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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 4 — Feb. 24, 2014
  • pp: 4267–4276
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Temperature-insensitive frequency tripling for generating high-average power UV lasers

Haizhe Zhong, Peng Yuan, Shuangchun Wen, and Liejia Qian  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 4, pp. 4267-4276 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.004267


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Abstract

Aimed for generating high-average power ultraviolet (UV) lasers via third-harmonic generation (THG) consisting of frequency doubling and tripling stages, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel frequency tripling scheme capable of supporting temperature-insensitive phase-matching (PM). Two cascaded tripling crystals, with opposite signs of the temperature derivation of phase-mismatch, are proposed and theoretically studied for improving the temperature-acceptance of PM. The proof-of-principle tripling experiment using two crystals of LBO and BBO shows that the temperature acceptance can be ~1.5 times larger than that of using a single tripling crystal. In addition, the phase shift caused by air dispersion, along with its influence on the temperature-insensitive PM, are also discussed. To illustrate the potential applications of proposed two-crystal tripling design in the high-average-power regime, full numerical simulations for the tripling process, are implemented based on the realistic crystals. The demonstrated two-crystal tripling scheme may provide a promising route to high-average-power THG in the UV region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Because of their high photon energies and ability to be tightly focused, high-average-power lasers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral range are attractive for a variety of applications in industrial and scientific fields [1

1. H. Kitano, K. Sato, N. Ushiyama, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Efficient 355-nm generation in CsB3O5 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 263–265 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. T. Sasaki, Y. Mori, M. Yoshimura, Y. K. Yap, and T. Kamimura, “Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals: key materials for generation of visible and UV light,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 30(1–2), 1–54 (2000). [CrossRef]

]. However, due to the lack of suitable UV laser materials, direct lasing from the solid-state medium is still challenging. In the last decades, as an effective technique, second- and third-harmonic generation (SHG, THG) based on optical nonlinearity are well developed and widely used for UV generation from the common near-IR laser sources with low average-power or single-shot long pulse. In the high-average-power regime, however, thermal-induced phase-mismatch, caused by the nonuniform distribution of temperature as well as the refractive-index, may result in limited conversion efficiency and unsatisfied beam-quality [3

3. D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 575–592 (1987). [CrossRef]

]. Compared with the visible spectral region, nonlinear materials are commonly with stronger absorption in the UV regime, and thus the thermal problem will be more severe in the UV regime. At present, average powers over 10 kW may be generated routinely from the diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) at ~1 μm [4

4. G. D. Goodno, H. Komine, S. J. McNaught, S. B. Weiss, S. Redmond, W. Long, R. Simpson, E. C. Cheung, D. Howland, P. Epp, M. Weber, M. McClellan, J. Sollee, and H. Injeyan, “Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1247–1249 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], while the SHG/THG output power of only ~700 W and ~160 W at maximum have been demonstrated, respectively [5

5. C. Stolzenburg, W. Schüle, I. Zawischa, A. Killi, and D. Sutter, “700 W intracavity-frequency doubled Yb: YAG thin-disk laser at 100 kHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75780A (2010). [CrossRef]

,6

6. D. R. Dudley, O. Mehl, G. Y. Wang, E. S. Allee, H. Y. Pang, and N. Hodgson, “Q-switched diode pumped Nd: YAG rod laser with output power of 420 W at 532 nm and 160 W at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930Z (2009). [CrossRef]

], which shows a great gap between the powers of DPSSL and their harmonic waves.

