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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 6958–6965
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Demonstration of electro-optic half-adder using silicon photonic integrated circuits

Yonghui Tian, Lei Zhang, Jianfeng Ding, and Lin Yang  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 6958-6965 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.006958


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Abstract

We report a silicon photonic integrated circuit which can perform the operation of half-adder based on two cascaded microring resonators (MRRs). PIN diodes embedded around MRRs are employed to achieve the carrier injection modulation. Two electrical pulse sequences representing the two operands of the half-add operation are applied to PIN diodes to modulate two MRRs through the plasma dispersion effect. The final operation results of bitwise Sum and Carry operation are output at two different output ports of the device. Microheaters fabricated on the top of MRRs are employed to compensate two MRRs resonance mismatch caused by the fabrication error through the thermo-optic effect. Addition operation of two bits with the operation speed of 100Mbps is demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

There is a long history for the researchers in the world to consider the role of optics in computing. Optics is considered to be appropriate for computing due to its potential in parallel processing, high-speed modulation and low latency transmission [1

1. P. Ambs, “Optical computing: a 60-year adventure,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2010, 372652 (2010). [CrossRef]

]. Currently, optics plays a more and more important role in computing. For example, the current high-performance computer has adopted optical interconnect in its rack-rack communication. Recently, silicon photonics has achieved great development and various functional optical devices have been demonstrated on silicon such as lasers [2

2. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6

6. H. Rong, S. Xu, Y.-H. Kuo, V. Sih, O. Cohen, O. Raday, and M. Paniccia, “Low-threshold continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 232–237 (2007). [CrossRef]

], modulators [7

7. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15

15. J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], routers [16

16. N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical Networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. R. Ji, L. Yang, L. Zhang, Y. Tian, J. Ding, H. Chen, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and W. Zhu, “Five-port optical router for photonic networks-on-chip,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20258–20268 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], multiplexers [18

18. X. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A tunable 1x4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5151–5160 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 19

19. M. Geng, L. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5502–5516 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and detectors [20

20. Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is widely considered that optical interconnect will be adopted in chip-chip or even on-chip communication in the future. Meanwhile, there are still many efforts in optical information processing and many optical processing devices have been reported using silicon photonics device such as optical logic [21

21. L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24

24. Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optic directed AND/NAND logic circuit based on two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16794–16800 (2012). [CrossRef]

], optical buffers [25

25. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]

, 26

26. Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007). [CrossRef]

], optical analog-digital converters [27

27. A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

The fundamental logical operations such as AND/NAND, OR/NOR, and addition operations play a key role in the fields of optical information processing and optical computing since more complex operations can be performed by properly cascading some fundamental logical operations. Generally, there are two feasible ways to achieve some fundamental optical logical operations. One way is to exploit the material nonlinear effect to achieve all-optical logical operations [28

28. Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Indeed, this way can perform high speed operations. However, it needs very strong pump light to induce the nonlinear effect to perform logical operations, thus it is very difficult to cascade some fundamental logical operations to perform more complex operations and achieve large-scale integration on a single chip. The other way is to exploit a novel logical scheme to perform logical operations. For example, directed logic proposed by Hardy and Shamir in 2007 is very suitable for optical computing since it makes full use of the strengths of the electrons and photons while avoids their weaknesses [29

29. J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15(1), 150–165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Directed logic is a novel logical paradigm which employs an optical switching network to perform logical operations [29

29. J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15(1), 150–165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32

32. R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011). [CrossRef]

]. Electrical signals representing the operands of operations control the state of each optical switch in the network and the operation results are achieved at the output ports of the network in the form of light. The operation of each switch is independent from others and all switches perform their operations simultaneously, therefore, their switching delays do not accumulate, which differs from electronic logic circuits wherein gate delays are cascaded, resulting in large latency [29

29. J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15(1), 150–165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 31

31. Q. F. Xu and R. A. Soref, “Reconfigurable optical directed-logic circuits using microresonator-based optical switches,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5244–5259 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Directed optical half-adder is an important component for optical information processing and optical computing. On one hand, optical half-adder can be employed to construct various optical logic circuits such as shift registers and binary counters, which can implement header updating and checksum verification at an IP router node in optical communication [33

33. S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, A. E. Willner, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, “All-optical half adder using a PPLN waveguide and an SOA,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exposit.2004, Feb., pp. 23–27.

