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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Feb. 10, 2014
  • pp: 3157–3168
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Performance evaluation of large-scale multi-stage hetero-granular optical cross-connects

Hai-Chau Le, Hiroshi Hasegawa, and Ken-ichi Sato  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 3157-3168 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.003157


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Abstract

We proposed generalized large-scale two-stage-routing OXC architectures and evaluated the performance possible with the use of small-degree WSSs and simple optical devices; 1xn switches or WBSSs. Numerical evaluations verify that the new architectures reduce necessary hardware scale substantially at the cost of few additional fibers while their effectiveness increases with the traffic demand. The tradeoff between the link resource increase and the hardware scale reduction is also clarified.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Most existing ROADM/OXC systems are developed on wavelength selective switches (WSSs), and to create a larger scale OXC, higher port count WSSs are required; some of the WSS ports also can be used to implement the optical add/drop function. The highest WSS port count commercially available at present is 20 + and it seems unlikely that WSS degree can be substantially enhanced cost-effectively in the near future. The conventional direct approach to increasing the port count is to cascade WSSs. This requires a considerable number of WSSs per input fiber and the optical loss is also increased. For example, if 1x9 WSSs (the most commonly utilized size at present) are applied, the two stage WSS cascading architecture provides 1x81 WSS, however, it requires ten 1x9 WSSs. Hence, to develop an 81x81 OXC with 1x9 (1x20) WSSs, the total number of necessary WSSs is 1620 (972), since the broadcast-and-select architecture can no longer be applied; instead, the route-and-select architecture needs to be utilized. Alternatives to wavelength selective switches include waveband selective switches (WBSS) and 1xn optical switches (1xn SW). Waveband selective switches have been developed recently and the world’s first 1x5 and 1x10 WBSSs fabricated on compact PLC (Planar Lightwave Circuit) chips have been demonstrated [8

8. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2008), paper Mo.4.C.5.

, 9

9. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 492–493.

]. WBSSs can selectively switch at the granularity level of wavebands (wavelength groups). 1xn optical switches are simple and very cost-effective devices; implementations of a 1x128 optical switch and 4 arrayed 1x29 switches on single PLC chips were detailed in [10

10. T. Watanabe, T. Goh, M. Okuno, S. Sohma, T. Shibata, M. Itoh, M. Kobayashi, M. Ishii, A. Sugita, and Y. Hibino, “Silica-based PLC 1x128 thermo-optic switch,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2001), paper Tu.L.1.2.

] and [11

11. T. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, and H. Takahashi, “Double-branched 1x29 silica-based PLC switch with low loss and low power consumption,” in Proceedings of Conference on Microoptics Conference (2011), paper J-2.

], respectively. However, 1xn switches can only switch all wavelength paths together from the input fiber to one of the output fibers. Even with this routing limitation, WBSSs and 1xn SWs are simpler and more cost-effective devices. Hence, new approaches that can exploit these optical switching technologies to enable cost-effective and scalable large-scale OXCs are of practical importance.

In this paper, we propose a generalized architecture and analyze the performance of scalable large-scale OXCs that adopt the intra-node routing restriction on fiber selection for wavelength path groups of each input fiber. The proposed architecture can be regarded as replacing the large degree WSSs required in the conventional WSS-based architecture with smaller scale WSSs and 1xn switching devices that are simpler and more cost-effective than WSSs; this minimizes the necessary number of WSSs and as a result, significantly reduces total device cost. The 1xn switching devices can be WBSSs or 1xn optical switches, so the proposed architecture has two variants. We evaluate here the network performance of the OXC architecture variants in comparison with the conventional WSS-based architecture. The results prove that the proposed architectures can reduce system scale substantially at the cost of a few additional fibers. We also analyzed the tradeoff between the node routing flexibility and the attained hardware scale reduction. The optimal architecture depends on the relative cost of a 1xn optical switch and a WBSS to a WSS, and the additional fiber cost, however, the proposed architectures are a viable alternative for creating future large-scale optical node systems. A preliminary version of this work was presented at an international conference [19

19. H. C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Performance evaluation of large-scale OXCs that employ multi-stage hetero-granular optical path switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), paper Thu.2.E.3.

