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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 2 — Jan. 27, 2014
  • pp: 1896–1905
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Role of cavity dispersion on soliton grouping in a fiber lasers

Regina Gumenyuk, Dmitry A. Korobko, Igor O. Zolotovsky, and Oleg G. Okhotnikov  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 2, pp. 1896-1905 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.001896


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Abstract

The effect of cavity dispersion on the dynamics of bound soliton states in a fiber laser has been studied both experimentally and numerically. The mode-locking mechanism in a laser was provided by the frequency-shifted feedback to avoid the influence of soliton attraction that could be induced by saturable absorption. It was found that phase-locked bound solitons are stable for dispersion below the “threshold” value of 0.2 ps/nm which depends on the other cavity parameters. For higher dispersion the bound states collapse resulting in the multiple weakly-interacting soliton regime, circulating randomly within the cavity.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The soliton interactions in a fiber laser depend on cavity details, e.g. dispersion map, nonlinearity, loss/gain balance, and could lead to specific form of soliton grouping. Various multiple bounded soliton states have been observed owing to complex pulse dynamics in fiber lasers [1

1. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003). [CrossRef]

5

5. R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Particularly, the bound states with π, 0, ± π/2 soliton phase difference were observed [6

6. L. Gui, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013). [CrossRef]

8

8. P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003). [CrossRef]

]. The strength of pulse interaction allows to identify tightly, medium or weakly bounded states depending on the soliton separation within the group [9

9. X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. It was demonstrated that saturable absorption with complex recovery dynamics could strongly modify the solitons interaction [10

10. R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Temporal control of vector soliton bunching by slow/fast saturable absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(1), 1–7 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Markedly, the slow recovery component induces an attractive force pushing the pulses closer. The dispersion management of the cavity allows to modify the temporal regime of multiple solitons from stable bound soliton state for normal dispersion gain fiber to irregular bunch of solitons for anomalous dispersion fiber [11

11. R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. The excessive nonlinearity in the cavity tends to destroy the stable bound solitons and leads to chaotic motion of pulses within a bunch [12

12. R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. It was found that soliton separation within the bound state increases with the cavity dispersion [12

12. R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. In this study, to identify the actual role of cavity dispersion without disturbing effect induced by the relaxation dynamics of saturable absorption, we used mode-locked technique based on the cavity with frequency–shifting feedback (FSF). The mode-locking through the frequency-shifted feedback exploits Kerr effect and spectral filtering to generate phase locking seed signal that sets up the nearly linear phase distribution throughout the entire pulse spectrum [13

13. S. U. Alam and A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004). [CrossRef]

, 14

14. J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. The net cavity dispersion of Yb-doped fiber laser could be tuned over the wide range by implementing the grating pair.

Though the central objective of both present study and previously published paper [12

12. R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013). [CrossRef]

] is the effect of cavity dispersion on soliton group formation, the current manuscript describes in the more details the soliton interaction and, particularly, it shows that excessive cavity dispersion could lead to the collapse of the bound state. By preventing the strong soliton attraction induced by SESAM, and keeping cavity parameters unchanged, the mode-locking based on frequency-shifted feedback allows to observe the direct soliton interaction and to reveal the crucial role of dispersion on stability of the bound state. It was found that above certain critical/threshold value of cavity dispersion, the solitons cannot circulate within the cavity as a stable group with fixed temporal separation but rather appear as a bunch of pulses with arbitrary relative phases and locations. The actual transition from bound state to chaotic free-running soliton dynamics occurs over certain value of dispersion determined by combination of cavity parameters – nonlinearity, gain and gain bandwidth. The numerical simulations show that the onset of bound state collapse occurs for dispersion above 0.19 ps/nm in a close agreement with value 0.2 ps/nm found from experiment.

With an increase in cavity dispersion, the peak power of bounded soliton decreases, while their frequency increases. Above critical/threshold value of dispersion corresponding to a specific soliton frequency, the losses induced by the spectral filtering or/and limited gain could not support bound state of identical solitons. The collapse of the bound state leads to the formation of the multiple pulse regime with solitons of different power and frequency circulating randomly within the cavity.