Recently, we experimentally demonstrated a temperature-insensitive SHG scheme applicable to various wavelengths [10

10. H. Z. Zhong, P. Yuan, H. Y. Zhu, and L. J. Qian, “Versatile temperature-insensitive second-harmonic generation by compensating thermally induced phase-mismatch in a two-crystal design,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 434–439 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Remarkably, this scheme is valid for a wide spectral range, and can be applied for other frequency conversion processes, e.g. the tripling stage of THG, given the current available nonlinear crystals. This versatile temperature-insensitive PM is designed by using two cascaded crystals with opposite signs of the first derivation of phase-mismatch to temperature. As a result, the temperature-induced phase-mismatch accumulated in the first crystal (∆Ф1 = ∆k1L1) can be well compensated in the second crystal (∆Ф2 = ∆k2L2), resulting in a temperature-insensitive PM with larger temperature-acceptance compared with the single-crystal cases. Employing this two-crystal design to frequency tripling may play a significant role in the high-average-power UV generation. In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally study this novel frequency-tripling scheme at the typical high-power-laser wavelength of ~1 μm. In the proof-of-principle experiment, the temperature-acceptance approximately 1.5 times larger than that of using a traditional single crystal is obtained based on such a two-crystal tripling design. Besides that, the potentially deleterious phase shift caused by the dispersion of air, along with its influence on the temperature-insensitive PM, are also discussed.

2. Experimental results and discussions

For the high-average-power tripling process, the temporal effect is negligible (i.e., assuming a temporal duration much longer than 1-ps). Employing the slowly varying envelope and plane-wave approximation, the equations that govern the envelopes AFH, ASH and ATH of the fundamental (FH), second-harmonic (SH) and third-harmonic (TH) lasers in the frequency-tripling process, respectively, are
AFH(z,t)z=iωFHdeffnFHcATH(z,t)ASH(z,t)exp[iΔk(T)z]
(1)
ASH(z,t)z=iωSHdeffnSHcATH(z,t)AFH(z,t)exp[iΔk(T)z]
(2)
ATH(z,t)z=iωTHdeffnTHcAFH(z,t)ASH(z,t)exp[iΔk(T)z],
(3)
where n, ω and k represent the refractive index, central frequency and wave vector, respectively. deff denotes the effective nonlinear coefficient, and ∆k = kTHkSHkFH is the phase mismatch among the interacting fields.

In the high-average-power regime, optical absorption of the nonlinear materials may lead to a detrimental thermal profile within the crystal interaction region. Due to the temperature-dependent refractive index, the perfect PM condition could be disturbed, resulting in limited conversion efficiency. In above coupled-wave equations, this thermal effect will be considered by taking a thermal-induced ∆k(T) into account.

Before the experimental study, at first, it is necessary to address the crystal-selection for our proposed two-crystal design in the tripling stage of THG at 1064 nm. As shown in Table 1

Table 1. The first temperature derivations of phase-mismatch (δk) for the frequency-tripling stage of THG at 1064 nm

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, relevant material parameters for the five typical nonlinear crystals, i.e. KH2PO4 (KDP), LiB3O5 (LBO), BaB2O4 (BBO), CsLiB6O10 (CLBO) and YCOB, are listed [11

11. A. V. Smith, “SNLO nonlinear optics code,” AS-Photonics, Albuquerque, NM, http://www.as-photonics.com/snlo.

]. Unfortunately, there is not such a pair of crystals with opposite signs of δk based on the commonly-used Type-II tripling configuration. Nevertheless, temperature-insensitive PM can still be realized under the Type-I PM condition. As a unique material with negative temperature derivation of phase-mismatch, LBO crystal is appropriate to combine with other borate materials, such as BBO crystal, to achieve the proposed tripling scheme.

For experimental demonstration, as shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for THG, including both the SHG and the tripling stages. (a) Conventional single-crystal tripling design. (b) The proposed two-crystal tripling design (L = ~60 cm). BS, beam splitter; DM, dichroic mirror; F1, F2, short-pass filters; M1, M2, M3 silver mirrors.
, we adopted a simple Type-I frequency-tripling experimental setup. An Nd:YAG laser oscillator regenerative amplifier (High Q Pico-Regen) operating at 1064 nm, with a pulse duration of 480 ps and a maximum output power of up to 2.8 W at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, served as the fundamental laser source. The incident 1.6 W fundamental wave was divided into two individual laser beams through a beam splitter, one of which was used for the SHG at 532 nm in a 2.5-mm-long BBO crystal, and a half-wave plate (HWP) was used to rotate the polarization direction of the other FH wave. Then the cascading Type-I tripling was achieved by mixing the generated SH wave at 532 nm (~0.6 W) with the polarization-rotated FH wave at 1064 nm (0.4 W). Due to the relatively low laser power, instead of directly studying the tripling process in high-average-power regime, by globally adjusting the crystal temperature, we may obtain its temperature-dependent conversion efficiency and the corresponding temperature-acceptance for PM. In the proof-of-principle experiment, a temperature-controlled crystal-oven was employed, which can quickly heat the crystal to a desired temperature and maintain the temperature uniformly. Over a range of approximately 40 °C to 180 °C, the temperature inside this oven can be kept constant within ± 0.1 °C.

