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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 7229–7237
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Polymeric slot waveguide interferometer for sensor applications

Marianne Hiltunen, Jussi Hiltunen, Petri Stenberg, Sanna Aikio, Lauri Kurki, Pasi Vahimaa, and Pentti Karioja  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 7229-7237 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.007229


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Abstract

A refractive index sensor based on slot waveguide Young interferometer was developed in this work. The interferometer was fabricated on a polymer platform and operates at a visible wavelength of 633 nm. The phase shift of the interference pattern was measured with various concentrations of glucose-water solutions, utilizing both TE and TM polarization states. The sensor was experimentally observed to detect a refractive index difference of 6.4 × 10−6 RIU. Furthermore, the slot Young interferometer was found to compensate for temperature variations. The results of this work demonstrate that high performance sensing capability can be obtained with a polymeric slot Young interferometer, which can be fabricated by a simple molding process.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Integrated optical sensors, which utilize the refractive index change as the sensing transduction signal, enable sensitive, real-time, and label-free detection [1

1. X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

3

3. R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Various planar waveguide sensor geometries has been demonstrated with inorganic dielectrics such as SOI [4

4. K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], SixNy [5

5. A. Ksendzov and Y. Lin, “Integrated optics ring-resonator sensors for protein detection,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3344–3346 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7

7. A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Realization of a multichannel integrated Young interferometer chemical sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5649–5660 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], and chalcogenide glass films [8

8. J. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2500–2502 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the sensor applications, the regeneration of the sensor between the analyses might be a very complicated procedure. Therefore, reducing the cost of the devices is desired, to provide potential for the use of disposable sensors. An opportunity to apply simple and low-cost fabrication techniques, for example nanoimprinting, makes polymers an attractive option as a sensor platform. In addition, polymers and composite polymers have several attractive features, such as biocompatibility and refractive index tunability, which have attracted interest for using them in sensor applications [9

9. L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

12

12. C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006). [CrossRef]

].

A slot waveguide structure is able to simultaneously guide the light propagation and confine the light in the low-refractive-index material filling the slot, and therefore the structure enables strong light-ambient material interaction. This characteristic makes the slot waveguide an attractive structure for sensor applications. Originally, the slot waveguide structure was demonstrated for a high refractive index contrast silicon-silica configuration [13

13. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Sensing properties of silicon slot waveguides have been theoretically investigated [14

14. F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 15

15. V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Experimental work on sensors based on a slot waveguide has been mainly focused on Si3N4 microring resonators, which have been demonstrated to operate both for homogenous refractive index and surface-sensing applications at near-infrared wavelengths [16

16. C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

, 17

17. C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. A ring-resonator constructed from a slot waveguide has also been demonstrated to compensate for temperature variation during measurement [18

18. K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In sensing applications, a visible wavelength is usually preferable. Transparency at visible wavelengths and the potential low-cost fabrication methods have given rise to research on the slot waveguides of polymers [19

19. P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22

22. M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]

The motivation for the present work was to develop a low-cost sensor with reduced temperature dependency. The potential cost reduction is enabled by the usage of a room temperature nanoimprint molding method for fabricating polymeric slot waveguide sensors. In principle, polymer substrate can also be used instead of oxidized silicon. However, this would require that the surface has low roughness and waving, and the refractive index of the substrate is low enough for this waveguide structure. The sensitivity of the developed sensor was investigated with bulk refractive index changes of glucose-water solutions. Finally, the temperature dependency of the proposed sensor structure was evaluated.

2. Young interferometer sensor fabrication and characterization

2.1. Fabrication

Fig. 1 Schematic image of the slot Young interferometer and the measurement set-up. The left arm includes a slot waveguide part, which produces the phase difference between the waveguide arms, and the right arm acts as a reference ridge waveguide.
The schematic image in Fig. 1 illustrates the principle of the slot Young interferometer used in this work. It consists of a Y-splitter ridge waveguide in which one arm has a region with a slot waveguide. The 10 µm thick overcladding layer of Ormostamp defines the interaction area between the analyte and waveguides. The preparation of the Young interferometer waveguide started with the master fabrication on a silicon substrate. The details of the master fabrication are described elsewhere [22

22. M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The master was treated with an anti-adhesion coating of (1,1,2,2 H perfluorooctyl)-trichlorosilane. Due to the fact that the master consists of ridges, it had to be replicated in order to make the mold for the final waveguide fabrication. The master was replicated by spin coating Ormostamp on the glass wafer. The master and Ormostamp glass wafer stack was pressed with 1 bar pressure in nanoimprint equipment (Obducat Eitre 6) and exposed with UV-light for 2 minutes. The Ormostamp mold utilized to fabricate the actual waveguides was released from the master and treated with the anti-adhesion coating described above.