2. Experimental results

The schematic of the pulsed fiber laser is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Yb-doped fiber laser setup.
. The gain is provided by 1.1 m-long ytterbium-doped fiber pumped by 980 nm diode laser through fiber pump coupler. The laser cavity terminated by two high reflective (HR) dielectric mirrors comprises an actively driven free-space acousto-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) that shapes the feedback signal in frequency and time domains. A pair of transmission gratings could tune the overall anomalous cavity dispersion from 0.11 to 0.39 ps/nm. The output was provided by the 10% fiber coupler. The total cavity length was ~3.6 m corresponding to the repetition rate of 27.6 MHz.

The anomalous dispersion regime set by the grating dispersion compensator ensured the multiple soliton operation. Figure 2
Fig. 2 Laser output characteristics depending on the net cavity dispersion. a – autocorrelations, b – optical spectra, c – oscilloscope pictures of the pulse train.
shows the effect of net cavity dispersion on the soliton parameters. The increase of dispersion by factor of 4 allowed the transition of the multiple pulse regime from stable fixed-space bounded solitons to weakly-interacting largely-spaced solitons. The measurements for various dispersion regimes were made at identical conditions including the same pump power of 115 mW. The output power was equaled to ~2 mW. The highest value of cavity dispersion that allows the stable bound soliton to be observed was ~0.2 ps/nm. For the cavity with the dispersion of 0.11 ps/nm the bound state contains 3 pulses separated by 22.3 ps (Fig. 2). The duration of each pulse was 1.63 ps (sech2). Since the pulse separation exceeds by 14 times the pulse width, the state can be regarded as the loosely bound solitons. The energy of fundamental soliton was equaled to 3.7 pJ.

The bound state for the net cavity dispersion of 0.15 ps/nm is shown in Fig. 2. The number of pulses in a group was 4, while the pulse separation in a bound state increased up to 23.9 ps with the pulse duration of 2.05 ps. The pulse spectrum is modulated with a period of 0.17 nm corresponding to the pulse separation of 23.9 ps. A 15.8 dB spectral deviation shows the close phase locking of solitons within the group. The high contrast of spectral oscillations indicates the coherent character of the bound state. The scope waveform displays a “single pulse” train since the temporal resolution of the measured system cannot resolve the individual soliton within the group. The energy of fundamental soliton was equaled to 4.1 pJ.

Above the dispersion value of 0.2 ps/nm, the weakly-interacting solitons regime builds up with the irregular (relative) phases and energy of fundamental soliton of 5.3 pJ. Figure 2 shows weakly interacting multiple solitons for the specific cavity dispersions of 0.28 and 0.39 ps/nm corresponding to the energy of fundamental soliton of 13 and 18 pJ, respectively. The autocorrelations reveal the single pulse within the autocorrelation scan range of 180 ps. The corresponding optical spectra contain Kelly sidebands whereas the interference pattern is suppressed indicating the random phases of interacting solitons. The oscilloscope pictures of the pulse train show numerous pulses circulating through the cavity.

3. Numerical simulations and discussions

The soliton interaction in a fiber laser was analyzed by numerical simulation using standard split-step Fourier method. The general phenomena induced by the cavity dispersion were primarily analyzed for two-bound solitons states. Since the number of bounded solitons in a group depends on numerous parameters of the cavity we limit our investigation to two-pulse configuration assuming that the principle dependences would not change dramatically with group population. The propagation of radiation in active fiber element was described by the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau equation taken in a form of
Az+iβ222At2iγ|A|2A=(gl)Aβ2f22At2,
(1)
uses the following variables and parameters: A(z,t) is a slowly varying amplitude of the field, zis the propagation distance along the resonator, β2 is the group velocity dispersion (GVD) of the active fiber,γ – Kerr nonlinearity coefficient, l – coefficient of linear losses. The saturated gain g is expressed as
g(z,t)=g(z)=g01+0TR|A(z,t)|2dt/Esat
(2)
where Esat – saturation energy. It is commonly assumed here that the stationary value of the gain is determined by the gain saturation by the average energy stored in the laser cavity. The gain spectral filtering employs the parabolic approximationβ2f=g/Ωf2, where Ωf is half gain bandwidth. Impact of discrete cavity elements – active modulator, diffraction gratings, output coupler – was accounted using a transfer function of each element induced as
Aout=J×Ain
(3)
The transfer function of the filter is taken in the form Jf=exp(i2πΔfat), where Δfais the frequency of the active modulator. Grating is modeled as a linear spectral converterAout(ω)=Ain(ω)exp(iβ2rω2/2), where β2r is the grating GVD. For comparison, the simulation was also performed with the same cavity dispersion assuming the uniformly distributed anomalous dispersion β2=β2Σ/LR. The simulation for discrete and distributed dispersion maps shows similar results, confirming the proper functionality of both laser models.

