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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 6674–6679
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A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform

D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J.-M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 6674-6679 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.006674


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Abstract

We demonstrated 40Gbit/s optical link by coupling a silicon (Si) optical modulator to a germanium (Ge) photo-detector from two separate photonic chips. The optical modulator was based on carrier depletion in a pn diode integrated in a 950-µm long Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The Ge photo-detector was a lateral pin diode butt coupled to a silicon waveguide. The overall loss, which is mainly due to coupling (3 grating couplers times ~4 dB) was estimated to be lower than 18 dB. That also included modulator loss (4.9-dB) and propagation loss (<1dB/cm). Both optoelectronic devices have been fabricated on a 300-mm CMOS platform to address high volume production markets.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In CMOS technology, the 200mm platform manufactures products up to the 0.13µm node. On the other hand, the 300mm platform availability corresponds chronologically to the 90nm technology node. 300mm wafer foundries are therefore more focused on the development of processes for that node and below. Processes in 300mm foundries are thus meant to be more accurate in order to comply with the needs of more aggressive nodes, to date the 14nm node. Besides taking advantage of a bigger production yield, silicon photonics would therefore benefit in 300 mm from a better process accuracy. Accurate CMOS processes such as material deposition, lithography and etching are however usually associated with thin layers and small objects. Thus, the simple reuse of some CMOS processes is not always straight forward. Consequently, a process re-adaptation or even a change in process strategy must therefore be implemented. Nevertheless, the use of such a technological platform opens the route towards high volume production and use of optical interconnects in data centers. In addition, fabrication of photonic devices using a 300 mm CMOS platform also enables the future use of state of the art technological tools such as immersion lithography, leading to sub-50-nm resolution with few nm alignment tolerances between two technological levels. Furthermore, a better thickness uniformity of the silicon top layer is achieved during wafer manufacturing on 300 mm as compared to 200 mm SOI wafers, which may induce a better uniformity at the wafer scale.

The paper is organized as follows: section 2 shows the main features of the carrier depletion pn optical modulator. Section 3 presents the performances of the Ge photo-detectors integrated at the end of SOI waveguides. Finally, section 4 reports on the coupling between both optoelectronic devices linked by a single mode optical fiber.

2. Optical modulator

Carrier depletion optical modulators based on lateral pn junctions were used in this work. Modulators were fabricated using 300mm SOI wafers with 220nm thick top Si and 2µm thick BOX layers. A schematic view of the phase shifter is shown in Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic views of the lateral pn diode phase shifter. The waveguide height and width were 220-nm and 400-nm, respectively. The doping levels of p- and n-doped regions were 5 × 1017 cm−3 and 1018 cm−3, respectively. Highly p + + and n + + doped regions were also used to reduce the series resistance of the diode.
. The waveguide width and the etching depth were 400 nm and 120 nm, respectively. The phase modulation occurred along the waveguide and its efficiency was optimum thanks to the optimization of the overlap between the depletion region in the vicinity of the pn junction and the optical mode. Implanted ions concentrations of p-doped and n-doped regions were 5 × 1017 cm−3 and 1018 cm−3, respectively. Thick highly doped p + + and n + + contacts were used in order to reduce the overall series resistance of the diode. Doping concentrations for both P + + and N + + contacts were higher than 1019 cm−3. The position of these doped regions was designed to avoid any guided mode propagation loss.

PN diode was integrated in both arms of 0.95 mm long asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) in order to convert phase modulation induced by carrier depletion into intensity modulation. The phase shifter length was used to combine good performance and low insertion loss. One arm of the MZI was electrically driven by the Radio-Frequency (RF) electrical signal, using coplanar waveguide electrode (CPW) whose dimensions were optimized to achieve a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms taking into account the integration of the phase shifter, and a diode capacitance of 0.21 fF/µm. The signal electrode width and the gap between signal and ground electrodes were then chosen equal to 7.5 µm and 22.5 µm, respectively. S-parameter measurements have shown a S11 below 25 dB up to 50 GHz, demonstrating the good impedance matching of the structure when a 50 ohms load is used at the output of the modulator.

Firstly, a SiO2 layer was deposited on the top silicon surface to act as a hard mask. Standard 193 nm deep-UV optical lithography and reactive ion etching were used to define the waveguides, followed by four optical lithography and ions implantation steps to define the diodes. Finally, a W/Cu/Al metal stack was used to contact the heavily doped regions with silicidation and thus define the electrodes. Thanks to the accuracy alignments of lithography levels, pn junctions were well defined to induce the maximum effect in the designed waveguides.

