## Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems |

Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 7, pp. 8136-8142 (2014)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.008136

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### Abstract

We report on a quasi-planar quantum-dot-based single-photon source that shows an unprecedented high extraction efficiency of 42% without complex photonic resonator geometries or post-growth nanofabrication. This very high efficiency originates from the coupling of the photons emitted by a quantum dot to a Gaussian shaped nanohill defect that naturally arises during epitaxial growth in a self-aligned manner. We investigate the morphology of these defects and characterize the photonic operation mechanism. Our results show that these naturally arising coupled quantum dot-defects provide a new avenue for efficient (up to 42% demonstrated) and pure (g^{2}(0) value of 0.023) single-photon emission.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. **74**(1), 145–195 (2002). [CrossRef]

2. S. Strauf, “Quantum optics: Towards efficient quantum sources,” Nat. Photonics **4**(3), 132–134 (2010). [CrossRef]

3. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature **409**(6816), 46–52 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

4. M. Bayer, O. Stern, P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and A. Forchel, “Hidden symmetries in the energy levels of excitonic ‘artificial atoms’,” Nature **405**(6789), 923–926 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

5. N. Gregersen, P. Kaer, and J. Mørk, “Modeling and design of high-efficiency single-photon sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. **19**(5), 9000516 (2013). [CrossRef]

6. T. Heindel, C. Schneider, M. Lermer, S. H. Kwon, T. Braun, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Electrically driven quantum dot-micropillar single photon source with 34% overall efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **96**(1), 011107 (2010). [CrossRef]

8. O. Gazzano, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. **4**, 1425 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9. J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gérard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics **4**(3), 174–177 (2010). [CrossRef]

10. M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. **3**, 737 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

11. X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “99% efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. **36**(18), 3545–3547 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. D. Press, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, T. D. Ladd, B. Friess, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical spin echo in a single quantum dot,” Nat. Photonics **4**(6), 367–370 (2010). [CrossRef]

13. K. De Greve, D. Press, P. L. McMahon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits,” Rep. Prog. Phys. **76**(9), 092501 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14. P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Planar dielectric microcavity light-emitting diodes: Analytical analysis of the extraction efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. **90**(1), 283–293 (2001). [CrossRef]

15. J. M. García, T. Mankad, P. O. Holtz, P. J. Wellman, and P. M. Petroff, “Electronic states tuning of InAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **72**(24), 3172–3174 (1998). [CrossRef]

16. J. M. Zajac and W. Langbein, “Structure and zero-dimensional polariton spectrum of natural defects in GaAs/AlAs microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B **86**(19), 195401 (2012). [CrossRef]

17. F. Ding, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, A. Knoll, and R. F. Mahrt, “Vertical microcavities with high Q and strong lateral mode confinement,” Phys. Rev. B **87**(16), 161116 (2013). [CrossRef]

18. L. Mai, F. Ding, T. Stöferle, A. Knoll, B. J. Offrein, and R. F. Mahrt, “Integrated vertical microcavity using a nano-scale deformation for strong lateral confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **103**(24), 243305 (2013). [CrossRef]

18. L. Mai, F. Ding, T. Stöferle, A. Knoll, B. J. Offrein, and R. F. Mahrt, “Integrated vertical microcavity using a nano-scale deformation for strong lateral confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **103**(24), 243305 (2013). [CrossRef]

19. O. El Daïf, A. Baas, T. Guillet, J.-P. Brantut, R. Idrissi Kaitouni, J. L. Staehli, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud, “Polariton quantum boxes in semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. **88**(6), 061105 (2006). [CrossRef]

^{2}(0) value of 0.023 from the raw data, which is depicted in Fig. 3(b) without any background corrections by dividing the number of counts in the range of ± 6.1 ns around zero delay time by the average number of counts of the peaks. These measurements demonstrate the high purity of the single-photon source and the excellent quality of the quantum emitter.

^{−3}. Furthermore, all optical elements on the detection path have been calibrated with a continuous wave laser at the same wavelength. Table 1 shows a compilation of the transmission of these optical elements with relative errors. Considering the finite g

^{2}(0) value the efficiency of the single photon source amounts to 42% ± 5%.

^{2}

_{indist}(0) value of 0.17<0.50, which clearly shows indistinguishability of two consecutively emitted photons from the same QD [20

20. C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vucković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature **419**(6907), 594–597 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21. P. Gold, A. Thoma, S. Maier, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “Two-photon interference from remote quantum dots with inhomogeneously broadened linewidths,” Phys. Rev. B **89**(3), 035313 (2014). [CrossRef]

22. P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. **33**(4–5), 327–341 (2001). [CrossRef]

14. P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Planar dielectric microcavity light-emitting diodes: Analytical analysis of the extraction efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. **90**(1), 283–293 (2001). [CrossRef]

## Acknowledgments

## References and links

1. | N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. |

2. | S. Strauf, “Quantum optics: Towards efficient quantum sources,” Nat. Photonics |

3. | E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature |

4. | M. Bayer, O. Stern, P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and A. Forchel, “Hidden symmetries in the energy levels of excitonic ‘artificial atoms’,” Nature |

5. | N. Gregersen, P. Kaer, and J. Mørk, “Modeling and design of high-efficiency single-photon sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. |

6. | T. Heindel, C. Schneider, M. Lermer, S. H. Kwon, T. Braun, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, and A. Forchel, “Electrically driven quantum dot-micropillar single photon source with 34% overall efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

7. | M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vucković, B. Zhang, G. S. Solomon, J. Plant, and Y. Yamamoto, “Efficient source of single photons: a single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. |

8. | O. Gazzano, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaître, and P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. |

9. | J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gérard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics |

10. | M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. |

11. | X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “99% efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. |

