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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 3 — Feb. 10, 2014
  • pp: 3732–3739
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Soliton families and resonant radiation in a micro-ring resonator near zero group-velocity dispersion

C. Milián and D.V. Skryabin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 3, pp. 3732-3739 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.003732


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Abstract

We report theoretical and numerical study of the dynamical and spectral properties of the conservative and dissipative solitons in micro-ring resonators pumped in a proximity of the zero of the group velocity dispersion. We discuss frequency and velocity locking of the conservative solitons, when dissipation is accounted for. We present theory of the dispersive radiation emitted by such solitons, report their Hopf instability and radiation enhancement by multiple solitons.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Below we present new insights and results into the role played by third order dispersion in the dynamics of the bright cavity solitons. In particular, we demonstrate how velocity and frequency of solitons existing in the Hamiltonian limit lock to specific values when losses are introduced. We also describe properties of the resonant radiation and elaborate on the role of the cavity resonances and of the soliton background, which makes the difference with the free propagation settings [10

10. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287–1299 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. We trace branches of dissipative solitons and report their spectral and stability properties. Note, that solitons in micro-ring resonators are very closely linked with the ones in optical fiber loops, where the experimental data on the soliton existence have been gathered [16

16. F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nature Photon. 4, 471–476 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

Seeking solution of Eq. (1) in the form E=1gω0τΨeiωpt and normalizing time, t = , τ = c/[2πRng] (so that the group velocity coefficient is unity), and distance z = ZL, L = 2πR, we get a more handy form of the dimensionless gLLE:
iTΨ+iZΨ+B2Z2ΨiB3Z3Ψ+(iγδ+2|Ψ|2)Ψ+h=0,
(2)
where γ = Γτ, δ = (ω0ωp)τ, h=rτgω0τA, B2=vg2β2/(2πR)/2!, B3=vg3β3/(2πR2)/3!. Soliton solutions of Eq. (2) can be sought in the form Ψ(T, Z) = ψ(Z − (v + 1)T), where ψ obeys
ivxψ+B2x2ψiB3x3ψ+(iγδ+2|ψ|2)ψ+h=0,x=Z(v+1)T.
(3)
The amplitude of the single mode state at Q = 0, found from (δ + 2|Ψ0|20 + h = 0, is multivalued (bistable) in the soliton existence range and the solitons are nested on the background given by the root with the smallest value of |Ψ0|2, see Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 1 (a) Bistability of the single mode Q = 0 solution. (b) Momentum M vs velocity v plots for families of conservative (no-loss) solitons, λ0 = 1570nm, δ = 0.05. Numbers in the figure show the h-values. (c) GVD and transverse profile of the ring waveguide. Red line on wavelength axis indicates the spectral interval used to plot families of dissipative solitons, Figs. 6,7.

The limit γ = 0 corresponds to the Hamiltonian (conservative) case and is a convenient starting point to understand physical properties of solitons and their radiation. The field momentum M=i201dZ(Ψ*ZΨc.c.) is conserved in this limit, while solitons constitute a family continuously parameterized by the shift v of the group velocity, while all other parameters are kept fixed [18

18. I. V. Barashenkov and E. V. Zemlyanaya, “Travelling solitons in the externally driven nonlinear Schrdinger equation,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 1–23 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The v-family is known in the analytical form for h = B3 = 0:
ψ=asech(xaB2)eivx/(2B2),aδv24B2>0.
(4)

Note, that for the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD) β2 < 0 and B2 > 0. Numerically calculated plots of M vs v for several pump values are shown in Fig. 1(b). All branches are plotted only up to their turning points, vM → ∞, where the multi-hump solitons emerge, since our interest is focused here on the single hump solitons only (see Ref. [18

18. I. V. Barashenkov and E. V. Zemlyanaya, “Travelling solitons in the externally driven nonlinear Schrdinger equation,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 1–23 (2011). [CrossRef]