].

2. Generalized large-scale OXC architecture utilizing an intra-node routing restriction

3. Node characteristics comparison

3.1 Node routing flexibility

Table 1

Table 1. Feature Comparison

table-icon
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summarizes the main characteristics of the three OXC architectures compared: WSS-WBSS, WSS-1xn SW and conventional WSS-based OXCs. In terms of device cost, the WSS-1xn SW architecture is the most effective solution while the WSS-WBSS architecture is also expected to be much more cost-effective than conventional WSS-based OXCs.

Unlike conventional WSS-based OXCs, which can selectively switch wavelength paths from any input fiber to any output fiber, both of our architectures slightly limit the node routing flexibility due to the use of coarser granular switching devices (WBSSs and 1xn SWs) for the selection of output fibers for wavelength paths. WBSSs route wavelength paths in groups and as a result, in the WSS-WBSS architecture, wavelength paths of a group from an input fiber cannot be routed to more than k different output fibers on each link. Hence, the routing flexibility of WSS-WBSS OXCs is determined by both k and the number of wavelength groups per fiber (B) supported by the WBSSs. The WSS-1xn SW architecture has an even more constrained routing capability because it uses 1xn optical switches instead of WBSSs; whole wavelength paths from one input fiber (B = 1) can sent to no more than k different output fibers on each outgoing link. Therefore, utilizing larger numbers of wavelength groups per fiber (allowing finer granular routing) or applying more WBSSs per adjacent node (increasing k) can improve the node routing flexibility of WSS-WBSS OXCs while the only way to enhance the routing capability of WSS-1xn SW nodes is to increase k.

3.2 Node hardware scale

Figure 2
Fig. 2 Node scale comparison.
shows the number of required 1x9 WSSs (most commonly utilized WSS degree at present) with respect to fiber number on each link, n, in the three compared OXC architectures with node degree of 4 (D = 4). It shows that both WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW OXCs can substantially reduce the necessary WSS number, especially when n becomes large. Moreover, the hardware reduction depends on k; smaller k offers larger WSS number reductions. On the other hand, WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW OXCs need additional components (WBSSs or 1xn switches). The WSS-WBSS architecture needs kD2n WBSSs while the WSS-1xn SW requires the same number of 1xn optical switches. Hence, in the WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW architectures, the number of selectable output fibers on each link, k, plays a key role in determining not only the WSS degree but also the number of additional components.

4. Network performance evaluation

Network performance of the three OXC architectures is compared with the following parameters. Tested physical network topologies are pan-European optical network (COST266) [20

20. R. Inkret, A. Kuchar, and B. Mikac, “Advanced infrastructure for photonic networks extended final report of COST 266 action,” Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, (2003), http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/Publications/Archive/Ga_COST266_ExtendedFinalReport_36355.pdf.

] and US nationwide network (USNET) [21

21. M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19(5), 1304–1316 (2011). [CrossRef]

] (see Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental physical network topologies.
). Characteristics of those network topologies are summarized in Table 3

Table 3. Major Parameters of COST266 and USNET Networks

table-icon
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| View All Tables
. We define traffic demand as the average number of wavelength paths requested between node pairs. For each experiment, the total number of wavelength paths to be established is set to the product of the traffic demand and sum of node pairs; source and destination node pair of each path is then randomly selected according to a uniform distribution. A fiber can accommodate 80 wavelengths; wavelength conversion is not considered. High port count WSSs are built with smaller degree 1xX WSSs. Wavelength group number per fiber, B, and number of selectable fibers/substitute devices on each link, k, are the intra-node parameters. The network design algorithm used for the conventional network is that given in [22

22. S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, “Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(8), 1612–1619 (2005). [CrossRef]

]. The network design algorithms applied for WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW networks are, respectively, based on those of [18

18. H. C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A large capacity optical cross-connect architecture exploiting multi-granular optical path routing,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2012), paper Fr-S26–O14.