]. On the other hand, optical half-adder can be employed to construct optical full-adder which is a basic element in optical computing. Previously, we have demonstrated a proof-of-concept directed optical half-adder at 10 kbps based on the silicon thermo-optic effect [34

34. Y. H. Tian, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, J. F. Ding, P. Zhou, W. W. Zhu, and Y. Y. Lu, “Directed optical half-adder based on two cascaded microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(8), 643–645 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. In this paper, we demonstrate an electro-optic half-adder with the operation speed of 100 Mbps using silicon photonic integrated circuits. PIN diodes embedded around two MRRs are employed to modulate MRRs through the plasma dispersion effect to achieve high operation speed.

2. Device principle, design and fabrication

The proposed logic circuit consisting of two cascaded microring resonators (MRRs) and a 1 × 2 MMI coupler is shown in Fig. 1(a)
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic and (b) micrograph of the device (CW: continuous wave, EPS: electrical pulse sequence, MRR: microring resonator)
. Monochromatic continuous optical wave with the working wavelength of λw is coupled into the device through the input port and then modulated by two electrical pulse sequences through the plasma dispersion effect respectively. The high and low levels of the electrical pulse sequences applied to MRRs represent logical 1 and 0 in the electrical domain, and the high and low levels of the optical power achieved at the output ports of the device define logical 1 and 0 in the optical domain. We assume that the MRR is off-resonance at the working wavelength of λw when the applied voltage is at the high level and MRR is on-resonance at the working wavelength of λw when the applied voltage is at the low level. Based on the above definitions, the principle of the device can be summarized as follows: when the voltages applied to MRR1 and MRR2 are both at the low level (X = 0, Y = 0), the optical signal is dropped by MRR1 and MRR2 successively. Half of the optical signal is directed to port B and the remaining optical signal is dropped by MRR1 again and be directed to port A. Therefore the optical power at the Y1 and Y2 ports is at the low level (Y1 = 0, Y2 = 0). When the voltages applied to MRR1 and MRR2 are at the low and high levels, respectively (X = 0, Y = 1), the optical signal is dropped by MRR1 firstly and then bypasses MRR2. The optical signal is directed to port Y2 through the MMI coupler. The optical power is at the low level at the Y1 port and is at the high level at the Y2 port (Y1 = 0, Y2 = 1). When the voltages applied to MRR1 and MRR2 are at the high and low levels, respectively (X = 1, Y = 0), the optical signal bypasses MRR1 and is then dropped by MRR2. Half of the optical signal is directed to the Y2 port through the MMI coupler and the remaining optical signal is directed to the A port. Therefore the optical power is at the low level at the Y1 port and the high level at the Y2 port (Y1 = 0, Y2 = 1). When the voltages applied to MRR1 and MRR2 are both at the high level (X = 1, Y = 1), the optical signal bypasses MRR1 and MRR2 successively and appears at the Y1 port. The optical power is at the high level at the Y1 port and at the low level at the Y2 port (Y1 = 1, Y2 = 0). Based on the above analysis, the truth table achieved by the device can be summarized in Table 1

Table 1. The truth table achieved by the proposed circuit

table-icon
View This Table
, from which we can see clearly the proposed logic circuit can perform the addition of two bits and the Carry and Sum of the addition are output at the Y1 and Y2 ports, respectively.

The device is fabricated on an eight inch silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a 220 nm top silicon layer and a 2 μm buried SiO2 layer. The micrograph of the device is shown in Fig. 1(b). 248-nm deep ultraviolet photolithography is utilized to define the device patterns and inductively coupled plasma etching process is utilized to etch the top silicon layer. The rib waveguide with 400 nm in width, 220 nm in height and 70 nm in slab thickness is employed, which only supports the fundamental quasi-TE mode [22

22. Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, P. Zhou, H. T. Chen, J. F. Ding, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, L. X. Jia, Q. Fang, and M. Yu, “Proof of concept of directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1650–1652 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The radius of the ring waveguides are both 10 μm, the gaps between the straight waveguides and the ring waveguides are 300 nm. A 1 × 2 MMI coupler is employed in order to ensure the optical signals at the drop ports of MRR1 and MRR2 can be directed to the Y2 port. After the silicon waveguides are formed, the p- and n- doping regions with the doped concentration of 5.5x1020 cm−3 are formed around the two ring waveguides to form PIN diodes which are employed to modulate MRRs through the plasma dispersion effect. The edge to edge distance from the doped regions to the ring waveguides regarded as the intrinsic regions of the PIN diodes is 500 nm. 1500-nm-thick silica is deposited on the top silicon layer as the separate layer. And then two titanium nitride (TiN) microheaters with the thickness of 150 nm are fabricated on the top of MRRs in order to compensate the mismatch between the resonance wavelengths of the two MRRs, which are mainly induced by the limited fabricating accuracy. Al trances are formed to connect the microheaters, PIN diodes and the electrical pads at last.