] for further details). Typical spatial and spectral profiles of the solitons for h = 5 × 10−4 are shown in Fig. 2(a–d). Spectra of these solutions provide a useful physical insight. As v increases, the soliton core spectrally separates from the pump, so that the pump ability to supply energy into the soliton diminishes. Thus, when losses are accounted for, the soliton adiabatically decays in time without any change in its momentum, see Fig. 2(g,h). If, however, the spectral offset is moderate to small, then the soliton is fed by the pump efficiently, so its velocity shift v evolves towards zero and its momentum converges to the pump momentum, see Fig. 2(e,f). For γ ≠ 0, the momentum is not conserved and there exists only one soliton state with v = 0 [19

19. I. V. Barashenkov and Yu. S. Smirnov, “Existence and stability chart for the ac-driven, damped nonlinear Schrdinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5707–5725 (1996). [CrossRef]

]. Note, that so far we have kept B3 = 0. Before we proceed further, we describe a physical system, which is used to present numerical data in this work including the ones in the already discussed Fig. 2. We consider a silicon nitride ring resonator of radius R = 0.9 mm with the cross section 500 × 730 nm2, see Fig. 1(c). The zero GVD wavelength (β2 = 0) is at ≈ 1586 nm.

Fig. 2 (a–d) B3 = γ = 0: (a,b) Soliton profile and spectrum, small v, v = −5 × 10−4; (c,d) Soliton profile and spectrum, large v, v = −1.845×10−3. Vertical lines in (b,d) correspond to the pump wavelength λ0 = 1570 nm. (e–h) B3 = 0, γ = 10−3: (e,f) (t, z) and (t, q) evolution for (a,b); (g,h) (t, z) and (t, q) evolution for (c,d). h = 5 × 10−4 and δ = 0.05 in all the panels.

Accounting for the third order dispersion, β3 ≠ 0, in optical fibers leads to the emission of the resonant radiation by solitons [10

10. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287–1299 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. It is natural to expect a similar effect in our case. To find the resonance wavenumber and the corresponding frequency, we apply the perturbation technique originally developed in the fiber context [9

9. L. Zhang, C. Bao, V. Singh, J. Mu, C. Yang, A.M. Agarwal, L.C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Generation of two-cycle pulses and octave-spanning frequency combs in a dispersion-flattened micro-resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5122–5125 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12

12. V. V. Afanasjev, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Menyuk, “Effect of third-order dispersion on dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1975–1977 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We assume Ψ = ψ(x) + g(t, x), where g=G1ei[QxΩt]+G2*ei[QxΩt] is the radiation field. Linearizing Eq. (2) for small g we find
it[G1G2]=[W(Q)2Ψ022Ψ0*2W*(Q)][G1G2],W^δiv[xiQ]+B2[xiQ]2iB3[xiQ]3+4|Ψ0|2.
(5)
Then, the dispersion law for the radiation is
Ω(Q)=vQ+B3Q3±[δ+B2Q24|Ψ0|2]24|Ψ0|4.
(6)

The wavenumbers of the radiation resonant with the soliton satisfy Ω(Qr) = 0. The corresponding physical frequencies are found as ω0 + Qr[v + 1]c/[2πRng]. Graphical solutions of Ω(Qr) = 0 are shown in Fig. 3(a). One can see that there exist two resonances symmetrically located with respect to the pump. The existence of two real nonzero roots is common to all radiating nonlinear waves which are embedded in a non-vanishing background and in particular this has been reported in the case of fiber dark solitons [11

11. V. I. Karpman, “Stationary and radiating dark solitons of the third order nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 181, 211–215 (1993). [CrossRef]

13

13. C. Milián, D. V. Skryabin, and A. Ferrando, “Continuum generation by dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2096–2098 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fact that there is periodicity in x (equivalently, in z) makes the exact resonance possible only for Qr = q/(2π) (since dimensionless cavity length is 1), q = 0, ±1,..., implying that in practice we are dealing with the quasi-resonant radiation in this system.