] and [17

17. T. Ban, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Watanabe, and H. Takahashi, “A novel large-scale OXC architecture and an experimental system that utilizes wavelength path switching and fiber selection,” Opt. Express 21(1), 469–477 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with additional re-optimization; the establishment of highly utilized wavelength groups is encouraged at first, then wavelength path routing and assignment is utilized only for grooming sparse traffic demands and, finally, wavelength path rerouting is applied to reduce the network resource requirements. All the obtained results are normalized against those of the corresponding conventional WSS-based OXC networks.

4.1 Link resource and hardware scale requirements

Figure 5
Fig. 5 WSS number reduction obtained for COST266 network.
describes the number of necessary WSSs in the same network. Both WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW networks need fewer WSSs than the conventional network; their relative WSS numbers are less than 1. The relative WSS number of WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW networks is reduced as the traffic demand increases or in other words, more hardware scale reduction (in terms of WSS number) is obtained with larger traffic demands; the target of our OXC architectures. Up to 68% (65%) reduction in the necessary WSS number can be attained at the cost of 2% (14%) fiber increment for the WSS-WBSS (WSS-1xn SW) network with the traffic demand of 32. The WSS-1xn SW network needs more fibers while offering a slightly smaller WSS number reduction than the WSS-WBSS network; this is offset by the fact that it requires only the simplest and most cost-effective substitute optical switching devices, 1xn optical switches, instead of WBSSs.

Similarly, the fiber increment and hardware scale reduction in terms of WSS number attained in US nationwide network are shown in Figs. 6
Fig. 6 Number of necessary fibers in USNET network.
and 7
Fig. 7 Number of necessary WSSs in USNET network.
. It also demonstrates that the proposed architectures become more efficient with larger traffic volumes and utilizing the WSS-WBSS (or WSS-1xn SW) architecture can provide up to 67% (65%) hardware scale reduction, in terms of WSS number, at the cost of less than 2% (8%) fiber increment with the traffic demand of 32.

4.2 Analysis on the switching configuration parameters

Figures 10
Fig. 10 Number of necessary fibers.
and 11
Fig. 11 Relative number of switching components.
describe the impact of k on the fiber number and the node hardware scale (WSS and WBSS/ 1xn SW numbers) in the pan-European network (COST266), respectively; traffic demand is 20. The results demonstrate that the node hardware scale/cost requirement of our WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW architectures is mainly dominated by parameter k. More hardware scale is required with a larger k, or in other words, the total node scale/cost of our proposed networks increases with k. Although parameter B greatly influences the node routing flexibility (required total fiber number), it is verified that it has only a small effect on the hardware scale requirement. Furthermore, using greater k also increases the number of intra-node interconnection fibers; node implementation becomes more complicated. It also results in higher optical combiner loss at the output fiber side. Hence, the intra-node parameters must be properly optimized to exploit the proposed architectures; when node cost dominates fiber cost, then k should be as small as possible to maximize the hardware reduction.

4.3 Impact of the WSS degree

WSS degree does not affect the routing capability of nodes but does play a key role in determining the number of necessary WSSs in the networks. Figure 12
Fig. 12 Impact of WSS degree on the hardware scale reduction.
depicts the impact of WSS degree on the number of WSSs needed by WSS-WBSS (k = 1 and B = 10) and WSS-1xn SW (k = 2) networks relative to that of the conventional WSS-based OXC network with the traffic demands of 24 and 32, where WSS degree is changed. The WSS number reduction provided by WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW networks decreases (the relative WSS number increases) as larger WSSs are employed. Unlike the conventional WSS-based OXC architecture, in which increasing the WSS degree can reduce the necessary number of switching elements, WSS-WBSS and WSS-1xn SW architectures need only limited degree WSSs; the maximum WSS degree is 1xkD, where D is the number of adjacent nodes (D≤8 for the COST266 network). As a result, utilizing very large WSS degree may not help to reduce the number of switching elements in the networks. However, of course, the hardware complexity is mitigated.

