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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 6478–6485
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Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

Xiang Liu, Hao Hu, S. Chandrasekhar, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 6478-6485 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.006478


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Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ~3.8 dB in signal quality factors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Fiber nonlinearity imposes major impairments that limit the achievable transmission distance of optical communication systems [1

1. R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,2

2. A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Various techniques have been proposed to mitigate nonlinear impairments with the use of optical signal processing [3

3. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

,4

4. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006). [CrossRef]

] and more recently also digital signal processing (DSP) [5

5. E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital back propagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]

7

7. B. Schmauss, C. Lin, and R. Asif, “Progress in digital back propagation,” ECOC’12, invited talk Th.1.D.5.

]. It was recently shown that co-propagating phase-conjugated twin waves (PCTWs) experience anti-correlated nonlinear distortions, and nonlinearity mitigation can be achieved by coherently superimposing the twin waves at the receiver [8

8. X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013). [CrossRef]

], effectively trading spectral efficiency for ultra-long-haul performance. It has been shown that longer transmission distance can be obtained by using lower-level modulation formats with lower spectral efficiency [9

9. G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. When the PCTW approach is applied to QPSK signals, it provides more than doubled reach with halved spectral efficiency, which may be beneficial in certain ultra-long-haul applications [10

10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant superchannel transmission via nonlinear noise squeezing and generalized phase-conjugated twin waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 766–775 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. A 406.6-Gb/s superchannel consisting of eight QPSK signals, each with its twin wave modulated at the same wavelength but on the orthogonal polarization, was transmitted over a distance of 12,800 km in a TrueWave reduced slope (TWRS) fiber link. To further mitigate inter-channel nonlinear impairments, it was suggested to form wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) PCTWs where one polarization of the entire WDM spectrum is the phase-conjugated and spectrally-inverted copy of the other polarization [8

8. X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013). [CrossRef]

,10

10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant superchannel transmission via nonlinear noise squeezing and generalized phase-conjugated twin waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 766–775 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. To generate such broadband WDM-PCTWs, fiber optic parametric amplifiers (OPAs) [11

11. S. Radic, “Fiber parametric amplifiers: physics and applications,” OFC’07, Tutorial OWQ5 (2007).

,12

12. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011). [CrossRef]

] are well suited. Recently, we reported the generation of the first Tb/s WDM-PCTWs [13

13. X. Liu, H. Hu, S. Chandrasekhar, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, M. Dinu, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer, “Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber,” 2013 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP’13), post-deadline paper AF2E.1, Beijing, China (2013). [CrossRef]

], consisting of eight Nyquist-WDM [14

14. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010). [CrossRef]

] 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM or vector) QPSK signals and their corresponding idlers that are converted by using a broadband polarization-insensitive (PI) OPA. Through all-optical processing, this approach halves the number of transmitters needed for all-digitally generated PCTW transmission. The converted idlers exhibit similar quality as the signals, and provide over 3.8 dB performance gain when coherently superimposed with the signals after nonlinear transmission, enabling the 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM signals to be transmitted over 40 × 100-km dispersion-managed TWRS spans; this more than doubles the distance achieved without digital coherent superposition (DCS) of the PCTWs. Here, we present this study in more depth, and investigate the impact of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) on the performance gain of the DCS of the PCTWs, showing the benefit of the DCS in improving the worst-case signal qualities and in tightening the performance distribution.

2. Generation of WDM-PCTWs

Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup for the modulation and de-correlation of 8 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals; (b) PI-OPA setup for simultaneous optical phase conjugation of the signals. EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; DAC: digital-to-analog converter; WSS: wavelength-selective switch; PC: polarization controller; PM: phase modulator; AMP: electronic amplifier; RFT: radio-frequency tone; HNLF: highly nonlinear fiber;
Figure 1 shows the schematic of the experimental setup used for the generation of WDM-PCTWs. In the modulation stage (a), eight 75-GHz spaced external cavity lasers were modulated by one PDM inphase/quadrature (I/Q) modulator. The four drive signals for the modulator were provided by four 64-GSa/s digital-to-analog converters (DACs). The inputs to the DACs were provided by a field-programmable gate array with stored signal waveforms. Pseudo-random bit sequences of length 215-1 were first encoded and mapped to PDM-QPSK symbols. Root-raised-cosine filtering with a roll-off factor of 0.1 was used. The oversampling ratio was two, resulting in 32-Gbaud signals. To accurately represent real-world applications, sufficient de-correlation between modulated channels is needed [15