According to the above discussion, a combination of LBO and BBO can be a proper choice for the proposed temperature-insensitive tripling scheme at FH wavelength of 1064 nm. Due to the distinct effective nonlinear coefficients for these two crystals, it requires different crystal lengths to achieve comparable conversion efficiency. A thinner crystal is advantageous for supporting a larger temperature-acceptance, defined by the full-wave at half-maximum (FWHM) [7

7. Y. K. Yap, K. Deki, N. Kitatochi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Alleviation of thermally induced phase mismatch in CsLiB6O10 crystal by means of temperature-profile compensation,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 1016–1018 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Consequently, to fairly compare the temperature sensitivity for different crystal designs, under the same FH intensity, all the THGs should be designed with similar conversion efficiency under the perfect PM condition. As shown in Fig. 1(a), an 8-mm-long LBO and a 3-mm-long BBO were adopted as the nonlinear materials for the traditional single-crystal cases, respectively. By adjusting the oven temperature, we measured the temperature-dependent tripling efficiency for each of these two crystals, as shown in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measured temperature-dependent conversion efficiency for Type-I frequency-tripling at the wavelength of 1064 nm. Square symbol, 2-mm-long BBO and 2.4-mm-long LBO; circle symbol, 8-mm-long LBO crystal; triangle symbol, 3-mm-long BBO crystal. For each curve, all the efficiencies are normalized to the maximal value at the initially set PM temperature of ~110 °C for both BBO and LBO crystals.
. At each temperature, the 355 nm output power was measured by averaging over 30 seconds to eliminate the influence of the energy fluctuation and divergence of the laser. In our experiment, the tripling stage of THG operated in an approximately small-signal situation. For both of these two different crystals, conversion efficiency of ~8% were observed at maximum when the tripling crystals operated at their initially set perfect PM temperature (i.e., ∆k = 0). Since the condition of photon-number matching places a important constraint that sets a relationship of energy between the input pulses, in this paper, the conversion efficiency may be deduced as η = (355/532) × (E355 nm/ E532 nm), where E355 nm and E532 nm represent the pulse energies at 355 nm and 532 nm, respectively. Based on these experimental results, we can obtain their temperature-acceptance bandwidth, which are ~19.2 °C∙cm and ~7.6 °C∙cm for LBO and BBO, respectively.

In order to design the two-crystal tripling scheme and optimize its temperature insensitivity, the optimum crystal lengths can be approximately determined by the numerical calculations based on the coupled-wave Eqs. (1)(3) [12