5. Conclusion

Acknowledgment

The work was partly supported by NICT and KAKENHI (23246072).

References and links

1.

E. B. Desurvire, “Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4697–4710 (2006). [CrossRef]

2.

K. Sato and H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth-abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(2), A81–A93 (2009). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Berthold, A. Saleh, L. Blair, and J. Simmons, “Optical networking: Past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9), 1104–1118 (2008). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Kubota, “Beyond HDTV-ultra high-definition television system,” presented at the 2nd Multimedia Conference (2006).

5.

A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. Woodward, and D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(1), 1–14 (2012). [CrossRef]

6.

P. Pagnan and M. Schiano, “A λ switched photonic network for the new transport backbone of Telecom Italia,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2009), paper ThII2–1.

7.

S. Woodward, “What is the value of the flexible grid network?” Workshop in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).

8.

K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2008), paper Mo.4.C.5.

9.

R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 492–493.

10.

T. Watanabe, T. Goh, M. Okuno, S. Sohma, T. Shibata, M. Itoh, M. Kobayashi, M. Ishii, A. Sugita, and Y. Hibino, “Silica-based PLC 1x128 thermo-optic switch,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2001), paper Tu.L.1.2.

11.

T. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, and H. Takahashi, “Double-branched 1x29 silica-based PLC switch with low loss and low power consumption,” in Proceedings of Conference on Microoptics Conference (2011), paper J-2.

12.

I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NM3F.7. [CrossRef]

13.

P. Pavon-Marino and M. V. Bueno-Delgado, “Dimensioning the add/drop contention factor of directionless ROADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3265–3274 (2011). [CrossRef]

14.

Y. Li, L. Gao, G. Shen, and L. Peng, “Impact of ROADM colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) features on optical network performance,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), B58–B67 (2012). [CrossRef]

15.

T. Zami and D. Chiaroni, “Low contention and high resilience to partial failure for colorless and directionless OXC,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2012), paper Fr-S25–O15.

16.

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3D.1. [CrossRef]

17.

T. Ban, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Watanabe, and H. Takahashi, “A novel large-scale OXC architecture and an experimental system that utilizes wavelength path switching and fiber selection,” Opt. Express 21(1), 469–477 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

H. C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A large capacity optical cross-connect architecture exploiting multi-granular optical path routing,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2012), paper Fr-S26–O14.

19.

H. C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Performance evaluation of large-scale OXCs that employ multi-stage hetero-granular optical path switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), paper Thu.2.E.3.

20.

R. Inkret, A. Kuchar, and B. Mikac, “Advanced infrastructure for photonic networks extended final report of COST 266 action,” Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, (2003), http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/Publications/Archive/Ga_COST266_ExtendedFinalReport_36355.pdf.

21.

M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, and B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19(5), 1304–1316 (2011). [CrossRef]

22.

S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, and K. Sato, “Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(8), 1612–1619 (2005). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.1155) Fiber optics and optical communications : All-optical networks
(060.4265) Fiber optics and optical communications : Networks, wavelength routing

ToC Category:
Optical Transport and Large Scale Data Networks

History
Original Manuscript: October 7, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 5, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 6, 2013
Published: February 4, 2014

Virtual Issues
European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (2013) Optics Express

Citation
Hai-Chau Le, Hiroshi Hasegawa, and Ken-ichi Sato, "Performance evaluation of large-scale multi-stage hetero-granular optical cross-connects," Opt. Express 22, 3157-3168 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-3-3157


