OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 3754–3760
« Show journal navigation

Accurate determination of the rotational constants of ultracold molecules using double photoassociation spectroscopy

Jie Ma, Yuqing Li, Wenliang Liu, Peng Chen, Guosheng Feng, Chenyang Hu, Jizhou Wu, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 3754-3760 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.003754


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (1092 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report on an accurate determination of the rotational constants of the ultracold long-range Cesium molecules in near dissociation domain. The scheme relies on a precise reference of the frequency difference in a double photoassociation spectroscopy induced by two laser beams based on an acoustic-optical modulator. The rotational constants are obtained by fitting a non-rigid rotor model into the frequency intervals of the neighboring rotational levels deduced from the reference.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Recently, there have been some extensive studies in the production and manipulation of the ultracold molecules, which have shown significantly promising applications in areas ranging from precision mmeasurement to quantum information storage and processing [1

1. O. Dulieu and C. Gabbanini, “The formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(8), 086401 (2009). [CrossRef]

3

3. M. Schnell and G. Meijer, “Cold Molecules: Preparation, Applications, and Challenges,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(33), 6010–6031 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Photoassociation (PA) of the ultracold atoms has been established as a versatile tool in the formation of the ultracold molecules [4

4. K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, “Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483–535 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. The PA process is dependent on the collisional interaction properties. On the other hand, PA spectroscopy (PAS) delivers the detail knowledge of the structure of the formed molecules. Specially, PAS provides a unique opportunity to obtain information on the molecular long-range state. In particular, PAS has been used vastly to perform precise measurements of the high-lying vibrational levels that are essential to determine the molecular parameters near the dissociation limits and often difficult to access by the traditional bound-bound molecular spectroscopy.

Numerous experimental studies have been reported about the ultracold Cesium molecule (Cs2) formed by PA, for instance, resonant four-body interaction in cold Cesium Rydberg atoms [5

5. J. H. Gurian, P. Cheinet, P. Huillery, A. Fioretti, J. Zhao, P. L. Gould, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Observation of a Resonant Four-Body Interaction in Cold Cesium Rydberg Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(2), 023005 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], absolute frequency stabilization to Cesium atom molecular hyperfine transitions [6

6. J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161101 (2007). [CrossRef]

], and precise measurement of Cesium atomic triplet state scattering length [7

7. C. Drag, T. B. Laburthe, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative Spectroscopy as a Self-Sufficient Tool for the Determination of the Cs Triplet Scattering Length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(7), 1408–1411 (2000).

]. As PA spectra deeply covers abundant rotational data, reasonable investigations are required to precisely determine the rotational constants of the long-range molecules, which are crucial in predicting the unexplored levels and obtaining the precise potential energy curve [8

8. J. Ma, J. Wu, G. Chen, Q. Fan, H. Feng, X. Dai, W. Sun, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Experimental Determination of the Rotational Constants of HighLying Vibrational Levels of Ultracold Cs2 in the 0g Purely Long-Range State,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3612–3617 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. Recently, some efforts have been made to obtain the rotational constants of the low-lying vibrational levels in the Cs2 0g (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) long-range state [9

9. M. Pichler, H. Chen, and W. C. Stwalley, “Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold Cs below the 6P1/2 limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(4), 1796–1801 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, the rotational constants of the high-lying vibrational levels, which are important to precisely define the near-dissociation part of the potential energy curves, are difficult to determine by conventional direct measuring method, i.e. using a high resolution wavelength meter. The small frequency intervals between neighbouring rotational levels preclude the accurate measurements. An available method is to employ a Fabry-Perot reference cavity to monitor the changes of the relative frequency. However, the sensitivity is not sufficiently high. In particular, the measuring accuracy of a marker interferometer is greatly suppressed by the low frequency 1/f noise which results from the long scanning time in PA experiments. An active locking could be carried out to remedy the noise for some situations (with sub-MHz accuracy), nevertheless, powerful calibration schemes with quick and expedient implement still need to be widely researched.

