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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4091–4097
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Long-term stable passive synchronization between two-color mode-locked lasers with the aid of temperature stabilization

Dai Yoshitomi and Kenji Torizuka  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4091-4097 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.004091


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Abstract

We demonstrate long-term stable passive synchronization between two-color Ti:sapphire (master) and Yb-doped fiber (slave) mode-locked lasers in the master-slave configuration. Active temperature stabilization suppresses the repetition fluctuation of the slave laser, and with the aid of temperature stabilization in combination with simple repetition locking of the master laser, long-term stable synchronization as long as 6 h was realized. The repetition rates of both lasers are locked in submillihertz precision. A timing jitter of 0.75 fs was obtained at a detection bandwidth of 350 kHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Synchronization between two-color ultrashort laser pulses has become crucial in ultrafast science for a variety of applications such as time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy [1

1. Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, “Real-space imaging of transient carrier dynamics by nanoscale pump-probe microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 869–874 (2010). [CrossRef]

], nonlinear microscopy [2

2. Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 845–851 (2012). [CrossRef]

], optical parametric amplification [3

3. C. Y. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, T. Metzger, S. Köhler, R. Holzwarth, A. Baltuška, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, “Soliton-based pump-seed synchronization for few-cycle OPCPA,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6550–6557 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5

5. A. Schwarz, M. Ueffing, Y. Deng, X. Gu, H. Fattahi, T. Metzger, M. Ossiander, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Active stabilization for optically synchronized optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5557–5565 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], coherent pulse synthesis [6

6. R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9

9. G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010). [CrossRef]

], and clock dissemination [10

10. D. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, M. Notcutt, J. Ye, J. Chandalia, L. A. Jiang, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, “Ultralow-jitter, 1550-nm mode-locked semiconductor laser synchronized to a visible optical frequency standard,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 813–815 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. D. D. Hudson, S. M. Foreman, S. T. Cundiff, and J. Ye, “Synchronization of mode-locked femtosecond lasers through a fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 1951–1953 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Among the various schemes, the passive synchronization utilizing nonlinear optical effect is capable of achieving low timing jitter with a simple experimental setup without any complicated electronics [12

12. A. Leitenstorfer, C. Fürst, and A. Laubereau, “Widely tunable two-color mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with pulse jitter of less than 2 fs,” Opt. Lett. 20(8), 916–918 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20

20. B.-W. Tsai, S.-Y. Wu, C. Hu, W.-W. Hsiang, and Y. Lai, “Subfemtosecond hybrid synchronization between ultrafast Yb and Er fiber laser systems by controlling the relative injection timing,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3456–3459 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. There have been many attempts to reduce jitter, and subfemtosecond synchronization has been reported with passive [15

15. J. Tian, Z. Wei, P. Wang, H. Han, J. Zhang, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Yang, and J. Pan, “Independently tunable 1.3 W femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers passively synchronized with attosecond timing jitter and ultrahigh robustness,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2161–2163 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and active-passive hybrid schemes [14

14. D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, M. Kakehata, and K. Torizuka, “100-attosecond timing jitter between two-color mode-locked lasers by active-passive hybrid synchronization,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1408–1410 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. B.-W. Tsai, S.-Y. Wu, C. Hu, W.-W. Hsiang, and Y. Lai, “Subfemtosecond hybrid synchronization between ultrafast Yb and Er fiber laser systems by controlling the relative injection timing,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3456–3459 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the master-slave configuration with fiber lasers, the master laser pulses are injected into the fiber of the slave laser cavity [13

13. M. Rusu, R. Herda, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively synchronized two-color mode-locked fiber system based on master-slave lasers geometry,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4719–4724 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,16