3. Experimental results

3.1 Static response spectra

An amplified spontaneous emission source, three tunable voltage sources and an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) are employed to characterize the static response spectra of the device. The broadband light is coupled into the input port of the device through a lensed fiber and the output light is fed into the OSA through another lensed fiber. Although two MRRs are designed to have the same physical parameters, the resonance wavelengths of two MRRs are slightly different due to the limited fabricating accuracy. In order to make the two MRRs resonate at the same wavelength at the initial state, one tunable voltage source with an appropriate voltage is applied to the microheater above MRR1 which has a shorter resonance wavelength. When MRR1 is heated up, the effective refractive index of the ring waveguide increases and the resonance wavelength shifts to where MRR2 is resonant (Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 Response spectra of the device at theY1 port (a-d) and the Y2 port (e-h) with the applied voltages to the PIN diodes around MRR1 and MRR2 being 0 and 0 V ((a), (e)), 0 and 0.8 V ((b),(f)), 0.9 and 0 V((c),(g)), and 0.9 and 0.8 V ((d),(h)).
). Other two tunable voltage sources are applied to two MRRs through the PIN diodes in order to modulate two MRRs through the plasma dispersion effect.

The response spectra of the device at the Y1 port are shown in Figs. 2 (a)-(d). When the voltages applied to two MRRs through the PIN diodes are both 0 V (X = 0, Y = 0), two MRR’s resonances wavelength are same (1546.34 nm). Therefore, we can see only one dip at the wavelength of 1546.34 nm, which is chosen as the working wavelength. The optical power at the Y1 port is at the low level (Carry = 0, Fig. 2(a)). When one of two voltages applied to MRR1 and MRR2 through the PIN diodes is at the high level (X = 0, Y = 1 or X = 1, Y = 0), one of the two MRRs’ resonance wavelength shifts away from the working wavelength and the other one still resonate at the working wavelength. Therefore there is still a dip at the working wavelength and the optical power at the Y1 port is at the low level (Carry = 0, Figs. 2 (b)-2(c)). When the voltages applied to MRR1 and MRR2 are both at the high level (X = 1, Y = 1), both MRR1 and MRR2’s resonance wavelengths shift to the shorter wavelengths, and the dip at the working wavelength disappears. Therefore the optical power at the Y1 port is at the high level (Carry = 1, Fig. 2(d)). Based on the above analysis, the sum of the addition of X and Y can be obtained at the Y1 port. The response spectra of the device at the Y2 port are shown in Figs. 2(e)-(f). The above discussions for the Y1 port are effective for the Y2 port except for the dip in Figs. 2(a)-2(d) is employed to characterize the operation of the device and the peak in Figs. 2(e)-(f) is employed to characterize the operation of the device, and the Sum of the addition of X and Y can be obtained at the Y2 port. Note that there are some ripples in the spectra of the Y2 port owing to the reflection of the A port. However the presence of these ripples has no effect on the operation of the device since these ripples appear at the non-resonance wavelength of MRRs which are far from the working wavelength. In fact these ripples can be eliminated by the optimizing design of the A port, which is left for the future work.