15. S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, and A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010). [CrossRef]

,16

16. L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “The validity of “Odd and Even” channels for testing all-optical OFDM and Nyquist WDM long-haul fiber systems,” Opt. Express 20(26), B445–B451 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. We first used a 1:4 wavelength-selective switch (WSS) to separate the signals into four paths with different path lengths. The delay difference between any two of the four paths was at least 100 symbol periods. The de-correlated signals were then combined by a 1:4 coupler before entering the PI-OPA for the simultaneous generation of their idlers. The configuration of the PI-OPA is shown in Fig. 1(b). We used two pumps at 1567 nm and 1589 nm, each having a linewidth of <100 kHz. They were phase-modulated to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) by two LiNbO3 phase modulators (PMs), each of which was driven by the sum of three RF tones (RFTs) at 65.2, 196.1, and 592.6 MHz. Note that the frequencies were fine-tuned around their nominal frequencies having a ratio of 1:3:9 to maximally suppress SBS. After modulation, the two pumps were suitably delayed to achieve optimum counter-phasing in order to obtain the highest phase coherence in the OPA process. Their polarizations were then controlled by two polarization controllers (PCs) and combined by a polarization beam combiner (PBC). The orthogonally polarized pumps were combined with the input PDM (vector) signals through a 10%:90% coupler, whose 90% port was connected to the pumps and 10% port to the signals. The combined signals and pumps were launched into a 500-m highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), whose zero-dispersion wavelength, nonlinear coefficient, and dispersion slope were 1578 nm, 20 W−1 km−1, and 0.02 ps nm−2 km−1, respectively. Finally, a bandpass filter was used to remove the residual pumps, so that only the signals and their corresponding idlers would subsequently be launched into a transmission link.

Fig. 2 (a) Illustration of the principle of the generation of the WDM-PCTWs by a PI-OPA; (b) Measured optical spectra of the converted idlers, together with the signals and the pumps.
Figure 2 shows the WDM-PCTW generation principle in more detail. The mean frequency of the two pumps was tuned to be 18.75 GHz lower than the center frequency of channel 9 (λ9), so that after phase conjugation of the eight 75-GHz-spaced signals, eight 75-GHz-spaced idlers were generated with a spacing of 37.5 GHz from the signals. Consequently, signal field Ex(y),n (n being the channel index) was converted to idler field (Ey(x),17-n)*, where * denotes the complex conjugate. Thus, Nyquist-WDM PCTWs with 32-Gbaud signals and idlers fully de-correlated and spaced at 37.5-GHz spacing (compatible with the flexible-grid WDM standard, ITU-T G.694.1) were formed. The PI-OPA produced a gain of 10 dB, resulting in a small power difference between the converted idlers and the amplified signals of <0.5 dB. Figure 2(b) shows the optical spectra at the output of the HNLF measured at two different pump powers (measured at the input of the HNLF), 400 mW and 100 mW. Clearly, the PI-OPA achieved the simultaneous phase conjugation of the WDM signals with sufficient optical power (for the subsequent transmission) and good power uniformity.

3. Experimental setup and back-to-back performance

4. Transmission results

Fig. 5 (a) Measured mean Q2-factor (derived from BER) vs. signal launch power per channel (Pin) at 4000 km; (b) Measured mean Q2-factor vs. transmission distance with Pin = −7 dBm.
Figure 5(a) shows the mean transmission performance as a function of signal launch power per channel. Each data point shown in the figure was obtained by averaging over five different BER measurements in order to reduce the PMD-induced BER fluctuations. The statistical performance behavior due to PMD will be discussed in the following section. At low signal launch powers, the gain in Q2 is 3 dB, as expected from linear path diversity considerations. At the optimal signal launch power (~-7 dBm), the DCS of the PCTWs provides a typical performance gain of 3.6 dB. Note that the DCS of signals alone only provides a performance improvement (at optimal signal launch power) of ~2 dB, due to correlated signal-to-signal nonlinear distortions [17

17. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scrambled coherent superposition for enhanced optical fiber communication in the nonlinear transmission regime,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19088–19095 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The gain is increased to 4.2 dB at −6 dBm signal launch power, and could be even higher if the baseline performance was further improved, e.g., by increasing the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the transmitter. Figure 5(b) shows the transmission performance as a function of transmission distance. In dispersion-managed transmission, doubling the reach usually leads to a Q2-factor reduction of more than 3 dB [18