12. H. Z. Zhong, P. Yuan, H. Y. Zhu, and L. J. Qian, “Two-crystal design and numerical simulations for high-average-power second-harmonic generation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014208 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. In this study, we may begin from an initial basis of same tripling efficiency for all cases when neglecting the thermal effect (Δk = 0), and then consider the variation of efficiency to the thermal-induced phase-mismatch (Δk ≠ 0). Adopting the experimental value of temperature-acceptance bandwidth in our numerical simulation, the dependence of tripling efficiency on the length of LBO (L1) and BBO (L2) for different temperature deviations from the perfect PM temperature (∆T) is given in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of the small-signal tripling efficiency on crystal lengths. Solid line, ∆T = 0 °C; Dashed line, ∆T = 2 °C; Dotted line, ∆T = 4 °C; Dashed-dotted line, ∆T = 6 °C. All the efficiencies are normalized to the maximal value of the solid curve. The vertical dashed line guides the maximum for each case, while the solid one guides the situation of L1 = 2.4 mm and L2 = 2 mm.
, which is calculated based on the nonlinear-coupled wave Eqs. (1)(3) in the small-signal regime. For all the pairs of L1 and L2, a constant tripling efficiency can be expected in the case of perfect PM (∆k = 0, i.e., without thermal effect). In the cases with phase-mismatch (∆k ≠ 0, i.e., with thermal effect), however, the conversion efficiency will be varied with the crystal lengths. According to these numerical results, we can obtain the optimum crystal lengths for temperature-insensitive PM, i.e., L1 = ~3.6 mm when L2 = ~1.6 mm, due to its most insusceptible conversion efficiency to temperature. In the same time, the performance for L1 = 2.4 mm and L2 = 2 mm is also guided in Fig. 3 with a vertical solid line. Although deviated from the optimum design, it still displays a considerable temperature-insensitivity compared with the optimum situation.

3. Phase shifts caused by the dispersion of air and its influence

4. Full numerical simulations for the tripling process in high-average-power applications

The proof-of-principle experiment has clearly certified the novel temperature-insensitive tripling scheme in principle. In the actual high-average-power applications, however, the crystal temperature will not vary globally and thermal gradients will be established if the environmental temperature is constant. Since the TH wave is typically absorbed much stronger than the incident FH and SH waves, ∆k may also vary along both the radial and propagation directions similar to the temperature profile. In order to illustrate the potential applications of proposed two-crystal tripling design in the high-average-power regime, full numerical simulations based on the tripling process are implemented at the typical wavelength of 1064 nm. In the simulations, thermal conducting equations will be solved simultaneously with the nonlinear coupled-wave equations.

In this study, to calculate the ever-changing temperature profile along the propagation direction, a simple model based on rod-type crystals is adopted [15

15. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997). [CrossRef]

,16

16. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990). [CrossRef]

]. For conventional edge cooling, the rod-end thermal boundary conditions can be approximated as adiabatic due to the fact that the cooling-surface convection coefficient is orders of magnitude larger than the natural conversion coefficient on the ends [15

15. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. Under this approximation, for an incident FH beam with a Gaussian-profile in space, the radial temperature profile may be approximately expressed as [12

12. H. Z. Zhong, P. Yuan, H. Y. Zhu, and L. J. Qian, “Two-crystal design and numerical simulations for high-average-power second-harmonic generation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014208 (2013). [CrossRef]

]
T(r,z)=T0+Ph4πκm=1(1)mmm!(2ωp2)m(r2mrb2m),rrb,
(4)
where Ph = αFH∙PFH + αSH∙PSH + αTH∙PTH represents the total heat-deposit power per unit volume and α is the linear absorption coefficient; ωp and rb denote the radius of the laser beam and the crystal rod, respectively.

As shown in Fig. 6, as a comparison, ignoring the thermal-induced phase-mismatching, the ideal conversion efficiency curve has also been included in this figure, which represents the similar performance for both the designs using a single tripling crystal and the proposed two-crystal tripling design. When the average 1064 nm input power is relatively low (≤ 300 W), the temperature effects (i.e., thermal-induced phase-mismatch ∆k) within the tripling crystals are not significant. As a result, similar THG conversion efficiency can still be achieved for these distinct tripling designs. However, compared with the ideal situation, due to their temperature-sensitive PM, the THG conversion efficiency for each single crystal design by using LBO or CLBO will increase much slower and suffer a severe back-conversion in higher average-input-power regime, eventually. Taking 24-mm-long LBO crystal as an example, the maximum attainable THG efficiency is ~50% when the average input power is ~600 W. In the mean time, proposed two-crystal tripling design may substantially improve the THG efficiency from 50% to more than 65% by high-intensity pumping, which means the maximum attainable THG power at 355 nm may be increased to ~2 times of that using a single tripling crystal. It definitely suggests the potential of proposed two-crystal design in high-average-power THG applications. Due to the relatively small tolerable pump intensity in high-average-power compared with the moderate power cases, longer nonlinear crystals may be adopted, and the influence of walk-off in our two-crystal scheme should be discussed. Taking the 10-mm-long LBO crystal as an example, a transverse walk-off of ?0.18 mm will occur for the frequency tripling at ?355 nm. By contrast, a beam diameter of ?20 mm is usually applied in the high-average-power harmonic generations and the walk-off effect can be reasonably neglected [6