16. D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, M. Kakehata, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Onuma, H. Yokoi, T. Sekiguchi, and S. Nakamura, “Ultralow-jitter passive timing stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by injection of an optical pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3243–3245 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. B.-W. Tsai, S.-Y. Wu, C. Hu, W.-W. Hsiang, and Y. Lai, “Subfemtosecond hybrid synchronization between ultrafast Yb and Er fiber laser systems by controlling the relative injection timing,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3456–3459 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The cross-phase modulation between the copropagating two-color pulses induces a spectral shift in the slave pulses. The sign of the shift, which is dependent on the relative timing of two pulses, behaves in a negative feedback manner to enable self-synchronization in combination with the negative intracavity dispersion [21

21. C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 473–479 (1996). [CrossRef]

,22

22. Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive synchronization between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9), S171–S176 (2002). [CrossRef]

]. From a practical perspective, long-term stability of synchronization is obviously an important issue. However, the passive scheme has difficulties with long-term stable operation because of the small tolerance of the cavity length mismatch, which is typically ~10 μm corresponding to a difference of a few hundred hertz in a repetition rate of 100 MHz [16

16. D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, M. Kakehata, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Onuma, H. Yokoi, T. Sekiguchi, and S. Nakamura, “Ultralow-jitter passive timing stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by injection of an optical pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3243–3245 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Such cavity-length fluctuation is quite common because of temperature variation of the base plate and/or the fiber. It is possible to directly lock the repetition rate of the master laser by active control of the cavity length with a piezo-actuated mirror. However, it would be difficult to stabilize the cavity length of the slave laser in similar manner, because there is no way to detect the free-running repetition rate of the slave laser during synchronization. Therefore, temperature stabilization of the slave laser is one of the solutions to realize long-term stable operation.

Here, we actively stabilize the temperature of the base plate and the fiber of an Yb-doped fiber (YbF) mode-locked laser. With the aid of the temperature stabilization, we demonstrate long-term stable synchronization in the master-slave configuration between the fiber laser (slave) and a Ti:sapphire (TiS) mode-locked laser (master). Under the best environmental conditions, the repetition-rate fluctuation of the fiber laser was suppressed to 2.0 Hz in 4 h. Long-term stable synchronization was achieved for 6 h with the repetition frequencies of both lasers locked in submillihertz precision. In addition, the presented system shows a timing jitter of 0.75 fs over a short time scale at a detection bandwidth of 350 kHz.

2. Temperature stabilization of Yb-doped fiber laser

The layout of YbF mode-locked laser is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layout of YbF mode-locked laser. WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; SMF, single-mode fiber; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter.
. The unidirectional ring cavity is designed in a manner similar to the system described previously [23

23. X. Zhou, D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 28-fs pulses from a mode-locked ytterbium fiber oscillator,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7055–7059 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The fiber section includes 30 cm of single-mode Yb-doped gain fiber with a pump absorption of 1200 dB/m and approximately 1 m of single-mode silica fiber. The gain fiber is pumped by a single-mode fiber- coupled laser diode delivering an approximate power of 300 mW at a wavelength of 976 nm. The dispersion of the fiber is compensated for with a pair of gratings with a groove density of 600 lines/mm. Stable mode locking based on nonlinear polarization rotation occurs by fine adjustment of a half-wave plate and two quarter-wave plates. The output pulses are extracted from the rejection port of the polarizing beam splitter. The typical output power is 60 mW, and the repetition rate is 100 MHz. After the output pulse train is detected with a fast photodiode, the repetition rate is counted with a frequency counter (Agilent 53132A) with a gate time of 1 s.

To suppress the fluctuation of the repetition rate, the base plate temperature is actively stabilized with a heater and a temperature controller. We employed a simple scheme of one-way proportional-integral control without cooling equipment. We used five metal-clad resistors with a resistance of 2 Ω connected in series for heating. The current amplifier circuit provides a maximum current of 1.3 A and a maximum power of 17 W. Most of the fiber section is attached to the base plate to heat the fiber simultaneously. Two platinum temperature sensors (PT100) are used to monitor the temperature. One sensor is connected to the temperature controller, and the other is used for out-of-loop measurement. The aluminum base plate is placed on heat insulator for thermal decoupling. The entire system is placed inside an aluminum box covered with heat-insulating material for protection against air turbulence and acoustic noise.

