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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Feb. 10, 2014
  • pp: 2216–2221
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1x11 few-mode fiber wavelength selective switch using photonic lanterns

Joel Carpenter, Sergio G. Leon-Saval, Joel R. Salazar-Gil, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Glenn Baxter, Luke Stewart, Steve Frisken, Michaël A. F. Roelens, Benjamin J. Eggleton, and Jochen Schröder  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 2216-2221 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.002216


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Abstract

We demonstrate an 11 port count wavelength selective switch (WSS) supporting spatial superchannels of three spatial modes, based on the combination of photonic lanterns and a high-port count single-mode WSS.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Space-division multiplexing (SDM) either employing multiple fiber modes [1

1. E. Ip, N. Bai, Y. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, S. Bickham, H. Tam, C. Lu, M. Li, S. Ten, A. P. T. Lau, V. Tse, G. Peng, C. Montero, X. Prieto, and G. Li, “88x3x112-Gb/s WDM Transmission over 50-km of Three-Mode Fiber with Inline Multimode Fiber Amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.C.2. [CrossRef]

3

3. A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of Mode and Polarization Multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM Signal over a Two-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8. [CrossRef]

] or multi-core fibers [4

4. T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2x344Tb/s Propagation-direction Interleaved Transmission over 1500-km MCF Enhanced by Multicarrier Full Electric-field Digital Back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD3E4.

] has recently seen significant attention as a means to use space as an additional dimension to overcome the fundamental bandwidth limits of single-mode fibers. However for SDM to become a viable solution for high bandwidth transmission, it is necessary to create SDM equivalents of the components and subsystems employed in today’s networks. In particular, wavelength selective switches (WSSs) [5

5. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2. [CrossRef]

] as the technology that underpins reconfigurable add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) are a crucial part of modern wavelength routed networks. In order for networks to transition to SDM, ROADM solutions that are capable of switching spatial superchannels at different wavelengths to any of multiple outputs, need to be developed. A viable SDM-ROADM needs to be cost-efficient, be readily reconfigurable and compatible with modern techniques such as grid-less networking [6

6. S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and Grid-less Wavelength Selective Switch using LCOS Technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OTuM3. [CrossRef]

]. A WSS-based ROADM solution was previously demonstrated for multi-core-fiber (MCF) based networks [7

7. M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM System for Space Division Multiplexing with Spatial Superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.8. [CrossRef]

]. Such a device consists of fanning-out the cores of the input and output MCFs and attaching them to a traditional single-moded WSS (SMF-WSS). All cores belonging to a single MCF are switched together as spatial superchannels and the performance of the device is consistent with the SMF-WSS on which it is based, as all spatial channels have the same Gaussian profile on the spatial light modulator (SLM) which serves as the switching element. A 9-port few-mode fiber WSS (FMF-WSS) which supported 3 spatial modes [8

8. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, J. Dunayevsky, D. Sinefeld, M. Blau, M. Montoliu, and S. Randel, Chang Liu, Burcu Ercan, M. Esmaeelpour, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar-Gil, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Lingle, Jr., and D. M. Marom, “Wavelength-Selective Switch for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1C4.

] based on an input/output array of few-mode fibers has also been demonstrated.

In the case of the MCF WSS, the fan-in/fan-outs provide a transition from the MCFs to standard SMFs creating a pseudo-single-moded device. For the FMF-WSS [8

8. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, J. Dunayevsky, D. Sinefeld, M. Blau, M. Montoliu, and S. Randel, Chang Liu, Burcu Ercan, M. Esmaeelpour, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar-Gil, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Lingle, Jr., and D. M. Marom, “Wavelength-Selective Switch for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1C4.