In this paper, we develop a robust technique, namely “double PA spectroscopy”, for frequency measurement with high sensitivity and demonstrate the experimental determination of the rotational constants for the high-lying vibrational levels in the molecular long-range state. The rotational constants of the vibrational levels [vD] – v = 15 ~42 in the Cs2 0g long-range state below the (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) limit have been measured.

2. Experimental section

The experimental setup is schematically depicted in Fig. 1(a), basically consists of three parts: laser system, double pass and PA system.
Fig. 1 (a). Experimental setup. M: high reflective mirror; OI: optical isolator; H: half wave plate; PBS: polarization beam splitter; L: lens; S: Shutter; Q: quarter wave plate; AOM: acousto-optic modulator; BT: beam trap; BPF: band pass filter; APD: Avalanche photodiode; PD: photodiode; CCD: Charge-coupled Device. Figure 1 (b). Schematic diagram of the double PA spectroscopy. The dashed inset demonstrates the sequence diagram. ts, ~10 ms, represents the response time in which the laser beam can be turned on/off completely.
PA is induced by a cw widely tunable Ti: Sapphire laser (Coherent MBR-110, ~1 W, line-width ~0.1 MHz) driven by a 10W Verdi pump laser. The long-time frequency drift of Ti: Sapphire laser system is less than 500 kHz by locking to its self-reference cavity. The absolute laser frequency measurement is performed and monitored by a wavelength meter (HighFinesse-Angstrom WS/7R, absolute accuracy ~60 MHz). The wavelength meter is calibrated against the Cesium atomic hyperfine resonance transition, 6S1/2 (F = 4) → 6P3/2 (F’ = 5), corresponding to wavenumber of 11732.176 cm−1.

Ultracold Cesium atoms are produced in a typical vapour-loaded MOT [10

10. J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “High sensitive photoassociation spectroscopy of the Cs molecular 0u+ and 1g long-range states below the 6S1/2 + 6P3/2limit,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255(2), 106–110 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The temperature is measured to be about 120 μK by time-of-flight method. Atomic number is measured to be about 5 × 107 using absorption method, and the dimension (FWHM) of the atomic cloud is ~800 µm, yielding a peak density on the order of 1011 cm−3. Both the trapping laser and the repumping laser are frequency stabilized diode laser systems (Toptica DL100, ~160 mW with line-width 0.8 MHz).

Formation of the ultracold molecules by PA and the double PA Spectroscopy are schematically demonstrated in Fig. 1(b). Initially an excitation from a free scattering state of two atoms to a bound excited molecular level is driven by resonant laser with frequency ν. This excited molecule spontaneously decays into ground state. PAS directly illustrates the number of produced excited molecules as a function of ν. PA spectra below the dissociation limit (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) are recorded by monitoring the atomic fluorescence as PA laser scans. Modulation technology is implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of PA spectra [10

10. J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “High sensitive photoassociation spectroscopy of the Cs molecular 0u+ and 1g long-range states below the 6S1/2 + 6P3/2limit,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255(2), 106–110 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

The double PA spectroscopy directly offers a precise reference of the frequency difference and enables measuring small frequency interval of the adjacent rotational levels for high-lying vibrational states. As shown in the dashed inset of Fig. 1(b), the double PA spectrum is obtained through alternately illuminating the cold atomic sample by two PA laser beams (I and II). Partial output from the PA laser is frequency shifted by a double-passed acousto-optic modulator (AOM, MT110-B50A1-IR, AA Optoelectronic) to provide a calibration beam with an fixed offset of Δ0 = ν1 – ν2 = 220 MHz. The modulated laser beam (Beam II) is diffracted from the double pass setup and well overlapped in space with the main output of the PA Laser (Beam I). Beam I at first induces trap loss of the cold atoms and a ro-vibrational spectrum including rotational levels from J = 0 to J = n is acquired. Later, Beam I is quickly switched off while simultaneously Beam II interacts with the atoms in turn. A selected spectral feature containing rotational level J = n is thus scanned twice (denoted as J’ = n). A series of the double PA spectra are therefore recorded. As PA laser scanning with stringent linearity and unvaried speed, frequency interval between the resonance peaks J = n and J’ = n exactly equals to Δ0 = 220 MHz, i.e. the fixed frequency difference between Beam I and Beam II. This known precise separation of Δ0 is used to calibrate the double PA spectra, frequency intervals ΔυJ (J = 0, 1, …, n-1) of the neighboring rotational levels are accurately deduced. It should be noted that the intensities of Beam I and II are set identical in order to avoid effects of laser induced frequency shifts [11