The slot interferometer was fabricated using UV-curable hybrid polymers, Ormocers, from Micro resist technology GmbH [23

23. Ormocer datasheet, MicroResistsTechnology.

]. The waveguide replication process was started by spin coating diluted Ormocore (Ormocore: Ma-T1050, 1:7) on a silicon wafer with a 2 µm thick thermal oxide layer acting as an undercladding layer for the waveguides. The solvent (Ma-T1050) was evaporated at 130°C for 10 minutes on a hot plate. For the waveguide replication, the Ormostamp glass mold was stacked up in contact with the Ormocore-coated wafer and pressed together in the nanoimprint equipment with 10 bar pressure, followed by a 2 minute UV expose. After the patterned waveguides were released from the mold, they were hardened by post-baking for one hour at 130°C on a hot plate. In order to isolate the non-sensing regions of the waveguides from the sensing window, and to protect the waveguides from contact with the fluid cell, an overcladding layer of Ormostamp was processed using photolithography. Negative tone Ormostamp was spin coated on the wafer. The Ormostamp was UV-exposed through a shadow mask and the unexposed Ormostamp was removed with acetone. It is to be noted that, once the mold is fabricated, it can be used several times to replicate waveguides. Therefore, further sensor chips can be fabricated by two simple fabrication steps: nanoimprint lithography for waveguide replication and photolithography for overcladding patterning with loose alignment tolerances.

2.2. Theoretical analysis of the interferometer

The slot Young interferometer operation is based on the phase difference produced between the slot and the reference ridge waveguide arms. For proper interferometer operation, both interferometer arms have to support only one mode in the used polarization state. In the proposed geometry, both the slot arm and the ridge arm observe the change of the homogenous refractive index (RI) of the ambient material. The optical field in the slot waveguide interacts more with the ambient material than it does in the ridge waveguide. Therefore, the changes of the effective refractive index Δneff of the modes, in the slot waveguide and in the ridge waveguide, differ from each other as the ambient RI changes. In the simulation, effective RI, neff, of the ridge and the slot waveguide modes were calculated using the finite element method (FEM), available in the commercial simulation software Fimmwave [24

24. FimmWave Software, Photon Design Ltd, Oxford, UK.

]. The waveguide dimensions used in the simulation were obtained from the cross-section scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fabricated waveguides, shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2 SEM image of the cross section of a) the sensing slot waveguide, and b) the reference ridge waveguide.
The thickness of the residual layer of polymer outside the waveguide ridges was approximately 140 nm. The width and the height of the waveguide, and the width of the slot in the slot waveguide, were approximately 700 nm, 600 nm, and 140 nm, respectively. For the tolerance analysis, the slot width was varied from 120 nm to 160nm, and the residual polymer layer thickness was varied from 100 nm to 180 nm. The maximum deviation is shown in parentheses after the nominal response value. The following refractive indices were used in the simulations: waveguide core nco = 1.553 (Ormocore) and substrate nsubst = 1.457 (SiO2) as a sensor structure, deionized water nDI = 1.33299 and 1% (mol/L) concentration of glucose-water solution nGL = 1.33427 as ambient materials [23

23. Ormocer datasheet, MicroResistsTechnology.

, 25

25. A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, and K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

]. The change of the ambient material from DI water to 1% glucose-water solution caused an effective RI change, Δneff, of 1.52 × 10−4 (2 × 10−5) in the slot waveguide, and 8.27 × 10−5 (7 × 10−6) in the ridge waveguide for the transverse electric (TE) polarization state. For the transverse magnetic (TM) polarization state, Δneff was 1.44 × 10−4(2 × 10−5) and 7.03 × 10−5 (1 × 10−5), respectively. It can be noted that the slot waveguide is more sensitive than the ridge waveguide to the bulk RI change in both polarization states. Although Δneff in the slot waveguide is higher at TE polarization, the total difference in Δneff between the ridge and the slot waveguide is slightly higher with TM polarization. Therefore, the polymeric slot Young interferometer allows a choice of either TE or TM polarization.

2.3. Waveguide characterization and sensor performance

For the bulk refractive index sensing measurements, glucose-water solutions (D-glucose, Sigma-Aldrich) of various molar concentrations (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% mol/L) were prepared. The bulk refractive index change, ΔnB, of the glucose-water solution with respect to deionized (DI) water was calculated based on empirical data from reference [25

25. A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, and K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

] at a temperature of 20°C:
ΔnB=1.4014×(ngnDI),
(1)
where ng and nDI are the amounts of substance of glucose and DI water, respectively.

For the homogenous refractive index measurement, a fluidic cell is placed on top of the sensor. The propagation mode profiles at the output facet of the sensor chip are shown in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 3 a) Image captured at the end of the slot Young interferometer waveguide. The left mode intensity profile consists of a waveguide with a 5-mm-long slot section and the right mode intensity profile consist of a ridge waveguide. b) The interferogram generated at a 1.35 mm distance from the waveguide facet.
The mode on the left has a lower intensity, which is mainly caused by the loss in a 5-mm-long slot waveguide section. Then the 40x objective lens was moved 1.35 mm away fromthe waveguide facet focus in order to generate an interference fringe pattern, shown in Fig. 3(b). To evaluate the response of the sensor against the change of the bulk RI, the DI water and various concentrations of glucose-water solutions were applied to the sensing window of the device. To remove the influence of water absorption into the Ormocore during the measurement, the DI water was allowed to stand on the sample for several hours prior the measurement [11

11. M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Liquids were pumped through the flow cell at a flow velocity of 250 µL/min using a syringe pump (Nexus 3000, Chemyx Inc.), and the interference fringe pattern images were recorded with a CMOS camera. The phase of each image at the respective spatial period was extracted using the two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. Continuous measurement of the water-glucose-water sequence as a function of time is shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 The measured phase response at TM polarization for three different glucose concentrations, 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%, ran continuously and was flushed with DI water after each addition of glucose-water solution.
The base of the phase shift continues to increase during the sequence, which is assumed to be caused by the accumulation of glucose molecules in the slot region. The slot waveguide sensors investigated in this work showed a different response compared to the inverted ridge waveguide used in reference [26

26. M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, and R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Namely, the accumulation effect shown in Fig. 4 was not observed before with water-glucose analyte. Therefore, we believe that the accumulation effect observed in this work is attributed to new waveguide geometry. Although the sensor window is flushed with DI water before applying a new glucose solution, the phase does not return to the original base level. This also indicates that the accumulation of glucose molecules occurs in a nanoslot structure.

For deducting the influence of the phase base drift caused by the glucose-water samples, the homogenous bulk RI measurement was repeated for each glucose-water solution separately, using both polarization states. The smallest measured glucose concentration of 0.005% induced a phase response of 0.04 rad at TM polarization. This glucose concentration corresponds to a bulk refractive index change ΔnB of 6.4 × 10−6 with respect to DI water.
Fig. 5 The phase shift response at TE and TM polarizations measured at various glucose-water concentrations as a function of time, when glucose-water solution is applied to the sensing window. The dashed red line is a repeated measurement for TM polarization. The dotted line indicates the slope of the phase shift in one minute of time. The molar concentration (mol/L) and the corresponding ΔnB with respect to the RI of DI water are marked above the glucose concentration. Glucose concentrations are a) 0.01%, b) 0.03%, and c) 0.05%.
Figures 5(a)-(c) show the phase response for 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05% glucose-water solutions. First the DI water is flown through the sensing window, and then the glucose-water solution is applied in the sensing window. After each measurement, the sensing window is flushed with DI water before repeating the measurement with another glucose concentration. During each glucose-water flow, the phase shift increased in time, although the glucose concentration remained constant. To distinguish the phase shift caused by the RI change of the ambient material from the phase drift caused by the glucose molecule accumulation into the slot, the slope of the phase shift during one minute time period (starting at the moment of glucose-water solution flown into the sensing window) was calculated. This slope of the phase shift is indicated as a dotted line in Fig. 5.

The measured slopes of phase shifts are shown together with simulated phase shifts in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6 Plot of the measured slopes of the phase shifts in a one-minute time period, starting at the moment of glucose solution applied in the sensing window. Measurements for TM and TE polarizations are marked as blue and red squares, respectively. The blue (TM polarization) and the red (TE polarization) triangle markers represent the simulated phase shifts at the same glucose concentrations of the fabricated structure.
The phase shifts are calculated for the waveguide structures shown in Fig. 2 by the equation
δ=2πLλ0Δneff,
(2)
in which L is the length of the slot (or the length of the sensing window), λ0 is 633 nm, and Δneff = ∂neff/nB is the derivative of the effective index change in both waveguide arms as the bulk RI changes. The measured phase responses are in conformity with the simulated phase shifts. The TM polarization shows a slightly higher response compared to the TE polarization. This result is consistent with the theoretical discussion above.

2.4. Temperature sensitivity of the slot Young interferometer

The stability of the slot Young interferometer against temperature variation was determined for the device with still DI water on the sensor window. The sample was glued to a Peltier heat element and the phase shift was measured as a function of temperature. First, a displacement of mode intensity profiles focused on the camera (Fig. 3(a)) relative to the temperature change was recorded. Due to the thermal expansion of the device holder, the coupling of the light into the waveguide was lost at the edge of the tunable temperature region, limiting the maximum temperature variation to approximately 5°C. For the phase response measurement, the microscope objective was moved 1.35 mm from the focus to generate the interference pattern (Fig. 3(b)). The fringe pattern was recorded at each temperature after stabilization. TM polarization was chosen for the measurement, because in this polarization state, the loss in slot waveguide was lower. The measurement was performed for two different slot Young interferometers, one with a 5-mm-long slot and another one with a 10-mm-long slot, and also for a reference interferometer (without a slot). In order to remove the thermo-mechanical movement of the device, the displacement of center of mass of the focused mode intensity profiles was extracted from the interference pattern displacement prior the phase shift calculation. The measured and simulated phase shift responses to the temperature change are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Measured and simulated phase shifts for temperature change

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The phase shift is calculated by Eq. (2), with a modification of the symbol Δneff describing the derivative of the effective RI change in both of the waveguide arms, as the RI of the waveguide and ambient material change. For the simulation, waveguide dimensions in Fig. 2 and the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC) of −2.5 × 10−4/°C and −9.4 × 10−5/°C were used for Ormocore and DI water, respectively [27

27. M. Daimon and A. Masumura, “Measurement of the refractive index of distilled water from the near-infrared region to the ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3811–3820 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. There is a good correlation between the measured and simulated phase shifts. The measured phase shift compared to the simulated one is higher in the device with the longer slot, which is potentially attributed to local waveguide variations. Usually, in the integrated Young interferometers detecting ambient RI change, a part of the sensing arm is open, while the rest of the interferometer is protected. Therefore, the thermal phase shift of the structure similar to the regular Young interferometer was also calculated. In the simulation, the whole reference arm was assumed to be covered with Ormostamp (n = 1.515, TOC = −2.8 × 10−4/°C) and the length of the sensing window in the reference structure (without a slot) was 5 mm. The structure with the whole reference arm protected is more than twice as sensitive to thermal variations. Therefore, the temperature dependence of a slot Young interferometer structure with both sensing and reference arms open is greatly reduced compared to a regular Young interferometer.

The sensitivity of the slot Young interferometer (YI) with both arms open is approximately the same as the sensitivity of the ridge YI with a covered reference arm. The sensitivity of the slot YI is doubled when the reference arm is covered.

3. Conclusions

In this paper, a sensitive polymeric Young interferometer that has a slot waveguide as a sensing region was developed. The emphasis was to demonstrate that high performance sensor configuration is attainable with the simple low-cost UV-nanoimprint fabrication method. This opens up the possibility for mass producible fabrication of disposable sensors. The final device fabrication consists of just a single nanoimprint lithography step, followed by a photolithography step, which determines the window for the analyte fluid flow. The bulk RI response of the slot Young interferometer was characterized with glucose-DI water solutions, both with TE and TM polarization states. The measured responses had a good correlation with the simulated phase responses. The lowest measured RIU change was 6.4 × 10−6. Both the sensing arm and the reference arm of the interferometer detect the bulk RI change of the ambient material, as well as the ambient temperature changes. The bulk RI sensitivity of the slot Young interferometer could be further increased by covering the reference arm with a cladding layer. The structure with both arms open is simulated to be less than half as sensitive to temperature change than the structure with a covered reference arm. Therefore, the proposed structure geometry effectively compensates for the noise caused by temperature fluctuations.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by Finnish Academy grants 137331 (M.H.) and 137276 (P.S.).

References and links

1.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A Review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated optical sensors for the chemical domain,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(8), R93–R116 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

R. Bruck, E. Melnik, P. Muellner, R. Hainberger, and M. Lämmerhofer, “Integrated polymer-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer label-free streptavidin biosensor compatible with injection molding,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26(9), 3832–3837 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4.

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-Insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

A. Ksendzov and Y. Lin, “Integrated optics ring-resonator sensors for protein detection,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3344–3346 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

F. Prieto, B. Sep lveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Dominguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003). [CrossRef]

7.

A. Ymeti, J. S. Kanger, J. Greve, P. V. Lambeck, R. Wijn, and R. G. Heideman, “Realization of a multichannel integrated Young interferometer chemical sensor,” Appl. Opt. 42(28), 5649–5660 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

J. J. Hu, N. Carlie, N. N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Planar waveguide-coupled, high-index-contrast, high-Q resonators in chalcogenide glass for sensing,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2500–2502 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

L. Wang, J. Ren, X. Han, T. Claes, X. Jian, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A label-free optical biosensor built on a low-cost polymer platform,” Photonics Journal 4, 920–930 (2012).

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R. Gupta and N. J. Goddard, “A polymeric waveguide resonant mirror (RM) device for detection in microfluidic flow cells,” Analyst (Lond.) 138(11), 3209–3215 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, S. Pearce, M. Charlton, L. Hakalahti, P. Karioja, and R. Myllylä, “Highly sensitive biosensor based on UV-imprinted layered polymeric-inorganic composite waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20309–20317 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonator for biochemical sensing applications,” J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. 12(1), 134–142 (2006). [CrossRef]

13.

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

F. Dell’Olio and V. M. N. Passaro, “Optical sensing by optimized silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4977–4993 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’olio, C. Ciminelli, and M. N. Armenise, “Efficient chemical sensing by coupled slot SOI waveguides,” Sensors (Basel) 9(2), 1012–1032 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

P. Bettotti, A. Pitanti, E. Rigo, F. De Leonardis, V. M. N. Passaro, and L. Pavesi, “Modeling of slot waveguide sensors based on polymeric materials,” Sensors (Basel) 11(12), 7327–7340 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

H. Sun, A. Chen, and L. R. Dalton, “Enhanced evanescent confinement in multiple-slot waveguides and its application in biochemical sensing,” Photonics Journal 1(1), 48–57 (2009). [CrossRef]

21.

M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, and P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).

22.

M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, and P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

Ormocer datasheet, MicroResistsTechnology.

24.

FimmWave Software, Photon Design Ltd, Oxford, UK.

25.

A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, and K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007). [CrossRef]

26.

M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, and R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012). [CrossRef]

27.

M. Daimon and A. Masumura, “Measurement of the refractive index of distilled water from the near-infrared region to the ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3811–3820 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(120.3180) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Interferometry
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(130.6010) Integrated optics : Sensors
(130.5460) Integrated optics : Polymer waveguides

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: November 28, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 11, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 11, 2014
Published: March 20, 2014

Citation
Marianne Hiltunen, Jussi Hiltunen, Petri Stenberg, Sanna Aikio, Lauri Kurki, Pasi Vahimaa, and Pentti Karioja, "Polymeric slot waveguide interferometer for sensor applications," Opt. Express 22, 7229-7237 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-7229


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References

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  21. M. Hiltunen, E. Heinonen, J. Hiltunen, J. Puustinen, J. Lappalainen, P. Karioja, “Nanoimprint fabrication of slot waveguides,” Photonics Journal 5, 2200808 (2013).
  22. M. Hiltunen, J. Hiltunen, P. Stenberg, J. Petäjä, E. Heinonen, P. Vahimaa, P. Karioja, “Polymeric slot waveguide at visible wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(21), 4449–4451 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Ormocer datasheet, MicroResistsTechnology.
  24. FimmWave Software, Photon Design Ltd, Oxford, UK.
  25. A. F. Fucaloro, Y. Pu, K. Cha, A. Williams, K. Conrad, “Partial molar volumes and refractions of aqueous solutions of fructose, glucose, mannose and sucrose at 15.00, 20.00 and 25.00°C,” J. Solution Chem. 36(1), 61–80 (2007). [CrossRef]
  26. M. Wang, J. Hiltunen, C. Liedert, L. Hakalahti, R. Myllylä, “An integrated Young interferometer based on UV-imprinted polymer waveguides for label-free biosensing applications,” J. Europ. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public 7, 12019 (2012). [CrossRef]
  27. M. Daimon, A. Masumura, “Measurement of the refractive index of distilled water from the near-infrared region to the ultraviolet region,” Appl. Opt. 46(18), 3811–3820 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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