37th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC) (2011), pp. 1–3.

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