3. Long-term passive synchronization between Ti:sapphire laser and Yb-doped fiber laser

Figure 5(a)
Fig. 5 Long-term variation in repetition rates. (a) Repetition rate of TiS laser actively locked to an RF reference. (b) Repetition rate of temperature-stabilized YbF laser passively synchronized to TiS laser. The reference RF frequency is fRF = 100,085,040,000 (mHz). (c) Calculated difference of two repetition rate values in (a) and (b).
shows the variation of 1-s gated repetition rate of TiS laser for 6 h. The measured fluctuation of 0.76 mHz (rms) is limited to the resolution of the frequency counter.The output of the TiS laser is split into two branches with a broadband beam splitter after dispersion compensation with chirped mirrors. The beam in one branch is injected into the YbF cavity from the rear of the dielectric mirror after adjustment of polarization (shown in Fig. 1). The beam in the other branch is combined with the dispersion-compensated YbF laser output by use of the beam splitter for jitter measurement. Figure 6
Fig. 6 Temporal intensity (red solid) and phase (red dotted) profiles of (a) TiS and (b) YbF laser pulses after dispersion compensation. The transform-limited (TL) pulse shapes are shown in comparison (blue).
shows the temporal profiles of dispersion-compensated pulses out of both lasers measured with two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry (2DSI) [26

26. J. R. Birge, R. Ell, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry for few-cycle pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2063–2065 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pulse durations of TiS laser and YbF laser are 13 fs and 51 fs, respectively. The passive synchronization occurs by tuning of the repetition rate of TiS laser to be closer to the repetition rate of YbF laser. We observed long-term stable synchronization for 6 h. In this experiment, the repetition locking of TiS laser failed in 6 h because of limited range of the piezoelectric actuator. The use of an actuator with longer range would improve the duration of synchronization. Figure 5(b) shows the variation of the repetition rate of YbF laser. As a consequence of synchronization, the stability of the repetition of TiS was successfully transferred into that of YbF laser. The fluctuation of the repetition of YbF laser was suppressed to 0.72 mHz (rms), which is comparable to that of TiS laser [Fig. 5(a)]. The calculated difference of two repetition rates shown in Fig. 5(c) indicates that the repetition rates of the two lasers are locked with a precision of 0.93 mHz (rms), which is almost the resolution limit of the frequency counter.

To evaluate the short-term stability of passive synchronization, we measured the timing jitter between two-color pulses. As shown in Fig. 4, the collinearly combined two-color pulses are focused with an off-axis parabolic mirror into a Type-I β-barium borate crystal 0.4 mm thick for sum-frequency generation (SFG). The SFG output at a wavelength around 460 nm is passed through the spectral filter and detected with the photomultiplier tube. The relative delay is adjusted at half maximum of the cross-correlation. The coefficient of the SFG fluctuation to the timing jitter is calibrated by oscillating the piezo-actuated delay stage. Figure 7
Fig. 7 Power spectral density (red) and rms integration (blue) of the jitter between the passively synchronized TiS and YbF pulses.
shows the power spectral density and the rms integration of the jitter measured by the SFG fluctuation. An rms integration of 0.75 fs in a detection bandwidth of 350 kHz was obtained, which reveals low-jitter feature of the passive synchronization scheme. The long-term drift in the extracavity delay paths would possibly pose the problem in some applications, however, it could be resolved by employing the active-passive hybrid scheme to implement the slow feedback control of the extracavity delay line [14

14. D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, M. Kakehata, and K. Torizuka, “100-attosecond timing jitter between two-color mode-locked lasers by active-passive hybrid synchronization,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1408–1410 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,20

20. B.-W. Tsai, S.-Y. Wu, C. Hu, W.-W. Hsiang, and Y. Lai, “Subfemtosecond hybrid synchronization between ultrafast Yb and Er fiber laser systems by controlling the relative injection timing,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3456–3459 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated long-term stable passive synchronization in the master-slave configuration between two-color mode-locked Ti:sapphire (master) and Yb-doped fiber (slave) lasers. The fluctuation of repetition rate of the slave laser was suppressed by simple active stabilization of temperature. In combination with the active repetition locking of the master laser, the long-term stable synchronization as long as 6 h was realized. In addition, the short-term jitter in the subfemtosecond regime was also achieved. The presented scheme will realize the long-term stable synchronization with relatively low timing jitter characteristics without necessity of complicated electronics, and would be helpful for applications requiring stable two-color synchronization.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 22686010 and 25390105.