First, the optical modulator was characterized alone. A linearly Transverse Electric (TE)-polarized light beam was coupled in/out of the waveguide using grating couplers. From basic straight waveguide structure, coupling loss was estimated to be about 4 dB including grating coupler loss and transition loss to a single-mode waveguide. The propagation loss of the silicon waveguide itself was lower than 1 dB/cm. The on-chip insertion loss of our 0.95 mm long pn Mach-Zehnder modulator was 4.1 dB (maximum transmission). This loss included the 2.6 dB active region loss (phase shifter loss) and the 1x2 Multi-Mode Interferometer (MMI) loss of 0.75 dB per splitter. Additional loss of 0.8 dB has to be factored in due to the operating wavelength for data transmission measurement because π-phase shift was not achieved with 0.95-mm long Mach-Zehnder modulators. VπLπ of 2.2 V.cm was also determined from optical measurements.

RF electrical probes coupled with bias-Tee were used to bias the diode, to apply the RF signal to the modulator and to load the device with external 50 ohms load through a Direct Current (DC) block. First, high-speed performances of the modulators were determined by measuring the electro-optic bandwidth with a lightwave component analyzer (LCA - Agilent 86030A). Figure 2(a)
Fig. 2 Frequency characteristics of our MZI silicon modulator based on carrier depletion in a pn diode: (a) Normalized optical response as a function of frequency. The cut-off frequency was 26GHz. (b) Eye diagrams at 40 Gbit/s of MZI with 0.95 mm long phase shifter. It can be noticed that 40Gbit/s eye diagram has been measured without averaging, filtering and normalization. The reverse DC bias voltage was 4V and the RF voltage swing was about 7V.
shows the normalized optical response of the modulator as a function of frequency. The measured 3 dB cut-off frequency was 26 GHz. Data transmission characteristics were also determined using a pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) electrical signal with a 27-1 pattern length coupled with a RF amplifier to deliver about 7 V peak-to-peak and a bias-Tee to adjust the DC reverse voltage. The output light was then collected by a single mode fiber and injected in a 32 GHz Agilent photodiode connected to a sampling oscilloscope. An Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) was used to achieve the high signal to noise ratio required for high speed measurements. A wavelength filter was then added to eliminate a large part of the amplified spontaneous emission noise from the EDFA. Figure 2(b) shows a 43 Gbit/s eye diagram with extinction ratio higher than 8 dB.

2. Germanium photodetector

Lateral pin Ge photodiodes were integrated at the end of silicon waveguides [Fig. 3(a)
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic view of the lateral pin Ge photodetector integrated in a Si waveguide. Intrinsic region width was 700-nm and photo-detector length was 10µm. Both p- and n- doping levels were 1.1019 cm−3. (b) Typical current-voltage curve. Under illumination, reverse current dramatically increased.
]. Their designs were similar to the one published in ref. 18

18. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

. The doping levels of both p and n regions were 1.1019 cm−3. The intrinsic region width of the pin diode was 700 nm, enabling high speed operation. The total length of the Ge photo-detector was 10µm. As for the Si modulator, the Ge photo-detector was fabricated with standard microelectronic tools and processes on 300 mm SOI wafers with top Si and BOX layers of 220 nm and 2 µm, respectively. More than a micron of Ge was selectively grown into Si recesses (remaining Si thickness inside the recess: 70 nm) at the end of our SiO2 – covered Si waveguides. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) was used afterwards to recover a flat surface and deliver the 300 nm thick Ge layers aimed for. Metallic contacts on both p- and n-doped Ge regions were fabricated by etching 0.4x0.4µm via holes. Ti/TiN was then deposited prior to filling with tungsten (W), followed by a last CMP step. Ti/TiN/AlCu metal stack was then deposited and patterned to define RF electrodes.

Dark current was determined as a function of voltage [Fig. 3(b)]. Dark current was as low as 6 nA under −1V, which is the lowest value reported so far for lateral pin Ge photodetectors. Under illumination, photo-generated current were collected with a responsivity of about 0.5 A/W. As for the optical modulator, light coupling was performed using a grating coupler with losses below 4dB.