Fig. 3 (a) Graphical solution of the resonance condition Ω(Q) = 0. (b) Resonance wavelength vs detuning δ for λ0 = 1570 nm and v = −1.25. Horizontal lines show cavity resonances, q. (c) Ratio of the amplitudes of the two resonant waves for several values of the reference frequency. (d) Amplitude of the strongest resonance vs δ. Dashed straight lines in (b,d) mark the cavity resonances for the resonant radiation wavelength as a function of detuning. Dashed curve in (d) corresponds to α = 〈|Ψ0|〉. Definition of α is shown in the inset of Fig. 4a. h = 5 × 10−4 in all plots.

The relative strength of the two resonances, |G2/G1|=|W/2Ψ02| is shown in Fig. 3(c), here W = Ŵ (Q = Qr, x = 0). Note, that for the wavelength interval considered here β3 < 0 and the short wavelength resonance is driven through the nonlinear mixing of the soliton background with the primary resonance, and therefore its amplitude is relatively small and tends to zero together with h. The long wavelength resonance is much stronger and it retains the non-zero amplitude in the limit h = 0, corresponding to the case of free (no background) propagation [10

10. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287–1299 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. For β3 > 0 the short wavelength resonance becomes domineering.

Changes in the location of the primary resonance with varying δ are shown in Fig. 3(b). While the pump frequency varies roughly within the cavity free spectral range (FSR), the resonance frequency swipes across many FSRs. The question to consider now is will the periodic boundary conditions imposed by the cavity have an appreciable impact on the radiation amplitude, when its frequency resonates with the cavity mode. In quantitative terms, this problem is best addressed numerically, since the soliton core is expected to be altered when the radiation feeds back on the soliton through the periodic boundaries and the radiation frequency is going to be influenced by the soliton being on its way. Therefore we solve Eq. (3), for γ = 0, numerically and find the soliton solutions nesting on top of the radiation wave, see Figs. 4(a,b). Conservative solitons shown here are numerical continuation along B3 and δ of those at h = 5 × 10−4 and v = −1.25 in Fig. 1(b) (v is also a free parameter for B3 ≠ 0). The plot of the radiation amplitude, α, vs δ is shown in Fig. 3(d), one can see the series of peaks that appear for the values of δ producing the resonant radiation nearly matching the cavity resonances, see Fig. 3(b). Matching is not exact, primarily due to the effect of the soliton core on the effective length of the cavity. The maxima of the radiation amplitude corresponds to the amplitude of the soliton background, which drops with δ.

Fig. 4 Spatial (a) and spectral (b) profiles of the conservative solitons. δ = 0.05, λ0 = 1570 nm, h = 5 × 10−4. Zero GVD and resonance wavelengths are marked by the dashed and dotted-dashed vertical lines, respectively.

Including nonzero losses γ ≠ 0 for β3 ≠ 0 has the two fold impact on solitons. First, it selects the value of the group velocity shift v to be non-zero, unlike v = 0 selection for β3 = 0, see Fig. 5 (note γ = 0 for t ≤ 500 and γ > 0 for t > 500). Second, it damps the radiation in space, so that solitons propagate together with the extended, but localized, radiation tail attached to them, see Fig. 6. v ≠ 0 implies that the soliton carrier frequency is detuned from the pump. This can be interpreted as the spectral recoil effect from the radiation on the soliton [10

10. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287–1299 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. From the soliton and radiation spectra in Fig. 6, one can see that the radiation amplitude increases as one approaches β2 = 0 wavelength. It is also important to notice that the soliton state persists, when the pump frequency shifts into the normal GVD range, while the soliton spectral maximum remains in the range of anomalous GVD, see Fig. 6(c), 7(a). The corresponding changes of the soliton velocity with the wavelength of the reference cavity mode approaching β3 = 0 are shown in Fig. 7(b), where the pump frequency is assumed to change simultaneously, so that δ is kept constant.