The initial conditions represent as a low-amplitude “white” noise. Parameters used in the simulation are listed in Table 1

Table 1. Laser parameters are used in simulations

table-icon
View This Table
:

with these parameters the laser reaches the steady-state after ~2000 cavity round trips. All simulation results presented here are given for 3500 cavity round trips.

First we consider the development of a soliton bound state in the cavity with a net dispersion of β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm (Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Two-soliton bound state formation in the cavity with dispersion β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm. (a) Pulse evolution on the phase plane. (b) The frequency of the first (red) and second (blue) solitons when the bound state development. (c) Formation of a bound state, n - number of passes through the cavity.
). FSF emulates the artificial saturable absorber providing a positive feedback for high-intensity signals and suppressing the low-intensity background radiation in a cavity. The frequency shifted low-intensity radiation induced by the modulator is then filtered out while the spectral shift of high power pulses is partially compensated by the nonlinear effects and thus the pulse acquires an effective gain. Finally, the discrimination based on frequency-shifting and consequent trapping of the pulses with higher intensity forms the known mechanism for soliton pulse generation from low-noise intensity fluctuation.

The spectral broadening of high-intensity pulses owing to pulse compression and self-phase modulation, eventually limits the further pulse advancement due to a finite gain bandwidth which provides the negative feedback mechanism. The pulses with high peak power suffer from high losses initiating the multiple pulse regime. Eventually the gain competition results in the number of identical pulses with equal intensity representing the regular multiple soliton operation. The laser cavity then denotes a reservoir which confines the ensemble of multiple soliton-like pulses with similar parameters. Then the issue that should be addressed is the way these pulses coexist in a closely confined group. The possible soliton behavior ranges from chaotic irregular pulse motion which largely ignores the interaction with other pulses to tightly bounded multiple soliton groups with well defined phases and coherent spectral characteristics. Figure 3 shows the dynamics of bound state formation for two soliton regime, where Δ=t2t1 is the temporal distance between the pulses, ϕ is the pulse phase difference,Δω=ωω0– the difference between the frequency of the soliton ω and the carrier frequency ω0. It can be seen that the consecutive circulation of the double pulse pattern through the cavity leads to pulse power and frequency equalization and the stabilization of interpulse distance indicating the formation of a bound state. However, unlike the bound states with strong coupling, the progressive phase shift between solitons indicates the weak type of interaction between the pulses. This weak interaction observed for the distance between pulses of ~12 pulse durations could prevent the dispersion pulse “recession” and upholds a constant distance between interacting solitons signifying the formation of bound states. It can be seen that the frequencies and peak power of all solitons approach close values resulting in the identical pulses propagating in the cavity with equal velocity.

Figure 4
Fig. 4 Unstable state dynamics in a cavity with dispersion β = −0.105 ps2 or DΣ = 0.2 ps/nm. (a) Evolution on the phase plane. (b) The frequency disparity of the first (red) and the second weak (blue) pulses. (c) Unstable two-pulse state, n - number of passages through the laser cavity.
shows the alternative scenario of two-soliton interaction in a cavity with larger dispersion β = −0.105 ps2 or DΣ = 0.2 ps/nm when the stable bound state cannot be shaped. The large dispersion prevents soliton group formation by breaking up the coherent state similar to walk-off effect. The secondary pulse exhibits a reduced gain and cannot constitute the nearly-symmetric two-pulse steady-state group. Figure 4 illustrates the formation of two independent weakly interacting solitons with different powers and frequencies from the initial unstable state. With large cavity dispersion, the solitons in a bound state reveal a high frequency (Fig. 4(b)) however, with a limited gain which may not ensure the bound state stability. Thus, the state with non-interacting pulses becomes energetically preferable scenario of cavity soliton dynamics. Since the pulse frequency decreases with pulse power, they start to propagate independently with negligible interaction. Stable individual pulse generation has been observed with further increase in the cavity dispersion, as shown in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Single soliton pulse with cavity dispersion β = −0.2 ps2 or DΣ = 0.39 ps/nm . (a) The evolution of single soliton frequency (red) in comparison with frequency of soliton in bound state shown in Fig. 3(b) (blue). (b) Transients in the generation of the individual soliton, n – the number of passes through the laser cavity.
. Further increase in the dispersion leads to the increase of frequency of solitons with lowest peak power and thus enhances their absorption. Eventually this effect leads to the reduction of low-energy soliton population (see Fig. 2(c)).