], no such transition occurs and the system is multi-moded along the entire optical path. As each mode occupies slightly different space on the SLM, each mode exhibits a different spectral passband [10

10. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Fiber-Port-Count in Wavelength Selective Switches for Space-Division Multiplexing,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper We.4.B.6. [CrossRef]

,11

11. E. Ip, N. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Spatial light modulator-based few-mode fiber switches for space-division multiplexing applications,” in in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Th.1.C.2. [CrossRef]

]. Hence wavelength channels require larger guard-bands between them when compared to existing single-mode systems as the difference in the spectral response between the modes incurs mode dependent loss (MDL) and makes the outer portions of the band unusable leading to lower spectral efficiency. This effect becomes worse as more spatial modes are added and/or channels are more closely spaced in wavelength. Such a solution is not scalable to a large number of modes and does not support all the spectral filtering capability of traditional single-moded spatial light modulator (SLM) based WSSs. In this submission, we demonstrate a reconfigurable FMF-WSS based on single-mode fiber input/output arrays in conjunction with photonic lanterns [9

9. S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The multi-mode to single-mode transition performed by the photonic lantern is analogous to the fan-in/fan-out adapters used in the MCF WSS [3

3. A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of Mode and Polarization Multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM Signal over a Two-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8. [CrossRef]

] and enables the spectral performance of the switch to be consistent across all the spatial modes it supports (LP0,1, LP1,1a, LP1,1b).

2. Principle

A traditional SMF-WSS [5

5. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2. [CrossRef]

] takes the form of Fig. 1(a).
Fig. 1 (a) Principle of operation behind FMF-based WSS [8] (b) Simulated example passbands for the first 10 LP modes. (c) Principle of operation of photonic lantern based WSS (d) Simulated example passbands for all modes are equal.
The input light from an SMF array is dispersed by a grating across the width of an SLM. Different phase modulations are then programmed onto the surface of the SLM such that different bands of wavelengths, correspond to different groups of pixel columns on the SLM, are tilted towards the desired output fiber. The simplest method of upgrading this scheme to support MDM is to replace the single-mode fiber array with a few-mode fiber array [8

8. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, J. Dunayevsky, D. Sinefeld, M. Blau, M. Montoliu, and S. Randel, Chang Liu, Burcu Ercan, M. Esmaeelpour, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar-Gil, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Lingle, Jr., and D. M. Marom, “Wavelength-Selective Switch for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1C4.

] as per the simplified diagram of Fig. 1(a). However as different regions of space on the surface of the SLM correspond to different wavelength bands, and as different modes do not occupy exactly the same space, the spectral passband of each mode is different [10

10. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Fiber-Port-Count in Wavelength Selective Switches for Space-Division Multiplexing,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper We.4.B.6. [CrossRef]

,11

11. E. Ip, N. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Spatial light modulator-based few-mode fiber switches for space-division multiplexing applications,” in in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Th.1.C.2. [CrossRef]

]. An example of this is shown in Fig. 1(b) for the first 10 Laguerre-Gaussian modes (LP0,1 to LP3,1) incident on a common group of pixel columns on the SLM which is performing the switching and spectral filtering. Higher-order modes require more width on the SLM than the lower-order modes to achieve the same spectral extinction ratios and hence a conflict is created between densely packing the channels in wavelength and support for a high number of modes. Due to the more complicated spatial profiles of the higher-order modes, the shape of the passband itself also differs between the modes, which causes the MDL of a channel to roll-off before the insertion loss (IL), further limiting how closely the channels can be spaced in wavelength. In [8

8. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, J. Dunayevsky, D. Sinefeld, M. Blau, M. Montoliu, and S. Randel, Chang Liu, Burcu Ercan, M. Esmaeelpour, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar-Gil, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Lingle, Jr., and D. M. Marom, “Wavelength-Selective Switch for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1C4.

] this limited the spectral resolution to 50GHz.

To avoid this, the system presented here and summarized in Fig. 1(c), uses photonic lanterns [9

9. S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] to convert all the light from the input/output few-mode fibers into multiple single-mode fibers attached to an SMF input/output array. After the lantern, all modes are spatially Gaussian and hence will all undergo the same spectral filtering by the SLM as per the example of Fig. 1(d). When a tilt is programmed onto the surface of the SLM it shifts the output beam relative to the input beam in the plane of the fiber array. This shift would typically correspond to the distance between the input and the desired output single-mode fiber for an SMF-WSS, because fibers in the input/output array at the same wavelength see the same shift. So for example, as shown in Fig. 1(c), coupling light at a particular wavelength from fiber 1 to 4 will also couple light from 2 to 5 and 3 to 6. Hence by attaching the single-mode fiber ports of photonic lanterns to adjacent cores of the input/output fiber array in a WSS, it is possible to switch between the different lanterns by programming tilts onto the SLM corresponding to shifts of multiples of N, where N is the number of spatial modes. This is the same basic principle employed for the MCF-WSS [7

7. M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM System for Space Division Multiplexing with Spatial Superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.8. [CrossRef]

] except in that case, MCF fan-in/fan-out adapters took the place of the photonic lanterns and N is the number of cores rather than the number of spatial modes.