18. P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3857–3879 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. DCS of the PCTWs provides a more favorable decrease of Q2 with distance. At 8.5-dB Q2-factor (corresponding to a BER of 3.8 × 10−3), a typical threshold of 7%-overhead hard-decision forward error correction (FEC) [19

19. F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010). [CrossRef]

], DCS of the PCTWs more than doubles the transmission reach, from ~2200 km to 4800 km.
Fig. 6 Measured BER as a function of channel index after 4000-km transmission over 40 dispersion-managed 100-km TWSR fiber spans at Pin = −7 dBm.
Figure 6 shows the measured Q2-factors (derived from measured BER values) for all the 16 channels after 4000-km transmission. Without DCS, half of the measured BERs exceed 2.4 × 10−2. With DCS, all the BERs are below the HD-FEC threshold of 3.8 × 10−3.

5. Impact of PMD

Fig. 8 Histograms of sample measured Q2-factors for the DCS of the signals (a) and the DCS of the idlers (b), clearly indicating worse overall performance than the DCS of the signals and their corresponding idlers as shown in Fig. 7(c). Distance: 4000 km. Pin = −7 dBm.
To further verify the performance advantage of DCS of PCTWs as compared to DCS of just signals [17

17. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scrambled coherent superposition for enhanced optical fiber communication in the nonlinear transmission regime,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19088–19095 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or idlers, we show in Fig. 8 the histograms of the measured Q2-factors after DCS of the signals in different wavelength channels (a) and after DCS of the idlers in different channels (b). The lowest Q2-factor obtained after DCS of the signals or the idlers is ~7.5 dB, resulting in a gain of ~2.3 dB with respect to the lowest signal Q2-factor. This gain is ~1.5 dB lower than that obtained by DCS of PCTWs, clearly showing the benefit of using PCTWs for DCS.

Note that an OPA was recently used to convert a single-wavelength 112-Gb/s PDM-QSPK signal to its idler at a different wavelength [23

23. Y. Tian, Y.-K. Huang, S. Zhang, P. R. Prucnal, and T. Wang, “Demonstration of digital phase-sensitive boosting to extend signal reach for long-haul WDM systems using optical phase-conjugated copy,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5099–5106 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. At the receiver, DCS of the signal and the idler was conducted, and a performance gain of 2.4 dB was observed. We attribute the higher gain (~3.8 dB) observed in the work reported here to the fact that (i) the essential dispersion-symmetry condition needed for achieving the optimal PCTW performance [8

8. X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013). [CrossRef]

] was satisfied in our work, and (ii) the WDM-PCTW approach made one polarization of the entire WDM spectrum to be the phase-conjugated and spectrally-inverted copy of the other polarization, thereby further mitigating inter-channel nonlinear effects [10

10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant superchannel transmission via nonlinear noise squeezing and generalized phase-conjugated twin waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 766–775 (2014). [CrossRef]

].

6. Conclusions

We have experimentally generated 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM PCTWs consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their corresponding idlers, converted by a broadband PI-OPA. This novel all-optical signal processing approach in conjunction with modest electronic DSP has been shown to provide the performance gain offered by WDM-PCTW and offers a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach. It is also shown that in the presence of large PMD, the DCS of PCTWs effectively improves the worst-case signal qualities and tightens the performance distribution. The WDM-PCTWs based transmission scheme may also be compatible with the emerging class of low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers [12

12. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011). [CrossRef]

,24

24. S. Olsson et al., “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” ECOC’12, paper Th.2.F.1 (2012).

] to improve signal immunity to both nonlinear distortions and amplified spontaneous emission noise for future optical transmission systems.

References and links

1.

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, and P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, and D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010). [CrossRef]

3.

A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]

4.

S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital back propagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]

6.

E. F. Mateo, L. Zhu, and G. Li, “Impact of XPM and FWM on the digital implementation of impairment compensation for WDM transmission using backward propagation,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16124–16137 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

B. Schmauss, C. Lin, and R. Asif, “Progress in digital back propagation,” ECOC’12, invited talk Th.1.D.5.

8.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013). [CrossRef]

9.

G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011). [CrossRef]

10.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant superchannel transmission via nonlinear noise squeezing and generalized phase-conjugated twin waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 766–775 (2014). [CrossRef]

11.