The distinct features of single pulse regime compared to multiple pulse bound states are higher peak power, lower frequency and corresponding small shift in the time domain.

The cavity dispersion provides the strong mechanism for pulse discrimination based on the peak power and frequency. Particularly, the frequency of the low-intensity pulse could exceed the achievable frequency of FSF modulator, thus preventing the mode synchronization and leading to pulse absorption. Consequently, the shaping could be limited to formation of only individual solitary pulse with higher peak power. Figure 5(a) demonstrates that due to the high peak power, the single FSF soliton frequency could be lower than the frequency of the soliton in the bound state, which leads to a smaller shift in the time domain. As a result, it can be seen that an increase in dispersion causes the collapse of the bound states and eventually to a reduction of the number of unbound pulses.

Figure 6
Fig. 6 The autocorrelation traces of the bound states obtained from experiments (a) and numerical simulation (b) for dispersion values DΣ = 0.11, 0.15, 0.19 ps/nm.
shows the comparison of experimental data with the autocorrelation traces obtained through numerical simulations for cavity dispersion of DΣ = 0.11, 0.15 and 0.19 ps/nm. The theoretical traces correspond to the steady-state achieved after the 3500 cavity round-trip. The results of numerical simulations are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data and demonstrate an increase in the separation between solitons in a bound state with increasing the net cavity dispersion. Some inconsistency in soliton separation for experimental and numerical data could be ascribed to a number of adjustable parameters used in the simulation.

Figure 7
Fig. 7 The phase and instantaneous frequency distribution of soliton bound states within laser cavity with dispersion of (a) β = −0.102 ps2 or DΣ = 0.19 ps/nm and (b) β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm. (c) Intensity shapes of the bound state for β = −0.102 ps2 or DΣ = 0.19 ps/nm (red) and β = −0.08 ps2 or DΣ = 0.15 ps/nm (blue).
shows the distribution of phase, frequency and bound state intensity shapes for various cavity dispersion. Note that an increase in the dispersion and the distance between the solitons reduces the spatial overlap of the pulse “tails” and pulse frequency modulation. The decrease in frequency modulation can be deduced from the slope reduction of the instantaneous frequency near the peak of the pulse. Thus, increasing the cavity dispersion reduces both direct intersoliton interaction and interaction induced through the anomalous dispersion on the frequency-modulated bound state. It can also be seen an increase of dispersion wave frequency for reduced cavity dispersion that provides higher losses for dispersion waves. The phase extremes near the pulse peak power corresponding to Δω=0 become less pronounced for higher dispersion resulting in the reduction of the pulse sections with similar phase difference, which could also reduce the efficiency of direct soliton interaction. As a result, the deterioration of competing soliton interactions reduces the stability of the bound state, and further increase in the cavity dispersion eventually leads to the collapse of the bound state. In should also be noted that with an increase in the cavity dispersion, the frequency of dispersion waves approaches the frequency of solitons in a bound state. (We note that the frequency of bound state solitons increases with dispersion.) Near the threshold value of dispersion, Dcritical, corresponding to the collapse of the bound state, these frequencies match each other.

4. Conclusions

In conclusions, the original observation of direct soliton interactions in a frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser reveals the constructive role of low dispersion on the bound soliton formation and stability. It was found that by avoiding the soliton attraction mechanism induced by the saturable absorption, the bound states formation based on direct soliton interaction in a laser with determined parameters (nonlinearity, power, etc.) could occur only at cavity dispersion below certain threshold value. In the studied laser the bound solitons formation was observed for anomalous dispersion below 0.2 ps/nm. Larger cavity dispersion prevented the bound state development and only weakly interacting multiple pulses regime could be observed.