6. D. R. Dudley, O. Mehl, G. Y. Wang, E. S. Allee, H. Y. Pang, and N. Hodgson, “Q-switched diode pumped Nd: YAG rod laser with output power of 420 W at 532 nm and 160 W at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930Z (2009). [CrossRef]

, 9

9. A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B57–B61 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. In addition, to reduce the walk-off effect, we may adopt a walk-off compensated configuration in our two-crystal design [20

20. D. J. Armstrong, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, “Parametric amplification and oscillation with walkoff-compensating crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(2), 460–474 (1997). [CrossRef]

].

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have numerically and experimentally demonstrated a novel frequency-tripling scheme capable of supporting temperature-insensitive phase-matching (PM). In this design, two cascaded tripling crystals with opposite signs of the first temperature derivation of phase-mismatch have been employed. The proof-of-principle experiment, using two crystals of LBO and BBO in the tripling stage of THG, has shown that the temperature-acceptance of PM can be ~1.5 times larger than that of using a single tripling crystal, and this significantly larger temperature-acceptance is nearly insusceptible to the potentially deleterious phase shifts caused by the dispersion of air. To illustrate the potential applications of the two-crystal tripling design, full numerical simulations for the tripling process, have been implemented based on the realistic crystals in the high-average-power regime. Exhilaratingly, this two-crystal design has shown a remarkably better performance both in the conversion efficiency and the 355 nm output power as well. The demonstrated two-crystal tripling scheme may provide a promising route to high-average-power THG in the UV region.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Grant No. 2013CBA01505), and Natural Science Foundation of China (grant Nos. 61008017 and 11121504).

References and links

1.

H. Kitano, K. Sato, N. Ushiyama, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Efficient 355-nm generation in CsB3O5 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 263–265 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

T. Sasaki, Y. Mori, M. Yoshimura, Y. K. Yap, and T. Kamimura, “Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals: key materials for generation of visible and UV light,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 30(1–2), 1–54 (2000). [CrossRef]

3.

D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 575–592 (1987). [CrossRef]

4.

G. D. Goodno, H. Komine, S. J. McNaught, S. B. Weiss, S. Redmond, W. Long, R. Simpson, E. C. Cheung, D. Howland, P. Epp, M. Weber, M. McClellan, J. Sollee, and H. Injeyan, “Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1247–1249 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

C. Stolzenburg, W. Schüle, I. Zawischa, A. Killi, and D. Sutter, “700 W intracavity-frequency doubled Yb: YAG thin-disk laser at 100 kHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75780A (2010). [CrossRef]

6.

D. R. Dudley, O. Mehl, G. Y. Wang, E. S. Allee, H. Y. Pang, and N. Hodgson, “Q-switched diode pumped Nd: YAG rod laser with output power of 420 W at 532 nm and 160 W at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930Z (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

Y. K. Yap, K. Deki, N. Kitatochi, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Alleviation of thermally induced phase mismatch in CsLiB6O10 crystal by means of temperature-profile compensation,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 1016–1018 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

N. Umemura, M. Ando, K. Suzuki, E. Takaoka, K. Kato, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “Temperature-insensitive second-harmonic generation at 0.5321 μm in YCa4O(BO3)3,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42(8), 5040–5042 (2003). [CrossRef]

9.