11. Y. C. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. Q. Li, J. Z. Wu, L. J. Zhang, G. Chen, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “Direct measurement of laser-induced frequency shift rate of ultracold cesium molecules by analyzing losses of trapped atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131114 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The continuity and linearity of the frequency scans are assured by monitoring the PA laser frequency real time with a wavelength meter (WS/7R). Ultimately, the rotational constants are obtained by fitting the data of ΔυJ to the rotor model [12

12. B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, Physics of Atoms and Molecules (Longman Group Press, 1983).

].

3. Results and discussion

In order to obtain the rotational constants for the high-lying vibrational levels, we investigated the dependence of ΔυJ on J for high-lying vibrational level ([vD] – v = 17) of the Cs2 0g (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) long-range state, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The non-linear relationship between Δυ and J is clearly exhibited. The main reason for the non-linearity is that the long-range interaction between the two constituent atoms of the long-range molecules is rather weak comparing with the ordinary chemical bond. The red curve in Fig. 2(b) is the fit plotted in accordance with a non-rigid rotor model [12

12. B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, Physics of Atoms and Molecules (Longman Group Press, 1983).

]. The rotational frequency interval is described as ΔυJ = 2B(J + 1)-4D(J + 1)3, where B is the rotational constant and D is the centrifugal distortion constant. In order to test the appropriateness of this nonlinear model, the fitting results (blue curve) using rigid rotor model are also given. The adjusted R2 for the non-rigid and rigid fittings are 0.99162 and 0.97249, respectively. Clearly, the non-rigid rotor model is more precise than the rigid rotor model to obtain accurate rotational constants Bv = 17 = 25.73 ± 3.80 MHz and centrifugal distortion constants Dv = 17 = 0.07 ± 0.02 MHz.

Figure 3 shows six typical double PA spectra for vibrational levels ([vD] – v = 15, 20, 22, 29, 39 and 41) of the Cs2 0g (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) long-range state, whose detunings are ~2.24 cm−1, ~6.04 cm−1, ~7.88 cm−1, ~19.64 cm−1, ~41.76 cm−1, and ~47.45 cm−1 below the dissociation limit 6S1/2 + 6P1/2 (~11178.151 cm−1), respectively.
Fig. 3 Six typical double PA spectra with the reference of frequency difference are provided for typical vibrational levels of the Cs2 0g (6S1/2 + 6P1/2) long-range state. The intensity of the PA laser beams (I and II) is 43.5 W/cm−2 and keeps unchanged. The Ti:sapphire laser is slowly scanned at a rate of 5.0 MHz/s. The colorful curves are the multipeak Lorentzian fitting results.
The resolved rotational structure (J = 0 ~5) is clearly observed for all vibrational levels ([vD] – v = 15 ~43). In fact, some spectra are rich in rotational structures (J = 0 ~7). Those large rotational levels can be rationalized due to additional angular momentum contributions, such as from orbital angular momentum due to p-wave or d-wave. All of the observed spectra demonstrate similar intensity undulation, which is the result of the variation of the Franck-Condon factors for the photoassociation transitions from initial scattering state of two free cold atoms to the final ro-vibrtional levels of the long-range states.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, a double PA spectroscopy technique has been proposed that provides a precise frequency reference to experimentally determine the rotational constants of the high-lying vibrational levels of the molecular long-range state. A linear dependence of the rotational constants on the vibrational quantum number is found. The proposed technique allows one to reach all the data of the available experimental ro-vibrational levels below the dissociation limit. Nevertheless, at the present stage of the experiment, the interpretation of the results remains limited, due to not considering the perturbation effect that stems from the mixing with the triplet sigma ungerade levels. Our scheme has several advantages. First, the rotational constants of the high-lying vibrational levels of Cs2 long-range states have been directly measured for the first time. Furthermore, a high quality cavity that necessitates elaborate controls and additional expenditure is not required. Finally, the simple and robust scheme can be adapted to investigate a number of other long-range molecular species.