Fig. 5 Temporal evolution of (a) intensity and (b) spectrum of the conservative soliton with δ0 = 0.0495, λ0 = 1570 nm and γ = 0 initially, and γ = 10−3 is switched on from t = 500. Slope of solid line in (a) corresponds to the input soliton velocity, v = −1.25.
Fig. 6 Soliton profiles and their spectra (insets) for the different values of the reference and pump frequencies, γ = 5 × 10−3, h = 1.5 × 10−3, δ = 5 × 10−2. (a) λ0 = 1565 nm, β2 = −108.4 ps2/km, β3 = −6.6 ps3/km; (b) λ0 = 1575 nm, β2 = −56 ps2/km, β3 = −7.1 ps3/km; (c) λ0 = 1589 nm, β2 = 23 ps2/km, β3 = −7.9 ps3/km. The resonant radiation wavelengths are marked by the red dotted-dashed lines. The zero GVD wavelength is marked by the black dashed vertical lines.
Fig. 7 (a) Spectral center of mass of the soliton core (h = 0.0015). (b) Velocity of the dissipative solitons (h is in the legend). (c) Growth rate of the Hopf instability of the soliton (h = 0.0015). All as functions of the reference frequency. δ = 0.05, γ = 0.005.

Fig. 8 Soliton excitation by a short pulse at the same frequency than the pump. (a,b) present oscillatory instability features for λ0 = 1565, whereas (c,d) tend to a stable propagation (damping of oscillations) for λ0 = 1580 nm, in agreement with the Hopf growth analysis in Fig. 7(c). (a,c) are intensities and (b,d) are the spectra. h = 0.0015, γ = 0.005, δ = 0.05. The slopes of the black lines in the spatial evolutions correspond to the velocity of the expected soliton. The vertical lines in the spectral plots mark, form left to right, pump, zero GVD wavelengths, and predicted resonant radiation, respectively.
Fig. 9 Five solitons excited in a cavity (a) and their spectrum (b): λ0 = 1580 nm, γ = 0.005, h = 0.0015, δ = 0.05. White dashed line in (b) shows spectrum of a single soliton for comparison.

In summary, we have families of the soliton solutions in a microring cavity in the presence of the third order dispersion. We have discussed spectra of the resonant radiation forming soliton tails. We have studied and compared solitons in the Hamiltonian and dissipative cases and demonstrated frequency and velocity selection effect induced by the arbitrary small losses.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge support from EPSRC UK: EP/G044163/1.

References and links

1.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. K. Chembo and N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033801 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. K. Chembo and C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013). [CrossRef]

5.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savachenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

A. Coillet, I. Balakireva, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, L. Larger, J. M. Dudley, C. R. Menyuk, and Y. K. Chembo, “Azimuthal Turing patterns, bright and dark cavity solitons in Kerr combs generated with whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 6100409 (2013). [CrossRef]

7.

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field LugiatoLefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, and A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3478–3481 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

L. Zhang, C. Bao, V. Singh, J. Mu, C. Yang, A.M. Agarwal, L.C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Generation of two-cycle pulses and octave-spanning frequency combs in a dispersion-flattened micro-resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5122–5125 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287–1299 (2010). [CrossRef]

11.

V. I. Karpman, “Stationary and radiating dark solitons of the third order nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 181, 211–215 (1993). [CrossRef]

12.

V. V. Afanasjev, Y. S. Kivshar, and C. R. Menyuk, “Effect of third-order dispersion on dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1975–1977 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

C. Milián, D. V. Skryabin, and A. Ferrando, “Continuum generation by dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2096–2098 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

M. Tlidi and L. Gelens, “High-order dispersion stabilizes dark dissipative solitons in all-fiber cavities,” Opt. Lett. 35, 306–309 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

M. Tlidi, L. Bahloul, L. Cherbi, A. Hariz, and S. Coulibaly, “Drift of dark cavity solitons in a photonic-crystal fiber resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 035802 (2013). [CrossRef]

16.

