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Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 6 — Mar. 24, 2014
  • pp: 7330–7336
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Polarimetric multi-mode tilted fiber grating sensors

Tuan Guo, Fu Liu, Bai-Ou Guan, and Jacques Albert  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 6, pp. 7330-7336 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.007330


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Abstract

The polarimetric sensing characteristics of multi-mode-fiber based tilted fiber Bragg gratings (MMF-TFBG) have been analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The larger diameter fiber core and graded index core/cladding profile enable the tilted gratings to excite multiple high-order core modes with significantly different polarization dependence and to form a well-defined “comb” of spectrally separated resonances at different wavelengths. Orientation-recognized twist/rotation measurements (−90° to 90°) have been achieved with sensitivity of 0.075 dB/deg by using intensity monitoring of two orthogonally polarized odd core-modes (LP11 and LP12). The proposed sensor is compact, works in reflection (a short section of MMF-TFBG spliced with a leading-in single mode fiber without any offset or tapering), is insensitive to temperature (intensity detection instead of wavelength monitoring) and is immune to unwanted intensity fluctuations (differential intensity measurement). Other TFBG sensing modalities, such as lateral pressure and surrounding refractive index are demonstrated separately with the same device configuration and interrogation principles.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is a device that possesses all the advantages of the well- established fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology in addition to being able to excite cladding modes resonantly. TFBGs have been around almost as long as FBGs and used in many applications beyond sensing [1

1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “In-fiber Bragg grating tap,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, TUG1 (1990).

3

3. J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. For more than one decade, research on TFBG has been mainly focused on single mode fiber (SMF) based configurations, including the in-fiber polarizer [4

4. K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45 ° tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1285–1287 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], vibroscope [5

5. T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. K. Chen, and J. Albert, “Temperature-independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,6

6. T. Guo, L. B. Shang, Y. Ran, B. O. Guan, and J. Albert, “Fiber-optic vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2703–2705 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], accelerometer [7

7. T. Guo, L. Y. Shao, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20651–20660 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], bending sensor [8

8. Y. X. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, and Y. F. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009). [CrossRef]

], inclinometer [9

9. L. Y. Shao and J. Albert, “Compact fiber-optic vector inclinometer,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1034–1036 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], refractometer [10

10. C. F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1142–1149 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13

13. C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer using polarization-dependent loss measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2153–2155 (2008). [CrossRef]

] and surface plasmon resonance applications [14

14. S. Maguis, G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, B. Carbonnier, K. Kham, T. Mekhalif, and M. C. Millot, “Biofunctionalized tilted Fiber Bragg gratings for label-free immunosensing,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19049–19062 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16

16. V. Voisin, J. Pilate, P. Damman, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly sensitive detection of molecular interactions with plasmonic optical fiber grating sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 51, 249–254 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The grating tilt has the effect of locally breaking the cylindrical symmetry of the fiber in a way that allows strong coupling between the core guided light and a large number of (hundreds of) cladding modes. Since the cladding modes each have a unique mode field shape and effective index, they show strong polarization dependence and react differently to perturbations inside and outside of the fiber, and therefore open up a multitude of opportunities for single-point sensing in hard-to-reach spaces. Early research on the polarization dependence of TFBG was mainly focused on cladding modes. To interrogate such cladding modes in reflection, an additional cladding-to-core recoupling device (offset splicing [5

5. T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. K. Chen, and J. Albert, “Temperature-independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,11

11. T. Guo, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Reflective tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer based on strong cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5736–5742 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or fiber tapering [7

7. T. Guo, L. Y. Shao, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20651–20660 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. L. Y. Shao and J. Albert, “Compact fiber-optic vector inclinometer,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1034–1036 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) should be added, which makes the sensor complex and reduces its mechanical strength. So it is worthy to transfer such polarization dependence from cladding modes to core modes, which simplifies the sensor configuration (making the cladding-to-core recoupling unnecessary), improves the signal quality (improved signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio) and reduces the sensor in size (working in reflection to facilitate the insertion into materials to be sensed). A TFBG inscribed in multi-mode fiber (MMF) provides a potential solution due to the larger diameter fiber core, which permits multiple guided core modes with different polarization dependence and low transmission loss.