Acknowledgments

The work was supported by the 973 Programs (No. 2012CB921603), the 863 Program (No. 2011AA010801), the PCSIRT (No. IRT13076), the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2011DFA12490), NSF of China (No. 61378014, No. 61308023 and No. 10934004), the NSFC Project for Excellent Research Team (No. 61121064), the SRFDPHE (No. 20131401120012) and the NSF for Young Scientists of Shanxi Province (Grant No. 2013021005-1).

References and links

1.

O. Dulieu and C. Gabbanini, “The formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(8), 086401 (2009). [CrossRef]

2.

S. Ospelkaus, K. K. Ni, D. Wang, M. H. de Miranda, B. Neyenhuis, G. Quéméner, P. S. Julienne, J. L. Bohn, D. S. Jin, and J. Ye, “Quantum-state controlled chemical reactions of ultracold potassium-rubidium molecules,” Science 327(5967), 853–857 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3.

M. Schnell and G. Meijer, “Cold Molecules: Preparation, Applications, and Challenges,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(33), 6010–6031 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, and P. S. Julienne, “Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483–535 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

J. H. Gurian, P. Cheinet, P. Huillery, A. Fioretti, J. Zhao, P. L. Gould, D. Comparat, and P. Pillet, “Observation of a Resonant Four-Body Interaction in Cold Cesium Rydberg Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(2), 023005 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161101 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

C. Drag, T. B. Laburthe, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative Spectroscopy as a Self-Sufficient Tool for the Determination of the Cs Triplet Scattering Length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(7), 1408–1411 (2000).

8.

J. Ma, J. Wu, G. Chen, Q. Fan, H. Feng, X. Dai, W. Sun, L. Xiao, and S. Jia, “Experimental Determination of the Rotational Constants of HighLying Vibrational Levels of Ultracold Cs2 in the 0g Purely Long-Range State,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3612–3617 (2013). [CrossRef]

9.

M. Pichler, H. Chen, and W. C. Stwalley, “Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold Cs below the 6P1/2 limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(4), 1796–1801 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “High sensitive photoassociation spectroscopy of the Cs molecular 0u+ and 1g long-range states below the 6S1/2 + 6P3/2limit,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255(2), 106–110 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

Y. C. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. Q. Li, J. Z. Wu, L. J. Zhang, G. Chen, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “Direct measurement of laser-induced frequency shift rate of ultracold cesium molecules by analyzing losses of trapped atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131114 (2012). [CrossRef]

12.

B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, Physics of Atoms and Molecules (Longman Group Press, 1983).

13.

D. Comparat, C. Drag, A. Fioretti, O. Dulieu, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative Spectroscopy and Formation of Cold Molecules in Cold Cesium Vapor: Trap-Loss Spectrum versus Ion Spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 195(2), 229–235 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

J. Z. Wu, J. Ma, Y. C. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, G. Chen, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “High sensitive trap loss spectroscopic detection of the lowest vibrational levels of ultracold molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(42), 18921–18925 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, and P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g long-range state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5(3), 389–403 (1999). [CrossRef]

16.