References and links

1.

Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, and H. Shigekawa, “Real-space imaging of transient carrier dynamics by nanoscale pump-probe microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 869–874 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 845–851 (2012). [CrossRef]

3.

C. Y. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, T. Metzger, S. Köhler, R. Holzwarth, A. Baltuška, A. M. Zheltikov, and F. Krausz, “Soliton-based pump-seed synchronization for few-cycle OPCPA,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6550–6557 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

D. Yoshitomi, X. Zhou, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, and K. Torizuka, “Long-term stable passive synchronization of 50 µJ femtosecond Yb-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifier with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26027–26036 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Schwarz, M. Ueffing, Y. Deng, X. Gu, H. Fattahi, T. Metzger, M. Ossiander, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, “Active stabilization for optically synchronized optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5557–5565 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, “Characterization of Fourier-synthesized optical waveforms from optically phase-locked femtosecond multicolor pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2925–2927 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. A. Cox, W. P. Putnam, A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, and F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse synthesis in the single-cycle regime from independent mode-locked lasers using attosecond-precision feedback,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3579–3581 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010). [CrossRef]

10.

D. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, M. Notcutt, J. Ye, J. Chandalia, L. A. Jiang, E. P. Ippen, and H. Yokoyama, “Ultralow-jitter, 1550-nm mode-locked semiconductor laser synchronized to a visible optical frequency standard,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 813–815 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

D. D. Hudson, S. M. Foreman, S. T. Cundiff, and J. Ye, “Synchronization of mode-locked femtosecond lasers through a fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 1951–1953 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

A. Leitenstorfer, C. Fürst, and A. Laubereau, “Widely tunable two-color mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with pulse jitter of less than 2 fs,” Opt. Lett. 20(8), 916–918 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

M. Rusu, R. Herda, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively synchronized two-color mode-locked fiber system based on master-slave lasers geometry,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4719–4724 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, M. Kakehata, and K. Torizuka, “100-attosecond timing jitter between two-color mode-locked lasers by active-passive hybrid synchronization,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1408–1410 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

J. Tian, Z. Wei, P. Wang, H. Han, J. Zhang, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Yang, and J. Pan, “Independently tunable 1.3 W femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers passively synchronized with attosecond timing jitter and ultrahigh robustness,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2161–2163 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, M. Kakehata, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, T. Onuma, H. Yokoi, T. Sekiguchi, and S. Nakamura, “Ultralow-jitter passive timing stabilization of a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser by injection of an optical pulse train,” Opt. Lett. 31(22), 3243–3245 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Zhou, Y. Cai, L. Ren, P. Li, S. Cao, L. Chen, M. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Passive synchronization of femtosecond Er- and Yb-fiber lasers by injection locking,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 445–449 (2009). [CrossRef]

18.

W.-W. Hsiang, C.-H. Chang, C.-P. Cheng, and Y. Lai, “Passive synchronization between a self-similar pulse and a bound-soliton bunch in a two-color mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1967–1969 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, A. S. Pozharov, E. D. Obraztsova, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Passive synchronization of all-fiber lasers through a common saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 3984–3986 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

B.-W. Tsai, S.-Y. Wu, C. Hu, W.-W. Hsiang, and Y. Lai, “Subfemtosecond hybrid synchronization between ultrafast Yb and Er fiber laser systems by controlling the relative injection timing,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3456–3459 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

C. Fürst, A. Leitenstorfer, and A. Laubereau, “Mechanism for self-synchronization of femtosecond pulses in a two-color Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 473–479 (1996). [CrossRef]

22.