Frequency bandwidth has been determined using 67-Ghz LCA from Agilent. Figure 4
Fig. 4 Normalized optical responses as a function of frequency under 0V, −1V and −2V bias at the 1.55 µm wavelength. The photodetector length was 10 µm and the intrinsic region width was 700 nm.
presents the normalized electrical response (S21) as a function of frequency. Cut-off frequency over 40GHz was obtained under 3V reverse bias. Such measurements proved that our lateral pin Ge diodes are able to detect 40 Gbit/s signals.

3. 40-Gbit/s optical link

Both Si pn modulator and Ge photodetector have exhibited good characteristics up to 40Gbit/s. In order to demonstrate the capability of building a point to point 40Gbit/s optical link, we have connected both optoelectronic devices with an optical fiber as reported in Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (top) Set-up used to couple the carrier depletion pn Si modulator and the Ge waveguide photo-detector. (Bottom) 40Gbit/s eye diagram recorded by the sampling oscilloscope from the Ge detector.
. EDFA was used to facilitate the measurements and to be above the detection threshold of the sampling oscilloscope. The photo-detector was directly connected to the sampling oscilloscope with a RF cable. Furthermore, all measurements were performed without any averaging.

4. Conclusion

Acknowledgments

The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's under project Plat4m and from the French National Research Agency (ANR) under project Ultimate. D.M-M. acknowledges support by the Institut Universitaire de France.

References and links

1.

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, http://www.itrs.net/.

2.

A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, and G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013). [CrossRef]

3.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010). [CrossRef]

4.

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, J.-M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, “Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22471–22475 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8715–8720 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, and D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, and S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]

18.

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, and R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011). [CrossRef]

20.

S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, and M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012). [CrossRef]

23.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012). [CrossRef]

24.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.0250) Integrated optics : Optoelectronics
(130.4110) Integrated optics : Modulators

ToC Category:
Optical Communications

History
Original Manuscript: December 23, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 2, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 3, 2014
Published: March 14, 2014

Citation
D. Marris-Morini, L. Virot, C. Baudot, J.-M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, D. Perez-Galacho, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Olivier, P. Brindel, P. Crozat, F. Bœuf, and L. Vivien, "A 40 Gbit/s optical link on a 300-mm silicon platform," Opt. Express 22, 6674-6679 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-6674


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References

  1. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, http://www.itrs.net/ .
  2. A. L. Liepvre, A. Accard, F. Poingt, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, D. Make, F. Lelarge, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Messaoudene, D. Bordel, G.-H. Duan, “Wavelength selectable hybrid III–V/Si laser fabricated by wafer bonding,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1582–1585 (2013). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010). [CrossRef]
  4. J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11316–11320 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Marris-Morini, C. Baudot, J.-M. Fédéli, G. Rasigade, N. Vulliet, A. Souhaité, M. Ziebell, P. Rivallin, S. Olivier, P. Crozat, X. Le Roux, D. Bouville, S. Menezo, F. Bœuf, L. Vivien, “Low loss 40 Gbit/s silicon modulator based on interleaved junctions and fabricated on 300 mm SOI wafers,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22471–22475 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, J. Yu, “High-speed, low-loss silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators with doping optimization,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4116–4125 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Dong, L. Chen, Y.-K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6163–6169 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, “Design and fabrication of 3μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide integrated Ge electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8715–8720 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, M.-S. Rouifed, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, J. Frigerio, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, L. Vivien, “23 GHz Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well electro-absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3219–3224 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. Claussen, R. Schaevitz, T. Kamins, J. Harris, D. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(6), 461–463 (2012). [CrossRef]
  16. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J.-F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, K. Rai, H. Shinojima, S.-I. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]
  18. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J.-M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Long, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, “Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(13), 869–871 (2011). [CrossRef]
  20. S. Park, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, K. Yamada, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration and synchronous operation of germanium photodetectors and silicon variable optical attenuators,” Opt. Express 18(8), 8412–8421 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Liao, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, Y. Liu, J. Fong, J. E. Cunningham, Y. Luo, M. Asghari, “36 GHz submicron silicon waveguide germanium photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10967–10972 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, L. Guoliang, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80 Gb/s arrayed Cmos silicon photonic transceivers for WDM optical links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 641–650 (2012). [CrossRef]
  23. X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, L. Guoliang, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Jin, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (on-chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 24(14), 1260–1262 (2012). [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, L. Guoliang, K. Raj, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and Ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012). [CrossRef]

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