A. Bayramian, J. Armstrong, G. Beer, R. Campbell, B. Chai, R. Cross, A. Erlandson, Y. Fei, B. Freitas, R. Kent, J. Menapace, W. Molander, K. Schaffers, C. Siders, S. Sutton, J. Tassano, S. Telford, C. Ebbers, J. Caird, and C. Barty, “High-average-power femto-petawatt laser pumped by the Mercury laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(7), B57–B61 (2008). [CrossRef]

10.

H. Z. Zhong, P. Yuan, H. Y. Zhu, and L. J. Qian, “Versatile temperature-insensitive second-harmonic generation by compensating thermally induced phase-mismatch in a two-crystal design,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(6), 434–439 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

A. V. Smith, “SNLO nonlinear optics code,” AS-Photonics, Albuquerque, NM, http://www.as-photonics.com/snlo.

12.

H. Z. Zhong, P. Yuan, H. Y. Zhu, and L. J. Qian, “Two-crystal design and numerical simulations for high-average-power second-harmonic generation,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014208 (2013). [CrossRef]

13.

B. Edlén, “The refractive index of air,” Metrologia 2(2), 71–80 (1966). [CrossRef]

14.

J. M. Yarborough, J. Falk, and C. B. Hitz, “Enhancement of optical second harmonic generation by utilizing the dispersion of air,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 18(3), 70–73 (1971). [CrossRef]

15.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(8), 1424–1429 (1997). [CrossRef]

16.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, “Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(19), 1831–1833 (1990). [CrossRef]

17.

D. N. Nikogosyan, “Lithium triborate (LBO) - A review of its properties and applications,” Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process. 58(3), 181–190 (1994). [CrossRef]

18.

D. Li, Z. Ma, R. Haas, A. Schell, J. Simon, R. Diart, P. Shi, P. Hu, P. Loosen, and K. Du, “Diode-pumped efficient slab laser with two Nd:YLF crystals and second-harmonic generation by slab LBO,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1272–1274 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

Y. K. Yap, M. Inagaki, S. Nakajima, Y. Mori, and T. Sasaki, “High-power fourth- and fifth-harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser by means of a CsLiB6O10,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1348–1350 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

D. J. Armstrong, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, “Parametric amplification and oscillation with walkoff-compensating crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(2), 460–474 (1997). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects
(190.2620) Nonlinear optics : Harmonic generation and mixing
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: November 21, 2013
Revised Manuscript: December 27, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: December 31, 2013
Published: February 18, 2014

Citation
Haizhe Zhong, Peng Yuan, Shuangchun Wen, and Liejia Qian, "Temperature-insensitive frequency tripling for generating high-average power UV lasers," Opt. Express 22, 4267-4276 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-4-4267


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References

  1. H. Kitano, K. Sato, N. Ushiyama, M. Yoshimura, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, “Efficient 355-nm generation in CsB3O5 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 263–265 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Sasaki, Y. Mori, M. Yoshimura, Y. K. Yap, T. Kamimura, “Recent development of nonlinear optical borate crystals: key materials for generation of visible and UV light,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 30(1–2), 1–54 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Eimerl, “High average power harmonic generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(5), 575–592 (1987). [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. Goodno, H. Komine, S. J. McNaught, S. B. Weiss, S. Redmond, W. Long, R. Simpson, E. C. Cheung, D. Howland, P. Epp, M. Weber, M. McClellan, J. Sollee, H. Injeyan, “Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1247–1249 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Stolzenburg, W. Schüle, I. Zawischa, A. Killi, D. Sutter, “700 W intracavity-frequency doubled Yb: YAG thin-disk laser at 100 kHz repetition rate,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75780A (2010). [CrossRef]
  6. D. R. Dudley, O. Mehl, G. Y. Wang, E. S. Allee, H. Y. Pang, N. Hodgson, “Q-switched diode pumped Nd: YAG rod laser with output power of 420 W at 532 nm and 160 W at 355 nm,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71930Z (2009). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. K. Yap, K. Deki, N. Kitatochi, Y. Mori, T. Sasaki, “Alleviation of thermally induced phase mismatch in CsLiB6O10 crystal by means of temperature-profile compensation,” Opt. Lett. 23(13), 1016–1018 (1998). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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