In contrast with the early reports of MMF-TFBG sensors that focused on the polarimetric analysis of cladding modes [17

17. C. G. Liu and Y. P. Cui, “Fiber Bragg grating spectra in multimode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 598–604 (2006). [CrossRef]

,18

18. X. F. Yang, C. L. Zhao, J. Q. Zhou, X. Guo, J. H. Ng, X. Q. Zhou, and C. Lu, “The characteristics of fiber slanted gratings in multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 161–165 (2004). [CrossRef]

] and refractive index (RI) measurements [19

19. X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 864–866 (2005). [CrossRef]

21

21. D. Y. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating in graded-index multimode fiber and its sensing characteristics,” Photon. Sens. 3(2), 112–117 (2013). [CrossRef]

], here in this paper, we transfer the above “polarimetric” sensing characteristics from the cladding modes to the core modes. Multiple high-order core modes with different polarization dependence can be excited by the tilted gratings inscribed in a MMF and they show a well-defined “comb” of resonances which are spectrally well separated from each other (this provides an easy way to isolate them at different wavelengths). Orientation-recognized twist/rotation measurement (−90° to 90°) has been achieved with a sensitivity of 0.075 dB/deg by using power detection of two orthogonally polarized odd core-modes (LP11 and LP12) of 4° MMF-TFBG. Meanwhile, RI measurement with sensitivity higher than 500 RIU/nm has also been achieved by monitoring the “cut-off” resonance of the cladding modes of 12° MMF-TFBG. It is the combination of the physical sensing properties (curvature, twist/rotation, lateral pressure) with the clearly distinct biochemical (RI) response that opens up a multitude of opportunities for “multiparameter” sensing with a single kind of MMF-TFBG instead of trying to extract the same information from the complex mode structure of the SMF-TFBG.

2. Comparison between SMF-TFBG and MMF-TFBG

3. MMF-TFBG characteristics

The MMF-TFBG sensor was manufactured using the techniques reviewed in [3

3. J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013). [CrossRef]

], i.e. in a commercial multi-mode fiber (Corning, OM1 type) with a TFBG inscribed in the fiber core. The TFBG was manufactured using the phase-mask technique by using 193 nm UV light. The grating planes were written with a certain tilt relatively to the longitudinal axis of the fiber (Fig. 1). The tilt of the grating is an important parameter that can be used to choose which set of modes (core or cladding modes, as shown in Fig. 2(a)
Fig. 2 MMF-TFBG characteristics: (a) experimental transmission spectra of MMF-TFBG with the tilt angle range from 2° to 16°, (b) spectral response (cladding modes in transmission) of 12° MMF-TFBG versus surrounding RI, (c) spectral response (core modes in reflection) of 4° MMF-TFBG versus two orthogonal lateral pressure (X- and Y-axis).
) is going to be excited. As a result, it makes it possible to adjust the operating range of the sensor in order to optimize the response for certain RI measurement (using large tilt angle to excite high-order cladding modes with strong evanescent field) or mechanical measurement (using small tilt angle to achieve multi-core-modes with good polarization dependence). The separation between core modes and cladding modes of MMF-TFBG in transmission can be clearly indentified, as the red dotted line marked in Fig. 2(a). It is important to note that the mode distribution in the MMF is controlled by the upstream splice with the SMF and therefore very stable, as long as the MMF section is short enough (here about 12 mm) and the splice point undisturbed (in the lateral pressure experiments for instance).

Figure 2(b) presents the RI response of 12° MMF-TFBG over a set of sucrose solutions with RI range from 1.41 to 1.44. By monitoring the wavelength shift of the “cut-off” resonance (the boundary between guided and leaky modes which is characterized by a sharp decrease in transmission loss, as the red arrows marked in Fig. 2(b), a linear sensitivity of ~570 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) has been achieved. Figure 2(c) presents the lateral pressure response of 4° MMF-TFBG. Two orthogonal core resonances, i.e. LP11 and LP12, only change when the fiber is pressed along a specific direction relative to the X- and Y-axis respectively, which agrees well with the theoretical considerations provided earlier and provides evidence of their potential for orientation-recognized measurement. Meanwhile, the LP0m modes are really insensitive to the fiber lateral pressure (and its orientation) and can be used as references to remove the intensity fluctuations.

4. Vector rotator sensor

Figure 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of orthogonal-polarimetric vector rotation sensing system.
shows the schematic diagram of an orthogonal-polarimetric vector rotation sensing system based on a MMF-TFBG. The implementation is somewhat similar to that used in earlier devices based on a high-birefringence fiber [23

23. D. Lesnik and D. Donlagic, “In-line, fiber-optic polarimetric twist/torsion sensor,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1494–1496 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] or a regular FBG in a polarization-maintaining fiber [24

24. T. Guo, F. Liu, F. Du, Z. C. Zhang, C. J. Li, B. O. Guan, and J. Albert, “VCSEL-powered and polarization-maintaining fiber-optic grating vector rotation sensor,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19097–19102 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The advantage here is that the multiple core modes provide stronger reflected resonances that are more widely separated and hence result in increased signal to noise ratio, and also that a polarization splitter with dual detectors are not required. The reflective sensor probe here is made up of a short section of MMF (12 mm in length, inscribed with a TFBG) spliced back to a 1m long piece of SMF without any offset. Light from a broadband source (BBS) was linearly polarized via polarizer and polarization control (PC) and then launched into the MMF-TFBG sensor through a 3 dB coupler, and the reflection was monitored by an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) with a resolution of 0.02 nm.

