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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 6562–6568
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Evaluation of modal noise in graded-index silica and plastic optical fiber links for radio over multimode fiber systems

Motoharu Matsuura, Rei Furukawa, Yuki Matsumoto, Azusa Inoue, and Yasuhiro Koike  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 6562-6568 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.006562


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Abstract

We have evaluated and compared modal noise induced in a graded-index silica multimode fiber (GI-MMF) link and a graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) link with the misaligned fiber connections. In radio over fiber (RoF) systems using these optical fibers, modal noise appears as unwanted amplitude modulation in the received signal, and results in degradation of the RoF transmission performance. In this work, we have evaluated the modal noise induced in GI-MMFs and GI-POFs with its same core diameter of 50 μm. Our results show that GI-POFs have an inherently higher tolerance to misaligned connection and less modal noise than GI-MMFs in terms of both the error-vector magnitude and the speckle pattern of the transmitted signals.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In recent years, there has been greater demand for broadband optical access networks, encouraging massive utilization of large-core optical fibers such as graded-index silica multimode fibers (MMFs) [1

1. R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and Ch. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 569–586 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and plastic optical fibers (POFs) [2

2. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995). [CrossRef]

, 3

3. Y. Koike and K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. The large core diameters and numerical apertures directly translate into large coupling tolerances, and result in easy installation and implementation of low-cost opto-electronics components such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and large area photodiodes (PDs).

2. Experimental setup

3. Experiments

To understand the presented phenomena in terms of fiber modes, the speckles at the output of the 1 m test fiber were observed. The speckle patterns of the GI-MMF and the GI-POF for various offset conditions at a carrier frequency of 100 MHz are shown in Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Speckle patterns of (a) GI-MMF and (b) GI-POF outputs for various offset positions at a carrier frequency of 100 MHz.
. In both fibers, the intensity contrast was largest for the 0-μm offset, and the contrast became more uniform as the offset increased. The central region had the highest intensity, which diminished in the peripheral region. This intensity contrast was more prominent in the GI-MMF than in the GI-POF. In particular, in the case of the + 18-μm offset, the speckle pattern of the GI-MMF had almost disappeared, whereas the pattern of the GI-POF was still clearly observed. This means that the POF has a higher tolerance to larger misaligned connections. This result coincides with the EVM characteristics as shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

This research is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through its “Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program)” and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) for Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology.

References and links

1.

R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, and Ch. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 569–586 (2010). [CrossRef]

2.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Koike and K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011). [CrossRef]

4.

T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber promises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 911–934 (2006). [CrossRef]

5.

M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, and E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003). [CrossRef]

6.

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, and J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]

7.

R. E. Epworth, “The phenomenon of modal noise in analogue and digital optical fibre systems,” in Proc. 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78), 492 (1978).

8.

T. Kanada and K. Aoyama, “Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 8(6), 339–341 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

T. Koonen, “Bit-error-rate degradation in a multimode fiber optic transmission link due to modal noise,” J. Sel. Area Commun. 4(9), 1515–1522 (1986). [CrossRef]

10.

M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, and M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001). [CrossRef]

11.

P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, and A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005). [CrossRef]

12.

I. Gasulla and J. Capmany, “Modal noise impact in radio over fiber multimode fiber links,” Opt. Express 16(1), 121–126 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, and G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012). [CrossRef]

14.

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]

15.

D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, and P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010). [CrossRef]

16.

M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, and Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.2270) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber characterization
(060.2290) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber materials
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.5625) Fiber optics and optical communications : Radio frequency photonics

ToC Category:
Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 30, 2013
Manuscript Accepted: March 3, 2014
Published: March 13, 2014

Citation
Motoharu Matsuura, Rei Furukawa, Yuki Matsumoto, Azusa Inoue, and Yasuhiro Koike, "Evaluation of modal noise in graded-index silica and plastic optical fiber links for radio over multimode fiber systems," Opt. Express 22, 6562-6568 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-6562


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References

  1. R. E. Freund, C.-A. Bunge, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Molin, Ch. Caspar, “High-speed transmission in multimode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 569–586 (2010). [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, E. Nihei, “High-bandwidth graded-index polymer fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1475–1489 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Koike, K. Koike, “Progress in low-loss and high-bandwidth plastic optical fibers,” J. Polym. Sci. B 49(1), 2–17 (2011). [CrossRef]
  4. T. Koonen, “Fiber to the home/fiber promises: what, where, and when?” Proc. IEEE 94(5), 911–934 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Y. W. Chia, B. Luo, M. L. Yee, E. J. Z. Hau, “Radio-over-multimode fibre transmission for wireless LAN using VCSELs,” Electron. Lett. 39(15), 1142–1143 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, J. George, “Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(11), 3301–3320 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. R. E. Epworth, “The phenomenon of modal noise in analogue and digital optical fibre systems,” in Proc. 4th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’78), 492 (1978).
  8. T. Kanada, K. Aoyama, “Modal-noise evaluation in multimode-fiber transmission,” Opt. Lett. 8(6), 339–341 (1983). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Koonen, “Bit-error-rate degradation in a multimode fiber optic transmission link due to modal noise,” J. Sel. Area Commun. 4(9), 1515–1522 (1986). [CrossRef]
  10. M. Wegmuller, S. Golowich, G. Giaretta, M. Nuss, “Evolution of the beam diameter in a multimode fiber link through offset connectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 574–576 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. P. Pepeljugoski, D. Kutchta, A. Risteski, “Modal noise BER calculations in 10 Gb/s in multimode fiber LAN links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(12), 2586–2588 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, “Modal noise impact in radio over fiber multimode fiber links,” Opt. Express 16(1), 121–126 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Alcaro, D. Visani, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, G. Tartarini, “Distortion mechanisms originating from modal noise in radio over multimode fiber links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(1), 185–194 (2012). [CrossRef]
  14. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, “High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(8), 1018–1026 (2009). [CrossRef]
  15. D. Visani, G. Tartarini, M. N. Petersen, L. Tarlazzi, P. Faccin, “Link design rules of cost-effective short-range radio over multimode fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3144–3153 (2010). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Matsuura, R. Furukawa, A. Inoue, Y. Koike, “Modal noise impact in plastic optical fiber links for radio-over-fiber systems,” in Proc. 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication (ECOC’2013), P.6.3. 1158 (2013). [CrossRef]

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