The device demonstrated here deviates slightly from the simplified diagram of Fig. 1(c). In this case, the input/output single-mode fiber array used actually consists of two columns of 24 fibers each as shown in Fig. 2(a).
Fig. 2 (a) SLM switching element divided into two regions used to address each of the two columns in the fiber array. (b) Image of the single-moded WSS upon which the device is based.
Two ports of the photonic lanterns are attached to one column of the array and the third ports are attached to fibers in the other column. Each column of fibers, labelled A and B in Fig. 2(a), is then addressed independently by the top and bottom of the same SLM to define the fiber array shifts ΔxA and ΔxB respectively. This is used to create a FMF-WSS which supports 11 FMF output ports where each port supports three spatial modes. In practice the SMF-WSS portion of the device is as per Fig. 2(b), with the 48 total SMFs for the two columns visible on the right of the image. 24 SMFs for column A will attach to two of the ports of the transmit and receive photonic lanterns and 12 SMFs from column B will attach to the remaining ports of the lanterns.

3. Experiment

The system is characterized using an SLM based reconfigurable spatial diversity optical vector network analyzer (SDM-OVNA) [12

12. J. Carpenter, B.J. Eggleton, and J. Schröder, “Reconfigurable spatially-diverse optical vector network analyzer,” Opt. Express, submitted for review.

] which is summarized in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 3 (a) SDM-OVNA system diagram. (b) Insertion Loss for 5 output ports for an example wavelength channel plan for the single-mode switching portion of the device (no photonic lanterns attached).
It is a swept-wavelength interferometer based technique which allows the complete mode transfer matrix of the system to be measured as a function of wavelength. This system operates on the same principle as a previously demonstrated SDM-OVNA [13

13. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, B. Guan, X. Palou, S. Randel, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “Characterization of Space-Division Multiplexing Systems using a Swept-Wavelength Interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1K.2. [CrossRef]

]. However, instead of fixed beamsplitters and phase plates, it employs an SLM based mode-multiplexing system [14

14. J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The fact that the system is implemented using an SLM rather than fixed optics, offers much greater flexibility and allows it to characterize the system in an arbitrary mode-basis. That is, it can be used to emulate butt-coupling of the system to an arbitrary fiber type. In this case, the SLM is used to generate the modes of a step-index 30μm core 0.06 numerical aperture (NA) few-mode fiber, which approximates the refractive index profile of the photonic lantern. The input lantern is attached to the multiplexing side of the SDM-OVNA and the output lantern to the demultiplexer. The spectrally resolved mode transfer matrix of the system is then measured for that input/output port combination and the singular value decomposition (SVD) is performed as a function of wavelength to yield the eigenvalues, which represent the losses of each of the 6 orthogonal channels the fiber supports. The ratio between the maximum and minimum eigenvalues is the mode dependent loss (MDL) and the average value is the insertion loss (IL).

Figure 3(b) is an example which illustrates the wavelength isolation between five of the few-mode fiber ports. In this instance the SLM mux/demux and photonic lanterns of Fig. 3(a) have been bypassed. That is, the single-mode ports of the SMF-WSS are connected directly to the delay lines of the SDM-OVNA in Fig. 3(a). This is done to provide a more accurate measurement as it removes the loss of the mode multiplexers and lanterns, increasing the dynamic range of the measurement but also ensures any measured wavelength leakage between the ports is in fact due to the WSS switching element rather than scattered light in the SDM-OVNA SLM mux/demux itself. The measured wavelength isolation is 23dB at worst. This is worse than would typically be expected for a SMF-WSS due to the fact that the input/output array has not been optimized for few-mode operation. A traditional SMF-WSS is designed to achieve high isolation when using the designated single input fiber, rather than in this case where multiple input fibers are used. The isolation could be improved if the layout and spacings of the single-mode fiber array of the SMF-WSS were optimized for few-mode operation.