3.2 Dynamic operation results

The dynamic response results of the device are shown in Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Signals applied to (a) MRR1 and (b) MRR2, (c) the Carry result at the Y1 port and (d) the Sum result at the Y2 port.
. A tunable voltage source, two pulse pattern generators, a tunable laser, a photodetector and a four-channel oscilloscope are employed to characterize the dynamic response of the device. At first, an appropriate voltage supplied by the tunable voltage source is applied to MRR1 in order to compensate the fabrication errors and to make the two MRRs have the same resonance wavelength of 1546.34 nm at the initial state. A monochromatic light with the wavelength of 1546.34 nm from the tunable laser is coupled into the input port of the device through a lensed fiber after it goes through a polarization controller. Two binary sequences non-return-to-zero signals at 100 Mbps with appropriate amplitudes and offsets generated by the PPGs are applied to MRRs through the PIN diodes embedded around MRRs, respectively. The output optical signal is fed into a high-speed photodetector, and the electrical signals generated by the PPGs and the electrical signal converted by the photodetector are fed into a four-channel oscilloscope for waveform observation. From Fig. 3, we can see clearly the addition operation of two bits with the operation speed of 100 Mbps is demonstrated successfully and the operation results including the Carry and Sum are obtained in the form of light at the Y1 and Y2 ports respectively. When MRR1 is on-resonance and MRR2 is off-resonance, the input light is dropped by MRR1 and directed to the Y2 port through a 1 × 2 MMI coupler. When MRR1 is off-resonance and MRR2 is on-resonance, the input light bypasses MRR1 firstly, and then is dropped by MRR2, half of the input light is directed to the Y2 port through a 1 × 2 MMI coupler, however, and the other half is directed to the A port. Therefore, the optical power at the Y2 port with MRR1 being on-resonance and MRR2 being off-resonance (X = 0, Y = 1) is about twice the optical power at the Y2 port with MRR1 being off-resonance and MRR2 being on-resonance (X = 1, Y = 0, Fig. 3(d)). Some small peaks can be found in Fig. 3(c), and the main reason is analyzed as follows. The clockwise travelling mode appears in MRR2 when both MRR1 and MRR2 are on-resonance (X = 0, Y = 0), and the counter-clockwise travelling mode appears in MRR2 when MRR1 is off-resonance and MRR2 is on-resonance (X = 1, Y = 0). Both the clockwise travelling mode and the counter-clockwise travelling mode coexist in MRR2 when the working state of the device transforms from X = 0 and Y = 0 to X = 1 and Y = 0 or conversely from X = 1 and Y = 0 to X = 0 and Y = 0 and the final state is still not established completely. The mutual coupling of two inversely travelling modes in MRR2 results in the mode splitting in its bypass transmission spectrum [35

35. Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4621–4630 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, at this transition state, the light propagates along waveguide “1” will partly bypass MRR2.

4. Conclusion

We report an electro-optic directed half adder based on silicon photonics integrated circuit, which can perform the addition operation of two bits and the operation results including the Carry and Sum can be obtained at the Y1 and Y2 port in the form of light, respectively. The plasma dispersion effect is employed to tune MRRs through PIN diodes embedded around MRRs, and the microheater is fabricated on each MRR in order to compensate fabrication errors and to make two MRRs have the same resonance wavelength at initial state. The addition operation of two bits with the operation speed of 100Mbps is demonstrated. The PIN structure is employed as the modulation structure of the device. Therefore, the operation speed of the device can only reach 100 Mbps level, which is mainly limited by the carrier diffusion mechanism of the PIN structure. The device structure is composed of a single ring and one waveguide, and the electrical modulation structure is PIN diode in Ref [36

36. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The modulation speed of a ring resonator structure is limited by the photon lifetime and the electrical modulation structure. For our device, the Q factors of two MRRs are both about 4800 which is lower than that one in Ref [36

36. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], then the affection of the photo lifetime is less than that one in Ref [36

36. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The electrical modulation structure for our device is similar as that one in Ref [36

36. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Therefore, if the pre-emphasized signals are employed as the two operands of the operations, the operation speed of the device theoretically can reach above 10 Gbps. Other advance modulation schemes such as carrier-depletion modulation can also be employed to achieve faster operation speed [37

37. L. Yang, L. Zhang, C. Guo, and J. Ding, “XOR and XNOR operations at 12.5 Gb/s using cascaded carrier-depletion microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2996–3012 (2014). [CrossRef]

40

40. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

].

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under grants 60977037 and 60907001, the Opened Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics under grant IOSKL2013KF02, the Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation under grant 4112059 and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China under grant 2012AA012202.

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X. Zheng, I. Shubin, G. Li, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, J. Costa, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A tunable 1x4 silicon CMOS photonic wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer for dense optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5151–5160 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

M. Geng, L. Jia, L. Zhang, L. Yang, P. Chen, T. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Four-channel reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer based on photonic wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5502–5516 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, and G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, and M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, P. Zhou, H. T. Chen, J. F. Ding, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, L. X. Jia, Q. Fang, and M. Yu, “Proof of concept of directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1650–1652 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

S. Lin, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, “Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1378–1384 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, and L. Yang, “Electro-optic directed AND/NAND logic circuit based on two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16794–16800 (2012). [CrossRef]

25.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

Q. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007). [CrossRef]

27.

A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Q. F. Xu and M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

29.

J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15(1), 150–165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

30.

H. J. Caulfield, R. A. Soref, and C. S. Vikram, “Universal reconfigurable optical logic with silicon-oninsulator resonant structures,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5(1), 14–20 (2007). [CrossRef]

31.

Q. F. Xu and R. A. Soref, “Reconfigurable optical directed-logic circuits using microresonator-based optical switches,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5244–5259 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

32.