Figure 4 (a)
Fig. 4 Spectral response of orthogonal-polarimetric MMF-TFBG core-modes: (a) reflection spectra of rotation over 0° to 90°, (b) differential spectral response (Ip-p) versus rotation, (c) differential intensity response of orthogonal-polarimetric core modes (LP11 and LP12) versus clockwise and anticlockwise rotation.
shows the reflected spectral response of MMF-TFBG versus rotation over 0° to 90°, with the polarization control system lined up to the strongest LP11 or LP12 (always found at 90 degrees from each other). Clearly, the twist angle can be accurately measured bymonitoring the intensity (reflection intensity) of the two orthogonal-polarimetric core modes (LP11 and LP12), as the two resonances colored in green and yellow. By calculating the peak to peak differential intensity (Ip-p) of these two orthogonal-polarimetric core modes, as presented in Fig. 4(b), rotations from 0° to 90° (clockwise) and 0° to −90° (anticlockwise) can be unambiguously measured, with minimized intensity fluctuations at other resonances. Linear response for clockwise rotation (increased Ip-p) and for anticlockwise rotation (decreased Ip-p) has also been achieved.

5. Conclusion

The polarimetric characteristics of a MMF-TFBG sensor were demonstrated and its applications for sensing lateral pressure magnitude and direction, as well as unambiguous twist/rotation measurements have been experimentally demonstrated. The additional presence of cladding modes further allows high RI sensitivity (similar to that of the SMF-TFBG). The proposed MMF-TFBG sensor is compact (with a simple configuration), works in reflection (a short section of MMF-TFBG spliced with a leading-in single mode fiber without any offset or tapering), is insensitive to temperature (intensity detection instead of wavelength monitoring) and is immune to unwanted intensity fluctuations (because of the differential intensity measurement).

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61205080, No. 61235005), Guangdong Natural Science Foundation of China (No. S2012010008385, No. S2013030013302), Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20114401120006), Pearl River Scholar for Distinguished Young Scientist (No. 2011J2200014). J. Albert is supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Canada Research Chairs Program.

References and links

1.

G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “In-fiber Bragg grating tap,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, TUG1 (1990).

2.

T. Erdogan and J. E. Sipe, “Tilted fiber phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(2), 296–313 (1996). [CrossRef]

3.

J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, and C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45 ° tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1285–1287 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5.

T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. K. Chen, and J. Albert, “Temperature-independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

T. Guo, L. B. Shang, Y. Ran, B. O. Guan, and J. Albert, “Fiber-optic vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2703–2705 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

T. Guo, L. Y. Shao, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20651–20660 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

Y. X. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, and Y. F. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009). [CrossRef]

9.

L. Y. Shao and J. Albert, “Compact fiber-optic vector inclinometer,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1034–1036 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

C. F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, and J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1142–1149 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11.

T. Guo, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, and J. Albert, “Reflective tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer based on strong cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5736–5742 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

Y. C. Lu, R. Geng, C. C. Wang, F. Zhang, C. Liu, T. G. Ning, and S. S. Jian, “Polarization effects in tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(11), 1677–1684 (2010). [CrossRef]

13.

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, and J. Albert, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer using polarization-dependent loss measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2153–2155 (2008). [CrossRef]

14.

S. Maguis, G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, B. Carbonnier, K. Kham, T. Mekhalif, and M. C. Millot, “Biofunctionalized tilted Fiber Bragg gratings for label-free immunosensing,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19049–19062 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Y. Shevchenko, T. J. Francis, D. A. D. Blair, R. Walsh, M. C. DeRosa, and J. Albert, “In situ biosensing with a surface plasmon resonance fiber grating aptasensor,” Anal. Chem. 83(18), 7027–7034 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

V. Voisin, J. Pilate, P. Damman, P. Mégret, and C. Caucheteur, “Highly sensitive detection of molecular interactions with plasmonic optical fiber grating sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 51, 249–254 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. G. Liu and Y. P. Cui, “Fiber Bragg grating spectra in multimode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 598–604 (2006). [CrossRef]

18.

X. F. Yang, C. L. Zhao, J. Q. Zhou, X. Guo, J. H. Ng, X. Q. Zhou, and C. Lu, “The characteristics of fiber slanted gratings in multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 161–165 (2004). [CrossRef]

19.

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 864–866 (2005). [CrossRef]

20.

C. L. Zhao, X. F. Yang, M. S. Demokan, and W. Jin, “Simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement using 3° slanted multimode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 879–883 (2006). [CrossRef]

21.

D. Y. Li, Y. Gong, and Y. Wu, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating in graded-index multimode fiber and its sensing characteristics,” Photon. Sens. 3(2), 112–117 (2013). [CrossRef]

22.