Hence the values of MDL and IL shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) represent an upper bound on the true values. The measurement also includes the loss associated with coupling light from the modes of a step-index fiber into the photonic lantern. The same emulated fiber profile is used at both ends and is better matched to the transmit lantern than the receive lantern with measured insertion loss of 0.9dB and 1.9dB respectively. It is likely that a splice to an actual piece of few-mode fiber would have less loss, both due to the fact that the cores could be better aligned than in the free-space optics of the SDM-OVNA but also due to the diffusion of dopants and slight tapering that occurs when cores are fusion spliced [15

15. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-Speed Multimode Fiber Transmission by Using Mode-Field Matched Center-Launching Technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The insertion loss of the lanterns as measured by feeding light into the single-mode cores and measuring the power at the multi-mode facet on a power meter, i.e. the loss without regard for the spatial mode profile, was measured as 0.5dB and 0.8dB.

Figures 4(c) and 4(d) illustrate the spectral passband for 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 GHz channels programmed onto port 1 (dark blue series of Figs. 4(a) and 4(b)) for both MDL and IL. It is in these two graphs that the advantage of the multi-mode to single-mode transition performed by the photonic lantern is most apparent. In contrast to a device based on an input/output few-mode fiber array [8

8. R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, J. Dunayevsky, D. Sinefeld, M. Blau, M. Montoliu, and S. Randel, Chang Liu, Burcu Ercan, M. Esmaeelpour, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar-Gil, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Lingle, Jr., and D. M. Marom, “Wavelength-Selective Switch for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1C4.

,10

10. N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Fiber-Port-Count in Wavelength Selective Switches for Space-Division Multiplexing,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper We.4.B.6. [CrossRef]

,11

11. E. Ip, N. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Spatial light modulator-based few-mode fiber switches for space-division multiplexing applications,” in in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Th.1.C.2. [CrossRef]

], where the spectral roll-off of the IL and MDL are quite different for narrow channels, with MDL being the factor which ultimately limits the spectral resolution. In this implementation, the bandwidth of the IL and MDL plots are consistent, demonstrating that even though the device supports multiple spatial modes, it maintains single-mode-like performance in terms of spectral resolution (10GHz) as well as sub-GHz scale addressability and compatibility with grid-less architectures.

As mentioned above, this FMF-WSS is based on two columns of input/output single-mode fibers rather than a more traditional single-column design. An advantage of this approach is it allows some ports of the lantern to be switched independently of the others. Specifically, two single-mode lantern ports are switched together independently of the other single-mode port. This extra degree of freedom makes it easier to maintain consistent coupling between all three ports of the lanterns and hence improve MDL and IL. However as the mapping of wavelength to SLM pixel column is not exactly the same for either side of the SLM, it can come at the expense of spectral resolution. This effect is on the order of half a single pixel column of the SLM at worst, as a particular wavelength that is centered on a column on one half of the SLM, could be centered exactly between two pixel columns on the other half. When compared to measurements taken for the same components where all lanterns are attached to the same column in the single-mode fiber array of Fig. 2(a), MDL and IL are worse, but spectral resolution is superior in the single column case, with the effect only really being noticeable for the 10 GHz channel example. It should be noted that the noise floor visible in Fig. 4(c) and 4(d) is limited by the sensitivity of the SDM-OVNA rather than being a measure of the actual wavelength isolation, which was covered in Fig. 3(b).

4. Conclusion

A 1x11 MDM compatible WSS has been demonstrated with support for 3 spatial modes. We believe our device actualizes a first step to a viable optical switching solution for MDM transmission networks. The device can readily be extended to accommodate more fiber modes or output ports.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the Linkage (LP120100661), Laureate Fellowship (FL120100029), Centre of Excellence (CUDOS, CE110001018), and DECRA (DE120101329) programs of the Australian Research Council.

References and links

1.