Z. Wei, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive synchronization between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 74(9), S171–S176 (2002). [CrossRef]

23.

X. Zhou, D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, and K. Torizuka, “Generation of 28-fs pulses from a mode-locked ytterbium fiber oscillator,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7055–7059 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

I. H. Malitson, “Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55(10), 1205–1209 (1965). [CrossRef]

25.

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 312–314 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

26.

J. R. Birge, R. Ell, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry for few-cycle pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 2063–2065 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(140.3510) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, fiber
(140.4050) Lasers and laser optics : Mode-locked lasers
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(320.7110) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast nonlinear optics
(140.3425) Lasers and laser optics : Laser stabilization

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: December 26, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 4, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 7, 2014
Published: February 13, 2014

Citation
Dai Yoshitomi and Kenji Torizuka, "Long-term stable passive synchronization between two-color mode-locked lasers with the aid of temperature stabilization," Opt. Express 22, 4091-4097 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-4-4091


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References

  1. Y. Terada, S. Yoshida, O. Takeuchi, H. Shigekawa, “Real-space imaging of transient carrier dynamics by nanoscale pump-probe microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 869–874 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, Y. Otsuka, S. Satoh, H. Hashimoto, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, K. Itoh, “High-speed molecular spectral imaging of tissue with stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 845–851 (2012). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Y. Teisset, N. Ishii, T. Fuji, T. Metzger, S. Köhler, R. Holzwarth, A. Baltuška, A. M. Zheltikov, F. Krausz, “Soliton-based pump-seed synchronization for few-cycle OPCPA,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6550–6557 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Yoshitomi, X. Zhou, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, K. Torizuka, “Long-term stable passive synchronization of 50 µJ femtosecond Yb-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplifier with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26027–26036 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Schwarz, M. Ueffing, Y. Deng, X. Gu, H. Fattahi, T. Metzger, M. Ossiander, F. Krausz, R. Kienberger, “Active stabilization for optically synchronized optical parametric chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5557–5565 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. K. Shelton, L.-S. Ma, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, J. L. Hall, J. Ye, “Phase-coherent optical pulse synthesis from separate femtosecond lasers,” Science 293(5533), 1286–1289 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, “Characterization of Fourier-synthesized optical waveforms from optically phase-locked femtosecond multicolor pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33(24), 2925–2927 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Cox, W. P. Putnam, A. Sell, A. Leitenstorfer, F. X. Kärtner, “Pulse synthesis in the single-cycle regime from independent mode-locked lasers using attosecond-precision feedback,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3579–3581 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010). [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Jones, K. W. Holman, M. Notcutt, J. Ye, J. Chandalia, L. A. Jiang, E. P. Ippen, H. Yokoyama, “Ultralow-jitter, 1550-nm mode-locked semiconductor laser synchronized to a visible optical frequency standard,” Opt. Lett. 28(10), 813–815 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. D. Hudson, S. M. Foreman, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, “Synchronization of mode-locked femtosecond lasers through a fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 31(13), 1951–1953 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Leitenstorfer, C. Fürst, A. Laubereau, “Widely tunable two-color mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser with pulse jitter of less than 2 fs,” Opt. Lett. 20(8), 916–918 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Rusu, R. Herda, O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively synchronized two-color mode-locked fiber system based on master-slave lasers geometry,” Opt. Express 12(20), 4719–4724 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Yoshitomi, Y. Kobayashi, H. Takada, M. Kakehata, K. Torizuka, “100-attosecond timing jitter between two-color mode-locked lasers by active-passive hybrid synchronization,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1408–1410 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Tian, Z. Wei, P. Wang, H. Han, J. Zhang, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, J. Zhang, T. Yang, J. Pan, “Independently tunable 1.3 W femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers passively synchronized with attosecond timing jitter and ultrahigh robustness,” Opt. Lett. 30(16), 2161–2163 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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