F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, and M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nature Photon. 4, 471–476 (2010). [CrossRef]

17.

F. Leo, A. Mussot, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and M. Taki, “Nonlinear symmetry breaking induced by third order dispersion in optical fiber cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 104103 (2013). [CrossRef]

18.

I. V. Barashenkov and E. V. Zemlyanaya, “Travelling solitons in the externally driven nonlinear Schrdinger equation,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 1–23 (2011). [CrossRef]

19.

I. V. Barashenkov and Yu. S. Smirnov, “Existence and stability chart for the ac-driven, damped nonlinear Schrdinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5707–5725 (1996). [CrossRef]

20.

A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “On excitation of breather solitons in an optical microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4856–4858 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(320.6629) Ultrafast optics : Supercontinuum generation

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 18, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 27, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 29, 2014
Published: February 7, 2014

Citation
C. Milián and D.V. Skryabin, "Soliton families and resonant radiation in a micro-ring resonator near zero group-velocity dispersion," Opt. Express 22, 3732-3739 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-3-3732


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References

  1. T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 063901 (2011). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. K. Chembo, N. Yu, “Modal expansion approach to optical-frequency-comb generation with monolithic whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033801 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. K. Chembo, C. R. Menyuk, “Spatiotemporal Lugiato-Lefever formalism for Kerr-comb generation in whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053852 (2013). [CrossRef]
  5. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savachenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, L. Maleki, “Mode-locked Kerr frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2845–2847 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Coillet, I. Balakireva, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, L. Larger, J. M. Dudley, C. R. Menyuk, Y. K. Chembo, “Azimuthal Turing patterns, bright and dark cavity solitons in Kerr combs generated with whispering-gallery-mode resonators,” IEEE Photonics J. 5, 6100409 (2013). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field LugiatoLefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. E. Lamont, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, “Route to stabilized ultrabroadband microresonator-based frequency combs,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3478–3481 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Zhang, C. Bao, V. Singh, J. Mu, C. Yang, A.M. Agarwal, L.C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Generation of two-cycle pulses and octave-spanning frequency combs in a dispersion-flattened micro-resonator,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5122–5125 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1287–1299 (2010). [CrossRef]
  11. V. I. Karpman, “Stationary and radiating dark solitons of the third order nonlinear Schrodinger equation,” Phys. Lett. A 181, 211–215 (1993). [CrossRef]
  12. V. V. Afanasjev, Y. S. Kivshar, C. R. Menyuk, “Effect of third-order dispersion on dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1975–1977 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Milián, D. V. Skryabin, A. Ferrando, “Continuum generation by dark solitons,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2096–2098 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Tlidi, L. Gelens, “High-order dispersion stabilizes dark dissipative solitons in all-fiber cavities,” Opt. Lett. 35, 306–309 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Tlidi, L. Bahloul, L. Cherbi, A. Hariz, S. Coulibaly, “Drift of dark cavity solitons in a photonic-crystal fiber resonator,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 035802 (2013). [CrossRef]
  16. F. Leo, S. Coen, P. Kockaert, S.-P. Gorza, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, “Temporal cavity solitons in one-dimensional Kerr media as bits in an all-optical buffer,” Nature Photon. 4, 471–476 (2010). [CrossRef]
  17. F. Leo, A. Mussot, P. Kockaert, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, M. Taki, “Nonlinear symmetry breaking induced by third order dispersion in optical fiber cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 104103 (2013). [CrossRef]
  18. I. V. Barashenkov, E. V. Zemlyanaya, “Travelling solitons in the externally driven nonlinear Schrdinger equation,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44, 1–23 (2011). [CrossRef]
  19. I. V. Barashenkov, Yu. S. Smirnov, “Existence and stability chart for the ac-driven, damped nonlinear Schrdinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5707–5725 (1996). [CrossRef]
  20. A. B. Matsko, A. A. Savchenkov, L. Maleki, “On excitation of breather solitons in an optical microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4856–4858 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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