R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011). [CrossRef]

33.

S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, A. E. Willner, K. Parameswaran, and M. Fejer, “All-optical half adder using a PPLN waveguide and an SOA,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exposit.2004, Feb., pp. 23–27.

34.

Y. H. Tian, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, J. F. Ding, P. Zhou, W. W. Zhu, and Y. Y. Lu, “Directed optical half-adder based on two cascaded microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(8), 643–645 (2012). [CrossRef]

35.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4621–4630 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

36.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

37.

L. Yang, L. Zhang, C. Guo, and J. Ding, “XOR and XNOR operations at 12.5 Gb/s using cascaded carrier-depletion microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2996–3012 (2014). [CrossRef]

38.

A. S. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

39.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

40.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.3750) Integrated optics : Optical logic devices
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(250.5300) Optoelectronics : Photonic integrated circuits
(130.4815) Integrated optics : Optical switching devices

ToC Category:
Optics in Computing

History
Original Manuscript: December 5, 2013
Revised Manuscript: February 18, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 12, 2014
Published: March 18, 2014

Citation
Yonghui Tian, Lei Zhang, Jianfeng Ding, and Lin Yang, "Demonstration of electro-optic half-adder using silicon photonic integrated circuits," Opt. Express 22, 6958-6965 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-6958


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  20. Q. Fang, L. Jia, J. Song, A. E. J. Lim, X. Tu, X. Luo, M. Yu, G. Lo, “Demonstration of a vertical pin Ge-on-Si photo-detector on a wet-etched Si recess,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23325–23330 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. X. Jia, L. Yang, P. Zhou, Y. H. Tian, P. Chen, Y. Y. Lu, Z. Y. Jiang, Y. L. Liu, Q. Fang, M. B. Yu, “Demonstration of directed XOR/XNOR logic gates using two cascaded microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1620–1622 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, L. Yang, P. Zhou, H. T. Chen, J. F. Ding, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, L. X. Jia, Q. Fang, M. Yu, “Proof of concept of directed OR/NOR and AND/NAND logic circuit consisting of two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1650–1652 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Lin, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, “Demonstration of optical computing logics based on binary decision diagram,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1378–1384 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. H. Tian, L. Zhang, L. Yang, “Electro-optic directed AND/NAND logic circuit based on two parallel microring resonators,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16794–16800 (2012). [CrossRef]
  25. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. Q. Xu, P. Dong, M. Lipson, “Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure,” Nat. Phys. 3(6), 406–410 (2007). [CrossRef]
  27. A. Khilo, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, A. H. Nejadmalayeri, C. W. Holzwarth, M. Y. Sander, M. S. Dahlem, M. Y. Peng, M. W. Geis, N. A. DiLello, J. U. Yoon, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, J. P. Wang, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, M. A. Popović, J. Sun, G. R. Zhou, H. Byun, J. Chen, J. L. Hoyt, H. I. Smith, R. J. Ram, M. Perrott, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, “Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4454–4469 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Q. F. Xu, M. Lipson, “All-optical logic based on silicon micro-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 15(3), 924–929 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Hardy, J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15(1), 150–165 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. H. J. Caulfield, R. A. Soref, C. S. Vikram, “Universal reconfigurable optical logic with silicon-oninsulator resonant structures,” Photon. Nanostr. Fundam. Appl. 5(1), 14–20 (2007). [CrossRef]
  31. Q. F. Xu, R. A. Soref, “Reconfigurable optical directed-logic circuits using microresonator-based optical switches,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5244–5259 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Soref, “Reconfigurable integrated optoelectronics,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2011, 627802 (2011). [CrossRef]
  33. S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, A. E. Willner, K. Parameswaran, M. Fejer, “All-optical half adder using a PPLN waveguide and an SOA,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exposit.2004, Feb., pp. 23–27.
  34. Y. H. Tian, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Q. Ji, J. F. Ding, P. Zhou, W. W. Zhu, Y. Y. Lu, “Directed optical half-adder based on two cascaded microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(8), 643–645 (2012). [CrossRef]
  35. Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4621–4630 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. L. Yang, L. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Ding, “XOR and XNOR operations at 12.5 Gb/s using cascaded carrier-depletion microring resonators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2996–3012 (2014). [CrossRef]
  38. A. S. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. Luo, B. Chen, Z. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Jen, L. Dalton, A. Scherer, “Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system,” Nat. Mater. 5(9), 703–709 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon-organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009). [CrossRef]

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