The bound state regime was investigated analytically using perturbation theory applied to two-soliton solutions [15

15. Y. Kodama and S. Wabnitz, “Reduction and suppression of soliton interactions by bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1311–1313 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation with an offset frequency was implemented to obtain the equations for two closely spaced solitons in terms of the distance between the pulses, the frequency difference, power and phase. The result shows that the typical solution is soliton pair with asymptotically constant distance between the pulses, equal frequency and power and variable the phase difference corresponding to weakly bound soliton state. In an agreement with experimental observations, the analysis shows that with increasing the cavity dispersion, the distance between solitons increases, the pulse frequency increases and formation of the stable bound state is not feasible above certain critical value of cavity dispersion. Eventually, when the pulse separation in a group exceeds the critical value, the reduced interaction between solitons fails to maintain the bound state. Consequently, with an increase in the cavity dispersion, the multiple pulse regime transforms first into soliton bunching mode, when several pulses move together in a cavity (Fig. 2, Dcritical≤0.2 ps/nm) and with further increase of dispersion the soliton pulses are distributed randomly in the cavity (Fig. 2, Dcritical>0.2 ps/nm). The threshold value of dispersion depends on the nonlinearity, gain and gain bandwidth and can be changed by tuning cavity parameters. Thus, with decreasing of nonlinearity, the transition to randomly circulating pulses appeared at lower dispersion. Also we should note that Dcritical≤0.2 ps increases with the gain and with the gain bandwidth.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation.

References and links

1.

D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, and H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003). [CrossRef]

2.

B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004). [CrossRef]

3.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, and C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013). [CrossRef]

6.

L. Gui, X. Xiao, and C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, and D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001). [CrossRef]

8.

P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, and Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Temporal control of vector soliton bunching by slow/fast saturable absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(1), 1–7 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013). [CrossRef]

12.

R. Gumenyuk and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013). [CrossRef]

13.

S. U. Alam and A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004). [CrossRef]

14.

J. M. Sousa and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. Kodama and S. Wabnitz, “Reduction and suppression of soliton interactions by bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1311–1313 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.4370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Nonlinear optics, fibers
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(060.3510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Lasers, fiber

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 5, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 11, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 12, 2014
Published: January 21, 2014

Citation
Regina Gumenyuk, Dmitry A. Korobko, Igor O. Zolotovsky, and Oleg G. Okhotnikov, "Role of cavity dispersion on soliton grouping in a fiber lasers," Opt. Express 22, 1896-1905 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-2-1896


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References

  1. D. Y. Tang, B. Zhao, D. Y. Shen, C. Lu, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, “Compound pulse solitons in a fiber ring laser,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013816 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. B. Ortaç, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, M. Brunel, P. Grelu, H. Leblond, F. Sanchez, “Generation of bound states of three ultrashort pulses with a passively mode-locked high-power Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1274–1276 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, “Multipulse bound solitons with fixed pulse separations formed by direct soliton interaction,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 239–242 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, T. H. Cheng, H. Y. Tam, C. Lu, “Bound states of dispersion-managed solitons in a fiber laser at near zero dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 46(21), 4768–4773 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Polarization control of bound state of vector soliton,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055111 (2013). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Gui, X. Xiao, C. Yang, “Observation of various bound solitons in a carbon-nanotube-based erbium fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(1), 158–164 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Gong, P. Shum, T. H. Cheng, Q. Wen, D. Tang, “Bound soliton pulses in passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 389–399 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Grelu, F. Belhache, F. Gutty, J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Relative phase locking of pulses in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(5), 863–870 (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. X. Wu, D. Y. Tang, X. N. Luan, Q. Zhang, “Bound states of solitons in a fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes saturable absorber,” Opt. Commun. 284(14), 3615–3618 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Temporal control of vector soliton bunching by slow/fast saturable absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(1), 1–7 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Impact of gain medium dispersion on stability of soliton bound states in fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(2), 133–135 (2013). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Gumenyuk, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Multiple solitons grouping in fiber lasers by dispersion management and nonlinearity control,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(4), 776–781 (2013). [CrossRef]
  13. S. U. Alam, A. B. Grudinin, “Tunable picoseconds frequency-shifted feedback fiber laser at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2012–2014 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Sousa, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Short pulse generation and control in Er-doped frequency-shifted-feedback fibre lasers,” Opt. Commun. 183(1-4), 227–241 (2000). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Kodama, S. Wabnitz, “Reduction and suppression of soliton interactions by bandpass filter,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1311–1313 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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