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References

  1. E. B. Desurvire, “Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4697–4710 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, “Optical networking technologies that will create future bandwidth-abundant networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(2), A81–A93 (2009). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Berthold, A. Saleh, L. Blair, J. Simmons, “Optical networking: Past, present, and future,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(9), 1104–1118 (2008). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kubota, “Beyond HDTV-ultra high-definition television system,” presented at the 2nd Multimedia Conference (2006).
  5. A. L. Chiu, G. Choudhury, G. Clapp, R. Doverspike, M. Feuer, J. W. Gannett, G. Kim, J. Klincewicz, T. Kwon, G. Li, P. Magill, J. M. Simmons, R. A. Skoog, J. Strand, A. Lehmen, B. J. Wilson, S. Woodward, D. Xu, “Architectures and protocols for capacity efficient, highly dynamic and highly resilient core networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(1), 1–14 (2012). [CrossRef]
  6. P. Pagnan and M. Schiano, “A λ switched photonic network for the new transport backbone of Telecom Italia,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2009), paper ThII2–1.
  7. S. Woodward, “What is the value of the flexible grid network?” Workshop in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012).
  8. K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, S. Kamei, H. Takahashi, and M. Okuno, “Monolithically integrated waveband selective switch using cyclic AWGs,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2008), paper Mo.4.C.5.
  9. R. Hirako, K. Ishii, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, H. Takahashi, M. Okuno, “Development of single PLC-chip waveband selective switch that has extra ports for grooming and termination,” in Proceedings of the 16th Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (2011), pp. 492–493.
  10. T. Watanabe, T. Goh, M. Okuno, S. Sohma, T. Shibata, M. Itoh, M. Kobayashi, M. Ishii, A. Sugita, and Y. Hibino, “Silica-based PLC 1x128 thermo-optic switch,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2001), paper Tu.L.1.2.
  11. T. Watanabe, Y. Hashizume, and H. Takahashi, “Double-branched 1x29 silica-based PLC switch with low loss and low power consumption,” in Proceedings of Conference on Microoptics Conference (2011), paper J-2.
  12. I. Kim, P. Palacharla, X. Wang, D. Bihon, M. D. Feuer, and S. L. Woodward, “Performance of colorless, non-directional ROADMs with modular client-side fiber cross-connects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NM3F.7. [CrossRef]
  13. P. Pavon-Marino, M. V. Bueno-Delgado, “Dimensioning the add/drop contention factor of directionless ROADMs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(21), 3265–3274 (2011). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Li, L. Gao, G. Shen, L. Peng, “Impact of ROADM colorless, directionless and contentionless (CDC) features on optical network performance,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), B58–B67 (2012). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Zami and D. Chiaroni, “Low contention and high resilience to partial failure for colorless and directionless OXC,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2012), paper Fr-S25–O15.
  16. T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTh3D.1. [CrossRef]
  17. T. Ban, H. Hasegawa, K. Sato, T. Watanabe, H. Takahashi, “A novel large-scale OXC architecture and an experimental system that utilizes wavelength path switching and fiber selection,” Opt. Express 21(1), 469–477 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “A large capacity optical cross-connect architecture exploiting multi-granular optical path routing,” in Proceedings of Photonics in Switching (2012), paper Fr-S26–O14.
  19. H. C. Le, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Performance evaluation of large-scale OXCs that employ multi-stage hetero-granular optical path switching,” in Proceedings of Conference on European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), paper Thu.2.E.3.
  20. R. Inkret, A. Kuchar, and B. Mikac, “Advanced infrastructure for photonic networks extended final report of COST 266 action,” Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, (2003), http://www.ikr.uni-stuttgart.de/Content/Publications/Archive/Ga_COST266_ExtendedFinalReport_36355.pdf .
  21. M. Batayneh, D. A. Schupke, M. Hoffmann, A. Kirstaedter, B. Mukherjee, “On routing and transmission-range determination of multi-bit-rate signals over mixed-line-rate WDM optical networks for carrier Ethernet,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 19(5), 1304–1316 (2011). [CrossRef]
  22. S. Kaneda, T. Uyematsu, N. Nagatsu, K. Sato, “Network design and cost optimization for label switched multilayer photonic IP networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 23(8), 1612–1619 (2005). [CrossRef]

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