12. | D. Press, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, T. D. Ladd, B. Friess, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical spin echo in a single quantum dot,” Nat. Photonics |

13. | K. De Greve, D. Press, P. L. McMahon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits,” Rep. Prog. Phys. |

14. | P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, “Planar dielectric microcavity light-emitting diodes: Analytical analysis of the extraction efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. |

15. | J. M. García, T. Mankad, P. O. Holtz, P. J. Wellman, and P. M. Petroff, “Electronic states tuning of InAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

16. | J. M. Zajac and W. Langbein, “Structure and zero-dimensional polariton spectrum of natural defects in GaAs/AlAs microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B |

17. | F. Ding, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, A. Knoll, and R. F. Mahrt, “Vertical microcavities with high Q and strong lateral mode confinement,” Phys. Rev. B |

18. | L. Mai, F. Ding, T. Stöferle, A. Knoll, B. J. Offrein, and R. F. Mahrt, “Integrated vertical microcavity using a nano-scale deformation for strong lateral confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

19. | O. El Daïf, A. Baas, T. Guillet, J.-P. Brantut, R. Idrissi Kaitouni, J. L. Staehli, F. Morier-Genoud, and B. Deveaud, “Polariton quantum boxes in semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. |

20. | C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vucković, G. S. Solomon, and Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature |

21. | P. Gold, A. Thoma, S. Maier, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, and M. Kamp, “Two-photon interference from remote quantum dots with inhomogeneously broadened linewidths,” Phys. Rev. B |

22. | P. Bienstman and R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. |

**OCIS Codes**

(230.5590) Optical devices : Quantum-well, -wire and -dot devices

(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators

(270.5290) Quantum optics : Photon statistics

(270.5565) Quantum optics : Quantum communications

**ToC Category:**

Optoelectronics

**History**

Original Manuscript: February 4, 2014

Revised Manuscript: March 13, 2014

Manuscript Accepted: March 14, 2014

Published: March 31, 2014

**Citation**

Sebastian Maier, Peter Gold, Alfred Forchel, Niels Gregersen, Jesper Mørk, Sven Höfling, Christian Schneider, and Martin Kamp, "Bright single photon source based on self-aligned quantum dot–cavity systems," Opt. Express **22**, 8136-8142 (2014)

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-7-8136

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### References

- N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002). [CrossRef]
- S. Strauf, “Quantum optics: Towards efficient quantum sources,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 132–134 (2010). [CrossRef]
- E. Knill, R. Laflamme, G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- M. Bayer, O. Stern, P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, A. Forchel, “Hidden symmetries in the energy levels of excitonic ‘artificial atoms’,” Nature 405(6789), 923–926 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- N. Gregersen, P. Kaer, J. Mørk, “Modeling and design of high-efficiency single-photon sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 9000516 (2013). [CrossRef]
- T. Heindel, C. Schneider, M. Lermer, S. H. Kwon, T. Braun, S. Reitzenstein, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, “Electrically driven quantum dot-micropillar single photon source with 34% overall efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 011107 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vucković, B. Zhang, G. S. Solomon, J. Plant, Y. Yamamoto, “Efficient source of single photons: a single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(23), 233602 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- O. Gazzano, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, C. Arnold, A. Nowak, E. Galopin, I. Sagnes, L. Lanco, A. Lemaître, P. Senellart, “Bright solid-state sources of indistinguishable single photons,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1425 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, J.-M. Gérard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4(3), 174–177 (2010). [CrossRef]
- M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- X.-W. Chen, S. Götzinger, V. Sandoghdar, “99% efficiency in collecting photons from a single emitter,” Opt. Lett. 36(18), 3545–3547 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- D. Press, K. De Greve, P. L. McMahon, T. D. Ladd, B. Friess, C. Schneider, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, A. Forchel, Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical spin echo in a single quantum dot,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 367–370 (2010). [CrossRef]
- K. De Greve, D. Press, P. L. McMahon, Y. Yamamoto, “Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(9), 092501 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Royo, R. P. Stanley, M. Ilegems, “Planar dielectric microcavity light-emitting diodes: Analytical analysis of the extraction efficiency,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(1), 283–293 (2001). [CrossRef]
- J. M. García, T. Mankad, P. O. Holtz, P. J. Wellman, P. M. Petroff, “Electronic states tuning of InAs self-assembled quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(24), 3172–3174 (1998). [CrossRef]
- J. M. Zajac, W. Langbein, “Structure and zero-dimensional polariton spectrum of natural defects in GaAs/AlAs microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B 86(19), 195401 (2012). [CrossRef]
- F. Ding, T. Stöferle, L. Mai, A. Knoll, R. F. Mahrt, “Vertical microcavities with high Q and strong lateral mode confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 87(16), 161116 (2013). [CrossRef]
- L. Mai, F. Ding, T. Stöferle, A. Knoll, B. J. Offrein, R. F. Mahrt, “Integrated vertical microcavity using a nano-scale deformation for strong lateral confinement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(24), 243305 (2013). [CrossRef]
- O. El Daïf, A. Baas, T. Guillet, J.-P. Brantut, R. Idrissi Kaitouni, J. L. Staehli, F. Morier-Genoud, B. Deveaud, “Polariton quantum boxes in semiconductor microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061105 (2006). [CrossRef]
- C. Santori, D. Fattal, J. Vucković, G. S. Solomon, Y. Yamamoto, “Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device,” Nature 419(6907), 594–597 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- P. Gold, A. Thoma, S. Maier, S. Reitzenstein, C. Schneider, S. Höfling, M. Kamp, “Two-photon interference from remote quantum dots with inhomogeneously broadened linewidths,” Phys. Rev. B 89(3), 035313 (2014). [CrossRef]
- P. Bienstman, R. Baets, “Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4–5), 327–341 (2001). [CrossRef]

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