S. Radic, “Fiber parametric amplifiers: physics and applications,” OFC’07, Tutorial OWQ5 (2007).

12.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011). [CrossRef]

13.

X. Liu, H. Hu, S. Chandrasekhar, R. M. Jopson, A. Gnauck, M. Dinu, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer, “Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber,” 2013 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP’13), post-deadline paper AF2E.1, Beijing, China (2013). [CrossRef]

14.

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, and F. Forghieri, “Performance limits of Nyquist-WDM and CO-OFDM in high-speed PM-QPSK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1129–1131 (2010). [CrossRef]

15.

S. K. Ibrahim, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, P. Frascella, F. H. Peters, and A. D. Ellis, “Towards a practical implementation of coherent WDM: analytical, numerical, and experimental studies,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(5), 833–847 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

L. B. Du and A. J. Lowery, “The validity of “Odd and Even” channels for testing all-optical OFDM and Nyquist WDM long-haul fiber systems,” Opt. Express 20(26), B445–B451 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. W. Tkach, B. Zhu, T. F. Taunay, M. Fishteyn, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Scrambled coherent superposition for enhanced optical fiber communication in the nonlinear transmission regime,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19088–19095 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(24), 3857–3879 (2012). [CrossRef]

19.

F. Chang, K. Onohara, and T. Mizuochi, “Forward error correction for 100 G transport networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 48(3), S48–S55 (2010). [CrossRef]

20.

L. Möller, Y. Su, G. Raybon, and X. Liu, “Polarization-mode-dispersion-supported transmission in 40-Gb/s longhaul systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(2), 335–337 (2003). [CrossRef]

21.

W. Shieh, “PMD-supported coherent optical OFDM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 134–136 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

P. Serena, N. Rossi, and A. Bononi, “Nonlinear penalty reduction induced by PMD in 112 Gbit/s WDM PDM-QPSK coherent systems,” in Proc. ECOC 2009, Vienna, Austria, 2009, paper Th.10.4.3.

23.

Y. Tian, Y.-K. Huang, S. Zhang, P. R. Prucnal, and T. Wang, “Demonstration of digital phase-sensitive boosting to extend signal reach for long-haul WDM systems using optical phase-conjugated copy,” Opt. Express 21(4), 5099–5106 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

S. Olsson et al., “Phase-sensitive amplified optical link operating in the nonlinear transmission regime,” ECOC’12, paper Th.2.F.1 (2012).

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(190.4970) Nonlinear optics : Parametric oscillators and amplifiers
(190.5040) Nonlinear optics : Phase conjugation

ToC Category:
Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 27, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 3, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 3, 2014
Published: March 12, 2014

Citation
Xiang Liu, Hao Hu, S. Chandrasekhar, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, M. Dinu, C. Xie, and P. J. Winzer, "Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission," Opt. Express 22, 6478-6485 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-6478


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References

  1. R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, “Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(16), 163901 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, “Approaching the non-linear Shannon limit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 423–433 (2010). [CrossRef]
  3. A. Chowdhury, G. Raybon, R.-J. Essiambre, J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, “Compensation of intrachannel nonlinearities in 40-Gb/s pseudolinear systems using optical-phase conjugation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 172–177 (2005). [CrossRef]
  4. S. L. Jansen, D. van den Borne, P. M. Krummrich, S. Spalter, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, “Long-haul DWDM transmission systems employing optical phase conjugation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 505–520 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital back propagation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(20), 3416–3425 (2008). [CrossRef]
  6. E. F. Mateo, L. Zhu, G. Li, “Impact of XPM and FWM on the digital implementation of impairment compensation for WDM transmission using backward propagation,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16124–16137 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. Schmauss, C. Lin, and R. Asif, “Progress in digital back propagation,” ECOC’12, invited talk Th.1.D.5.
  8. X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 560–568 (2013). [CrossRef]
  9. G. Bosco, V. Curri, A. Carena, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, “On the performance of Nyquist-WDM terabitsuperchannels based on PMBPSK, PM-QPSK, PM-8QAM or PM-16QAM subcarriers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(1), 53–61 (2011). [CrossRef]
  10. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, “Fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant superchannel transmission via nonlinear noise squeezing and generalized phase-conjugated twin waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 766–775 (2014). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Radic, “Fiber parametric amplifiers: physics and applications,” OFC’07, Tutorial OWQ5 (2007).
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