K. Zhou, L. Zhang, X. F. Chen, and I. Bennion, “Low thermal sensitivity grating devices based on ex-45° tilting structure capable of forward-propagating cladding modes coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5087–5094 (2006). [CrossRef]

23.

D. Lesnik and D. Donlagic, “In-line, fiber-optic polarimetric twist/torsion sensor,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1494–1496 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

T. Guo, F. Liu, F. Du, Z. C. Zhang, C. J. Li, B. O. Guan, and J. Albert, “VCSEL-powered and polarization-maintaining fiber-optic grating vector rotation sensor,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19097–19102 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(060.2370) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics sensors

ToC Category:
Sensors

History
Original Manuscript: December 26, 2013
Revised Manuscript: March 12, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: March 12, 2014
Published: March 21, 2014

Citation
Tuan Guo, Fu Liu, Bai-Ou Guan, and Jacques Albert, "Polarimetric multi-mode tilted fiber grating sensors," Opt. Express 22, 7330-7336 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-6-7330


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References

  1. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, and W. H. Glenn, “In-fiber Bragg grating tap,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, TUG1 (1990).
  2. T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, “Tilted fiber phase gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13(2), 296–313 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Albert, L. Y. Shao, C. Caucheteur, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 83–108 (2013). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Zhou, G. Simpson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “High extinction ratio in-fiber polarizers based on 45 ° tilted fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1285–1287 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. K. Chen, J. Albert, “Temperature-independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 1004–1006 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Guo, L. B. Shang, Y. Ran, B. O. Guan, J. Albert, “Fiber-optic vector vibroscope,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2703–2705 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Guo, L. Y. Shao, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, J. Albert, “Tilted fiber grating accelerometer incorporating an abrupt biconical taper for cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20651–20660 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. X. Jin, C. C. Chan, X. Y. Dong, Y. F. Zhang, “Temperature-independent bending sensor with tilted fiber Bragg grating interacting with multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 282(19), 3905–3907 (2009). [CrossRef]
  9. L. Y. Shao, J. Albert, “Compact fiber-optic vector inclinometer,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1034–1036 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, J. Albert, “Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts,” Appl. Opt. 46(7), 1142–1149 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Guo, H. Y. Tam, P. A. Krug, J. Albert, “Reflective tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer based on strong cladding to core recoupling,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5736–5742 (2009). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. C. Lu, R. Geng, C. C. Wang, F. Zhang, C. Liu, T. G. Ning, S. S. Jian, “Polarization effects in tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(11), 1677–1684 (2010). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, J. Albert, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer using polarization-dependent loss measurement,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2153–2155 (2008). [CrossRef]
  14. S. Maguis, G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, B. Carbonnier, K. Kham, T. Mekhalif, M. C. Millot, “Biofunctionalized tilted Fiber Bragg gratings for label-free immunosensing,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19049–19062 (2008). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Shevchenko, T. J. Francis, D. A. D. Blair, R. Walsh, M. C. DeRosa, J. Albert, “In situ biosensing with a surface plasmon resonance fiber grating aptasensor,” Anal. Chem. 83(18), 7027–7034 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. V. Voisin, J. Pilate, P. Damman, P. Mégret, C. Caucheteur, “Highly sensitive detection of molecular interactions with plasmonic optical fiber grating sensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 51, 249–254 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. G. Liu, Y. P. Cui, “Fiber Bragg grating spectra in multimode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 598–604 (2006). [CrossRef]
  18. X. F. Yang, C. L. Zhao, J. Q. Zhou, X. Guo, J. H. Ng, X. Q. Zhou, C. Lu, “The characteristics of fiber slanted gratings in multimode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1–6), 161–165 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, “Optical chemsensor based on etched tilted Bragg grating structures in multimode fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 864–866 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. C. L. Zhao, X. F. Yang, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, “Simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurement using 3° slanted multimode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(2), 879–883 (2006). [CrossRef]
  21. D. Y. Li, Y. Gong, Y. Wu, “Tilted fiber Bragg grating in graded-index multimode fiber and its sensing characteristics,” Photon. Sens. 3(2), 112–117 (2013). [CrossRef]
  22. K. Zhou, L. Zhang, X. F. Chen, I. Bennion, “Low thermal sensitivity grating devices based on ex-45° tilting structure capable of forward-propagating cladding modes coupling,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 5087–5094 (2006). [CrossRef]
  23. D. Lesnik, D. Donlagic, “In-line, fiber-optic polarimetric twist/torsion sensor,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1494–1496 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Guo, F. Liu, F. Du, Z. C. Zhang, C. J. Li, B. O. Guan, J. Albert, “VCSEL-powered and polarization-maintaining fiber-optic grating vector rotation sensor,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19097–19102 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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