E. Ip, N. Bai, Y. Huang, E. Mateo, F. Yaman, S. Bickham, H. Tam, C. Lu, M. Li, S. Ten, A. P. T. Lau, V. Tse, G. Peng, C. Montero, X. Prieto, and G. Li, “88x3x112-Gb/s WDM Transmission over 50-km of Three-Mode Fiber with Inline Multimode Fiber Amplifier,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.C.2. [CrossRef]

2.

R. Ryf, S. Randel, A. H. Gnauck, C. Bolle, A. Sierra, S. Mumtaz, M. Esmaeelpour, E. C. Burrows, R. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, D. W. Peckham, A. H. McCurdy, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Division Multiplexing Over 96 km of Few-Mode Fiber Using 136 Coherent 6x6 MIMO Processing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 521–531 (2012). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Li, A. Al Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of Mode and Polarization Multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM Signal over a Two-Mode Fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8. [CrossRef]

4.

T. Kobayashi, H. Takara, A. Sano, T. Mizuno, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Hiraga, Y. Abe, H. Ono, M. Wada, Y. Sasaki, I. Ishida, K. Takenaga, S. Matsuo, K. Saitoh, M. Yamada, H. Masuda, and T. Morioka, “2x344Tb/s Propagation-direction Interleaved Transmission over 1500-km MCF Enhanced by Multicarrier Full Electric-field Digital Back-propagation,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD3E4.

5.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly Programmable Wavelength Selective Switch Based on Liquid Crystal on Silicon Switching Elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2. [CrossRef]

6.

S. Frisken, G. Baxter, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, and S. Poole, “Flexible and Grid-less Wavelength Selective Switch using LCOS Technology,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OTuM3. [CrossRef]

7.

M. D. Feuer, L. E. Nelson, K. S. Abedin, X. Zhou, T. F. Taunay, J. F. Fini, B. Zhu, R. Isaac, R. Harel, G. Cohen, and D. M. Marom, “ROADM System for Space Division Multiplexing with Spatial Superchannels,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.8. [CrossRef]

8.

R. Ryf, N. K. Fontaine, J. Dunayevsky, D. Sinefeld, M. Blau, M. Montoliu, and S. Randel, Chang Liu, Burcu Ercan, M. Esmaeelpour, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, J. R. Salazar-Gil, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. Lingle, Jr., and D. M. Marom, “Wavelength-Selective Switch for Few-Mode Fiber Transmission,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PD1C4.

9.

S. G. Leon-Saval, A. Argyros, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Photonic lanterns: a study of light propagation in multimode to single-mode converters,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8430–8439 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, and D. T. Neilson, “Fiber-Port-Count in Wavelength Selective Switches for Space-Division Multiplexing,” in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper We.4.B.6. [CrossRef]

11.

E. Ip, N. Cvijetic, and T. Wang, “Spatial light modulator-based few-mode fiber switches for space-division multiplexing applications,” in in 39th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper Th.1.C.2. [CrossRef]

12.

J. Carpenter, B.J. Eggleton, and J. Schröder, “Reconfigurable spatially-diverse optical vector network analyzer,” Opt. Express, submitted for review.

13.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, M. A. Mestre, B. Guan, X. Palou, S. Randel, Y. Sun, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. V. Jensen, and R. Lingle, “Characterization of Space-Division Multiplexing Systems using a Swept-Wavelength Interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OW1K.2. [CrossRef]

14.

J. Carpenter, B. C. Thomsen, and T. D. Wilkinson, “Degenerate Mode-Group Division Multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3946–3952 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-Speed Multimode Fiber Transmission by Using Mode-Field Matched Center-Launching Technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.1810) Fiber optics and optical communications : Buffers, couplers, routers, switches, and multiplexers

ToC Category:
Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: November 29, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 18, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 18, 2014
Published: January 27, 2014

Citation
Joel Carpenter, Sergio G. Leon-Saval, Joel R. Salazar-Gil, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Glenn Baxter, Luke Stewart, Steve Frisken, Michaël A. F. Roelens, Benjamin J. Eggleton, and Jochen Schröder, "1x11 few-mode fiber wavelength selective switch using photonic lanterns," Opt. Express 22, 2216-2221 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-3-2216


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References

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