J. Ma, J. Z. Wu, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, and S. T. Jia, “Determination of the rotational constant of the Cs2 0g- (6s + 6p3/2) state by trap loss spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17089–17095 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.7280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Vibration analysis
(140.3320) Lasers and laser optics : Laser cooling
(230.1040) Optical devices : Acousto-optical devices
(300.6320) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, high-resolution
(300.6390) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, molecular

ToC Category:
Spectroscopy

History
Original Manuscript: December 11, 2013
Revised Manuscript: January 20, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: January 31, 2014
Published: February 10, 2014

Citation
Jie Ma, Yuqing Li, Wenliang Liu, Peng Chen, Guosheng Feng, Chenyang Hu, Jizhou Wu, Liantuan Xiao, and Suotang Jia, "Accurate determination of the rotational constants of ultracold molecules using double photoassociation spectroscopy," Opt. Express 22, 3754-3760 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-4-3754


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. O. Dulieu, C. Gabbanini, “The formation and interactions of cold and ultracold molecules: new challenges for interdisciplinary physics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72(8), 086401 (2009). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Ospelkaus, K. K. Ni, D. Wang, M. H. de Miranda, B. Neyenhuis, G. Quéméner, P. S. Julienne, J. L. Bohn, D. S. Jin, J. Ye, “Quantum-state controlled chemical reactions of ultracold potassium-rubidium molecules,” Science 327(5967), 853–857 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Schnell, G. Meijer, “Cold Molecules: Preparation, Applications, and Challenges,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 48(33), 6010–6031 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. M. Jones, E. Tiesinga, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, “Ultracold photoassociation spectroscopy: Long-range molecules and atomic scattering,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(2), 483–535 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Gurian, P. Cheinet, P. Huillery, A. Fioretti, J. Zhao, P. L. Gould, D. Comparat, P. Pillet, “Observation of a Resonant Four-Body Interaction in Cold Cesium Rydberg Atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(2), 023005 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, “Absolute frequency stabilization of a diode laser to cesium atom-molecular hyperfine transitions via modulating molecules,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(16), 161101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. C. Drag, T. B. Laburthe, B. T’Jampens, D. Comparat, M. Allegrini, A. Crubellier, P. Pillet, “Photoassociative Spectroscopy as a Self-Sufficient Tool for the Determination of the Cs Triplet Scattering Length,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(7), 1408–1411 (2000).
  8. J. Ma, J. Wu, G. Chen, Q. Fan, H. Feng, X. Dai, W. Sun, L. Xiao, S. Jia, “Experimental Determination of the Rotational Constants of HighLying Vibrational Levels of Ultracold Cs2 in the 0g− Purely Long-Range State,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3612–3617 (2013). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Pichler, H. Chen, W. C. Stwalley, “Photoassociation spectroscopy of ultracold Cs below the 6P1/2 limit,” J. Chem. Phys. 121(4), 1796–1801 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Ma, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, “High sensitive photoassociation spectroscopy of the Cs molecular 0u+ and 1g long-range states below the 6S1/2 + 6P3/2limit,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255(2), 106–110 (2009). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. C. Zhang, J. Ma, Y. Q. Li, J. Z. Wu, L. J. Zhang, G. Chen, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, “Direct measurement of laser-induced frequency shift rate of ultracold cesium molecules by analyzing losses of trapped atoms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131114 (2012). [CrossRef]
  12. B. H. Bransden and C. J. Joachain, Physics of Atoms and Molecules (Longman Group Press, 1983).
  13. D. Comparat, C. Drag, A. Fioretti, O. Dulieu, P. Pillet, “Photoassociative Spectroscopy and Formation of Cold Molecules in Cold Cesium Vapor: Trap-Loss Spectrum versus Ion Spectrum,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 195(2), 229–235 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Z. Wu, J. Ma, Y. C. Zhang, Y. Q. Li, L. R. Wang, Y. T. Zhao, G. Chen, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, “High sensitive trap loss spectroscopic detection of the lowest vibrational levels of ultracold molecules,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(42), 18921–18925 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Fioretti, D. Comparat, C. Drag, C. Amiot, O. Dulieu, F. Masnou-Seeuws, P. Pillet, “Photoassociative spectroscopy of the Cs2 0g− long-range state,” Eur. Phys. J. D 5(3), 389–403 (1999). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Ma, J. Z. Wu, Y. T. Zhao, L. T. Xiao, S. T. Jia, “Determination of the rotational constant of the Cs2 0g- (6s + 6p3/2) state by trap loss spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17089–17095 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
 
Fig. 4
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited