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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 7 — Apr. 7, 2014
  • pp: 8813–8820
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Focus issue introduction: Advanced Solid-State Lasers (ASSL) 2013

Yoonchan Jeong, Shibin Jiang, Katia Gallo, Thomas Südmeyer, Markus Hehlen, and Takunori Taira  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 7, pp. 8813-8820 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.008813


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Abstract

The editors introduce the focus issue on “Advanced Solid-State Lasers (ASSL) 2013,” which is based on the topics presented at a congress of the same name held in Paris, France, from October 27 to November 1, 2013. This focus issue, jointly prepared by Optics Express and Optical Materials Express, includes 21 contributed papers (18 for Optics Express and 3 for Optical Materials Express) selected from the voluntary submissions from attendees who presented at the congress and have extended their work into complete research articles. We hope this focus issue offers a good snapshot of a variety of topical discussions held at the congress and will contribute to the further expansion of the associated research areas.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

The era of solid-state laser science and technology was opened by Maiman’s demonstration of “the flash-lamp-pumped ruby laser” in 1960, which is indeed the very first laser of all kinds [1

1. T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960). [CrossRef]

]. Since then, we have seen remarkable, continuous advances in lasers, encompassing solid-state lasers and all other types of lasers. The progress includes a series of new scientific findings and technological developments in terms of materials, sources, and applications. As one premier example, the advent of semiconductor diode lasers combined with novel materials, such as crystals, ceramics, and fibers, has crowned solid-state lasers with unprecedented efficiency and flexibility. Over the last five decades, solid-state lasers have continuously been developed and deployed into numerous fields of our daily life, from a simple laser pointer to laser machinery for heavy industry or laser particle accelerators for high-energy physics. In fact, the 27 years of the former Advanced Solid-State Photonics (ASSP) meeting, together with Advances in Optical Materials (AIOM) and Fiber Laser Applications (FILAS) have served as an impetus to the mainstream of such advances, which were combined together in 2013 [2

2. Optics & Photonics Congress “Advanced Solid-State Lasers,” 27 October–1 November 2013, Paris, France (OSA Technical Digest, Washington DC, 2013).

].

In general, the ASSL Congress includes topics categorized as follows [3]:

Materials:
  • Laser crystals
  • Transparent ceramics
  • Crystal and glass fibers
  • Nonlinear crystals and processes
  • Waveguides and laser patterning
  • Photonics structures
  • Other materials used in lasers and optical devices
Sources:
  • High power cw and pulsed fiber lasers
  • IR, visible, and UV fiber lasers
  • Diode-pumped lasers
  • Fiber lasers
  • Ceramic lasers
  • Laser beam combining
  • Short pulse lasers
  • Frequency-stable lasers
  • Tunable and new wavelength solid-state lasers
  • Optically pumped semiconductor lasers
  • High-brightness diodes
  • Optical sources based on nonlinear frequency conversion schemes
Applications:

  • Cutting, precision marking, and welding applications
  • Sintering and powder deposition
  • Laser processing in photovoltaics, microelectronics, and flat panel displays
  • Femtosecond optical micromachining
  • Homeland security and perimeter monitoring
  • Directed energy applications
  • Metrology, including optical frequency combs
  • Medicine and biological applications
  • Astronomical applications, including gravity wave detection and laser guide star

This ASSL 2013 focus issue, jointly prepared by Optics Express and Optical Materials Express, includes 21 contributed papers (18 for Optics Express and 3 for Optical Materials Express) selected from the voluntary submissions from attendees who presented at the ASSL Congress 2013 and have extended their work into complete research articles. While they do not cover the whole range of research topics presented and discussed at the congress, readers may be able to configure part of the foci of the presentations and discussions given at the congress, particularly in the following areas:

Topics for Optics Express:
  • Ion doped crystal lasers (2)
  • Planar waveguide lasers (2)
  • Short pulse lasers (3)
  • Modelocked oscillators (4)
  • Fiber lasers (2)
  • Laser combining (1)
  • Nonlinear sources (1)
  • Nonlinear effects in fibers (1)
  • Optical technologies (2)
Topics for Optical Materials Express:

  • Crystalline materials (1)
  • Laser materials (1)
  • Waveguide and optoelectronic devices (1)

It is worth noting that the number given in parentheses denotes the number of contributed papers in the corresponding category. While it is not easy to divide all the contributed papers into separate categories with no conflict, the editors classify them, considering the primary focus of the work.

Here we give brief introductions of the contributed papers as follows:

Topics for Optics Express

Ion doped crystal lasers: Solid-state lasers based on ion doped crystals having novel features are invariably of interest at all times. Two ion doped crystal lasers based on Nd:YAG and Er:YAG are discussed here [4

4. S. J. Yoon and J. I. Mackenzie, “Cryogenically cooled 946nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8069–8075 (2014). [CrossRef]

,5

5. C. Larat, M. Schwarz, E. Lallier, and E. Durand, “120mJ Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4861–4866 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Yoon et al. present the first multi-watt demonstration of a diode pumped cryogenically cooled Nd:YAG laser operating at 947 nm [4

4. S. J. Yoon and J. I. Mackenzie, “Cryogenically cooled 946nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8069–8075 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. At the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), the authors obtained 3.8 W output power for 12.8 W of absorbed pump power with a slope efficiency of 47% under continuous wave (CW) operation. Another interesting point with this paper is the authors’ extensive experimental study on the temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Nd:YAG. They found that an increase of ~2.5 times for both the absorption and emission cross-sections was obtainable when the gain medium was cooled down from 300 to 77 K.

Larat et al. present an Er:YAG laser system comprising one oscillator and two single-pass amplifiers end-pumped by a fiber-coupled 1.47 μm diode [5

5. C. Larat, M. Schwarz, E. Lallier, and E. Durand, “120mJ Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4861–4866 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The laser system could operate at 1.65 μm, capable of generating 120 mJ pulses with a beam quality factor (M2) of 3.1~3.7 at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. Although further pulse-energy scaling was limited by the damage of the pump dichroic mirrors, the authors think that there should still be room for improvement if a fiber-coupled diode laser system with higher power with the same brightness becomes available.

Planar waveguide lasers: Waveguide lasers offer a great opportunity for generating coherent light in a very small dimension, which eventually allows for facilitating a variety of integrated optics applications. A number of waveguide fabrication techniques include ultrafast laser inscription and direct femtosecond-laser writing techniques [6

6. J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,7

7. G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Macdonald et al. present a compact mid-infrared channel waveguide based on Cr:ZnS, which was fabricated by ultrafast laser inscription technique and could operate at 2333 nm with a maximum power of 101 mW of CW output that was only limited by available pump power [6

6. J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In particular, this wavelength is very useful for LIDAR, atmospheric sensing, and laser surgery.

Salamu et al. report Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers fabricated by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique [7

7. G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Various waveguide geometries were investigated for CW and pulse operations at 1.06 and 1.3 μm wavelengths. For example, the authors could generate laser pulses of 2.8 mJ at 1.06 μm and of 1.2 mJ at 1.3 μm.

Short pulse sources: High-energy short pulse sources are invariably of great importance because they facilitate numerous scientific and industrial applications. Possibly, this category is one of the most vivid research areas in solid-state laser science and technology. In general, to scale up the energy of the pulses in the ultrafast regime, very typical amplification techniques are utilized, such as chirped pulse amplification (CPA) or regenerative amplification [8

8. X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, S. Jennings, G. Masor, D. Stohl, A. Chavez-Pirson, D. T. Nguyen, D. Rhonehouse, J. Zong, D. Churin, and N. Peyghambarian, “Monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for millijoule femtosecond pulse generation at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2459–2464 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10

10. J. Pouysegur, M. Delaigue, C. Hönninger, P. Georges, F. Druon, and E. Mottay, “Generation of 150-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Yb:KYW nonlinear regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Express (to be published).

].

Peng et al. present a monolithic fiber CPA system that could generate sub-500 fs pulses with 913 μJ pulse energy and 4.4 W average power at 1.55 μm wavelength, the estimated peak power of which approached 1.9 GW [8

8. X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, S. Jennings, G. Masor, D. Stohl, A. Chavez-Pirson, D. T. Nguyen, D. Rhonehouse, J. Zong, D. Churin, and N. Peyghambarian, “Monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for millijoule femtosecond pulse generation at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2459–2464 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The authors highlight that the outstanding performance of this system was attributed to the straight and short length of the booster amplifier as well as to adaptive pulse shaping and spectral broadening techniques introduced to mitigate the overall nonlinear phase accumulation. They expect that additional system improvements, such as further increases in the effective mode area of the amplifier fiber, increasing Er-doping concentration, or longer pulse stretch factors, would lead to pulse energy well in excess of 1 mJ.

João et al. present a CPA laser system generating 1.24 mJ, 390 fs pulses at 1035 nm, which comprised a 2.8 mJ Yb:CaF2 regenerative amplifier and a matched stretcher-compressor device based on a single-chirped volume Bragg grating and a compact, low-dispersion Treacy compressor [9

9. C. P. João, H. Pires, L. Cardoso, T. Imran, and G. Figueira, “Dispersion compensation by two-stage stretching in a sub-400 fs, 1.2 mJ Yb:CaF2 amplifier,” Opt. Express (to be published).

]. The authors highlight that the use of a Treacy grating pair at the stretcher substantially improved the output pulse length to a value of ~390 fs, which had otherwise been limited to 1.7 ps.

Modelocked oscillators: This category forms another vivid research area, providing seed lasers for short pulse source systems as well as being stand-alone sources for many other applications, such as optical combs, time-resolved measurements, imaging, etc.

Ishibashi et al. report the first demonstration of a modelocked Cr4+:YAG single-crystal fiber laser operating at 1520 nm with 120 fs pulse duration and 23 mW output power in a single-pulse-per-round-trip configuration, which was obtained in a Z-fold cavity with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) [11

11. S. Ishibashi and K. Naganuma, “Mode-locked operation of Cr4+:YAG single-crystal fiber laser with external cavity,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6764–6771 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The authors emphasize that although the Cr4+:YAG single-crystal fiber could support multiple waveguide modes, a single-transverse-mode operation was obtained with the aid of the proper design of the external cavity.

Mangold et al. present their recent study on a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL) [12

12. M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In fact, this device facilitates stable and self-starting fundamental passive modelocking in a simple straight cavity, combining a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser with a SESAM in a single semiconductor layer stack, with which the average power scaling is readily obtainable such as semiconductor disk lasers. The authors showed that a MIXSEL could support pulse repetition rate scaling from ~5 to >100 GHz with excellent beam quality and high average power. They could obtain average power of >1 W and pulse durations of <4 ps up to a pulse repetition rate of 15 GHz. In particular, they could demonstrate 101.2 GHz at 127 mW average output power and 570 fs pulse duration, which is the highest pulse repetition rate from any fundamentally modelocked semiconductor disk laser.

Tolstik et al. report a series of developments of graphene modelocked Cr:ZnS lasers [13

13. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,14

14. N. Tolstik, A. Pospischil, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS chirped-pulse oscillator,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7284–7289 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The first laser configuration demonstrated mid-infrared pulses of only 5.1 optical cycles, i.e., 41 fs, operating at 2.4 μm with 190 nm spectral bandwidth, which is the shortest pulse width ever reported [13

13. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pulse energy and average output power were scaled to 2.3 nJ and 250 mW at 108 MHz repletion rate, respectively. The second laser configuration demonstrated high-energy graphene modelocked mid-infrared pulses at 2.4 μm with 42 nm spectral bandwidth operating in the positive dispersion regime [14

14. N. Tolstik, A. Pospischil, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS chirped-pulse oscillator,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7284–7289 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. It is highlighted that this is the first demonstration of a solid-state dissipative soliton laser modelocked by graphene ever reported. The output pulses of 0.87 ps pulse duration with 15.5 nJ pulse energy could be compressed down to 189 fs.

Fiber Lasers: In general, fiber lasers allow for a unique ability to combine high power, high gain, high efficiency, and broad gain bandwidth. In particular, the performances of Yb-doped fiber lasers have been outstanding since a kilowatt single-mode operation of a large-core Yb-doped fiber was first demonstrated [15

15. Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The low cost of ownership enables practical and cost-effective industrial laser applications, so that they are now competing with and replacing their bulk-type counterparts in many areas [16

16. Information available from http://www.ipgphotonics.com and http://www.spilasers.com.

]. We believe that this research area will continue to expand, particularly in industrial and medical application areas.

Piccoli et al. propose and demonstrate for the first time a simple optical bleaching scheme to mitigate the photodarkening-induced losses of Yb-doped alumino-silicate fibers with high inversion and doping concentration above 1 wt%, which is based on a co-injection of a few mW of light at ~550 nm wavelength into the active fiber [17

17. R. Piccoli, T. Robin, T. Brand, U. Klotzbach, and S. Taccheo, “Effective photodarkening suppression in Yb-doped fiber lasers by visible light injection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7638–7643 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. The authors could demonstrate operation at above 90% of the pristine output power level in several lasers with up to 30% Yb ions in the excited state. They also provide a comprehensive analysis of main parameters closely linked with the photobleaching performance via quantitative measurements of the excited state absorption cross-section in the visible range.

Agrež et al. present a gain-switched laser based on microstructured Yb-doped fiber, which could generate output pulses of 2.3 kW peak power with duration of <60 ns [18

18. V. Agrež and R. Petkovšek, “Gain switch laser based on micro-structured Yb-doped active fiber,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5558–5563 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The laser output also exhibited a high polarization extinction ratio of >21 dB and a narrow spectral width of <0.13 nm. These laser properties make the laser setup suitable for use as a compact source for second harmonic generation.

Laser combining: Laser combining techniques open up the possibilities for ultimate power scaling of lasers [19

19. S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 474–476 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], which include both coherent and incoherent combining techniques. A passive coherent beam combining technique is discussed here.

Rosenstein et al. demonstrate a Q-switched, intracavity combined fiber laser system based on two Yb-doped, rod-type photonic crystal fibers [20

20. B. Rosenstein, A. Shirakov, D. Belker, and A. A. Ishaaya, “0.7 MW output power from a two-arm coherently combined Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6416–6421 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The output from the two fibers are passively phase-locked into a single output beam in a power oscillator configuration, generating a record peak power of ~0.7 MW with pulse duration of ~10 ns at 1 kHz repetition rate. The peak power can further be scaled up with increasing the number of phase-locked fibers or employing higher pump powers. The authors believe that the high peak power realized in the relatively simple configuration will offer numerous applications such as material processing, light detection and ranging, and medicine.

Nonlinear sources: Wavelength conversion based on nonlinear scatterings in fibers is one of the areas having dramatically expanded over the last decade since various novel types of dispersion-tailored fibers, such as photonic crystals fibers [21

21. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], became available together with the advent of high-peak power laser sources.

Demircan et al. present a novel scheme for generating a multi-octave supercontinuum based on the strong pulse reshaping at an optical event horizon [22

22. A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, U. Morgner, and G. Steinmeyer, “Supercontinuum generation by multiple scatterings at a group velocity horizon,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3866–3879 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This scheme actually exploits the authors’ own recent work on the two-pulse collision at a group velocity horizon between a dispersive wave and a soliton. They provide detailed theoretical and computational studies on the interaction between dispersive waves and a fundamental soliton in fiber for the generation of a supercontinuum encompassing the whole transparency region of fused silica, ranging from 300 to 2300 nm.

Nonlinear effects in fibers: While nonlinear scatterings, such as Raman scattering and Brillouin scattering, are sometimes actively utilized to generate specific Stokes signals, they can also severely limit the power scaling of optical fiber sources, so that the mitigation of such nonlinear scatterings has been a long-lasting issue over the last decade [23

23. J. Kim, P. Dupriez, C. Codemard, J. Nilsson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suppression of stimulated Raman scattering in a high power Yb-doped fiber amplifier using a W-type core with fundamental mode cut-off,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5103–5113 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,24

24. Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “S, Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Optical technologies: Well-controlled manipulation of light has always been sought in optical systems comprising lasers as light sources. Two novel optical technologies, including beam manipulation based on the birefringence of biaxial crystals and the polarization control via a cavity locking technique, are discussed here.

Grant et al. present the evolution of conically diffracted Gaussian beam in free space, using various combinations of four biaxial crystals of the monoclinic double tungstate family [KGd(WO4)2] [26

26. S. D. Grant and A. Abdolvand, “Evolution of conically diffracted Gaussian beams in free space,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3880–3886 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The authors also provide a theoretical model on it to predict the conical diffraction patterns, which turn out to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The novel feature of the conical diffraction may be useful for bio-medical applications, such as imaging, optical tweezers, etc. The authors also hope that their work will lead to a tangible expansion of the application space.

Kosuge et al. demonstrate a four-mirror ring cavity together with a three-mirror image invertor to produce a small spot inside the cavity which is eligible for generating γ-rays via laser Compton scattering (LCS) [27

27. A. Kosuge, M. Mori, H. Okada, R. Hajima, and K. Nagashima, “Polarization-selectable cavity locking method for generation of laser Compton scattered γ-rays,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6613–6619 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The polarization control via this cavity configuration is crucial because the angular distribution of nuclear resonance fluorescence γ-rays via multipole transitions is dependent on the polarization of LCS γ-rays which is basically identical to that of the laser. The authors expect that this cavity locking technique can generate polarization selectable LCS γ-rays for the purpose of nondestructive detection of isotopes in the spent nuclear fuel by using nuclear resonance fluorescence.

Topics for Optical Materials Express

Crystalline materials: Temperature coefficients of refractive index and thermal expansion coefficients of laser materials are important parameters for solid-state laser design. Sato et al. measured these parameters of YAG, YVO4 and GdVO4 precisely, using a highly accurate interferometric technique [28

28. Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Highly accurate interferometric evaluation of thermal expansion and dn/dT of optical materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 876–888 (2014). [CrossRef]

].

Laser materials: Compact and efficient Alexandrite lasers are attractive for several applications. Yorulmaz et al. demonstrate a low-threshold and efficient Alexandrite laser that is pumped by only one state-of-the-art single-spatial-mode diode [29

29. I. Yorulmaz, E. Beyatli, A. Kurt, A. Sennaroglu, and U. Demirbas, “Efficient and low-threshold Alexandrite laser pumped by a single-mode diode,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 776–789 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. While pure CW operation was obtained in most circumstances, self-Q-switching was also observed in slightly misaligned laser cavities.

Waveguide and optoelectronic devices: Karakuzu et al. present a practical approach to the numerical optimization of the guiding properties of buried microstructured waveguides in a z-cut lithium niobate crystal by using direct femtosecond laser inscription [30

30. H. Karakuzu, M. Dubov, S. Boscolo, L. A. Melnikov, and Y. A. Mazhirina, “Optimisation of microstructured waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 541–552 (2014). [CrossRef]

]. This low-loss waveguide can be used in the mid-infrared region beyond 3 μm wavelength.

In conclusion, we witnessed the success of the ASSL Congress 2013 as the only international, integrated event regarding solid-state lasers running single-track technical sessions for presenting and discussing materials, sources, and applications, all together. We believe that joining in this exciting event would offer great opportunities for seeing the utmost recent advances in solid-state laser science and technology and also for foreseeing their future. We hope this focus issue offers a good snapshot of a variety of topical discussions held at the ASSL Congress 2013 and will contribute to the further expansion of the associated research areas. Finally, we all invite you to join the upcoming ASSL Congress 2014 that is to be held in Shanghai on November 16–21, 2014.

Acknowledgments

The editors would like to give sincere thanks to all the authors who have contributed to this Focus Issue and to all the peer reviewers for their invaluable time and genuine efforts. We would also like to give special thanks to Prof. Andrew Weiner, Editor-in-chief of Optics Express and Prof. David Hagan, Editor-in-chief of Optical Materials Express, for their support on this Focus Issue, and to the OSA journal staff, Ms. Carmelita Washington, Mr. Dan McDonold, and Mr. Marco Dizon for their hard working and kind coordination throughout the whole review and production processes.

References and links

1.

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960). [CrossRef]

2.

Optics & Photonics Congress “Advanced Solid-State Lasers,” 27 October–1 November 2013, Paris, France (OSA Technical Digest, Washington DC, 2013).

3.

Information available from http://www.osa.org/en-us/meetings/optics_and_photonics_congresses/advanced_solid-state_lasers/scope_and_topic_categories/.

4.

S. J. Yoon and J. I. Mackenzie, “Cryogenically cooled 946nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8069–8075 (2014). [CrossRef]

5.

C. Larat, M. Schwarz, E. Lallier, and E. Durand, “120mJ Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4861–4866 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

6.

J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, and A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

7.

G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, and N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, S. Jennings, G. Masor, D. Stohl, A. Chavez-Pirson, D. T. Nguyen, D. Rhonehouse, J. Zong, D. Churin, and N. Peyghambarian, “Monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for millijoule femtosecond pulse generation at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2459–2464 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

C. P. João, H. Pires, L. Cardoso, T. Imran, and G. Figueira, “Dispersion compensation by two-stage stretching in a sub-400 fs, 1.2 mJ Yb:CaF2 amplifier,” Opt. Express (to be published).

10.

J. Pouysegur, M. Delaigue, C. Hönninger, P. Georges, F. Druon, and E. Mottay, “Generation of 150-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Yb:KYW nonlinear regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Express (to be published).

11.

S. Ishibashi and K. Naganuma, “Mode-locked operation of Cr4+:YAG single-crystal fiber laser with external cavity,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6764–6771 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

13.

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

14.

N. Tolstik, A. Pospischil, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS chirped-pulse oscillator,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7284–7289 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

16.

Information available from http://www.ipgphotonics.com and http://www.spilasers.com.

17.

R. Piccoli, T. Robin, T. Brand, U. Klotzbach, and S. Taccheo, “Effective photodarkening suppression in Yb-doped fiber lasers by visible light injection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7638–7643 (2014). [CrossRef]

18.

V. Agrež and R. Petkovšek, “Gain switch laser based on micro-structured Yb-doped active fiber,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5558–5563 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

19.

S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, and A. Sanchez, “Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 474–476 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

20.

B. Rosenstein, A. Shirakov, D. Belker, and A. A. Ishaaya, “0.7 MW output power from a two-arm coherently combined Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6416–6421 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

21.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

22.

A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, U. Morgner, and G. Steinmeyer, “Supercontinuum generation by multiple scatterings at a group velocity horizon,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3866–3879 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

J. Kim, P. Dupriez, C. Codemard, J. Nilsson, and J. K. Sahu, “Suppression of stimulated Raman scattering in a high power Yb-doped fiber amplifier using a W-type core with fundamental mode cut-off,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5103–5113 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

24.

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “S, Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]

25.

K. Park and Y. Jeong, “A quasi-mode interpretation of acoustic radiation modes for analyzing Brillouin gain spectra of acoustically antiguiding optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7932–7946 (2014). [CrossRef]

26.

S. D. Grant and A. Abdolvand, “Evolution of conically diffracted Gaussian beams in free space,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3880–3886 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

27.

A. Kosuge, M. Mori, H. Okada, R. Hajima, and K. Nagashima, “Polarization-selectable cavity locking method for generation of laser Compton scattered γ-rays,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6613–6619 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

28.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Highly accurate interferometric evaluation of thermal expansion and dn/dT of optical materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 876–888 (2014). [CrossRef]

29.

I. Yorulmaz, E. Beyatli, A. Kurt, A. Sennaroglu, and U. Demirbas, “Efficient and low-threshold Alexandrite laser pumped by a single-mode diode,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 776–789 (2014). [CrossRef]

30.

H. Karakuzu, M. Dubov, S. Boscolo, L. A. Melnikov, and Y. A. Mazhirina, “Optimisation of microstructured waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 541–552 (2014). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(060.0060) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics and optical communications
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(140.0140) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers and laser optics
(160.0160) Materials : Materials
(190.0190) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics
(230.0230) Optical devices : Optical devices
(320.0320) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast optics

ToC Category:
Introduction

History
Original Manuscript: March 31, 2014
Published: April 7, 2014

Virtual Issues
2013 Advanced Solid State Lasers (2013) Optics Express

Citation
Yoonchan Jeong, Shibin Jiang, Katia Gallo, Thomas Südmeyer, Markus Hehlen, and Takunori Taira, "Focus issue introduction: Advanced Solid-State Lasers (ASSL) 2013," Opt. Express 22, 8813-8820 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-7-8813


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References

  1. T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated optical radiation in ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960). [CrossRef]
  2. Optics & Photonics Congress “Advanced Solid-State Lasers,” 27 October–1 November 2013, Paris, France (OSA Technical Digest, Washington DC, 2013).
  3. Information available from http://www.osa.org/en-us/meetings/optics_and_photonics_congresses/advanced_solid-state_lasers/scope_and_topic_categories/ .
  4. S. J. Yoon, J. I. Mackenzie, “Cryogenically cooled 946nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8069–8075 (2014). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Larat, M. Schwarz, E. Lallier, E. Durand, “120mJ Q-switched Er:YAG laser at 1645nm,” Opt. Express 22(5), 4861–4866 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. R. Macdonald, S. J. Beecher, A. Lancaster, P. A. Berry, K. L. Schepler, S. B. Mirov, A. K. Kar, “Compact Cr:ZnS channel waveguide laser operating at 2333 nm,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7052–7057 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Salamu, F. Jipa, M. Zamfirescu, N. Pavel, “Laser emission from diode-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic waveguide lasers realized by direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5177–5182 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Peng, K. Kim, M. Mielke, S. Jennings, G. Masor, D. Stohl, A. Chavez-Pirson, D. T. Nguyen, D. Rhonehouse, J. Zong, D. Churin, N. Peyghambarian, “Monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for millijoule femtosecond pulse generation at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 22(3), 2459–2464 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. P. João, H. Pires, L. Cardoso, T. Imran, and G. Figueira, “Dispersion compensation by two-stage stretching in a sub-400 fs, 1.2 mJ Yb:CaF2 amplifier,” Opt. Express (to be published).
  10. J. Pouysegur, M. Delaigue, C. Hönninger, P. Georges, F. Druon, and E. Mottay, “Generation of 150-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Yb:KYW nonlinear regenerative amplifier,” Opt. Express (to be published).
  11. S. Ishibashi, K. Naganuma, “Mode-locked operation of Cr4+:YAG single-crystal fiber laser with external cavity,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6764–6771 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6099–6107 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Tolstik, A. Pospischil, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS chirped-pulse oscillator,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7284–7289 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Information available from http://www.ipgphotonics.com and http://www.spilasers.com .
  17. R. Piccoli, T. Robin, T. Brand, U. Klotzbach, S. Taccheo, “Effective photodarkening suppression in Yb-doped fiber lasers by visible light injection,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7638–7643 (2014). [CrossRef]
  18. V. Agrež, R. Petkovšek, “Gain switch laser based on micro-structured Yb-doped active fiber,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5558–5563 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. J. Augst, T. Y. Fan, A. Sanchez, “Coherent beam combining and phase noise measurements of ytterbium fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 474–476 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. Rosenstein, A. Shirakov, D. Belker, A. A. Ishaaya, “0.7 MW output power from a two-arm coherently combined Q-switched photonic crystal fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6416–6421 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Demircan, S. Amiranashvili, C. Brée, U. Morgner, G. Steinmeyer, “Supercontinuum generation by multiple scatterings at a group velocity horizon,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3866–3879 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Kim, P. Dupriez, C. Codemard, J. Nilsson, J. K. Sahu, “Suppression of stimulated Raman scattering in a high power Yb-doped fiber amplifier using a W-type core with fundamental mode cut-off,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5103–5113 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, “S, Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, and W. Chujo, “Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 631–639 (2004). [CrossRef]
  25. K. Park, Y. Jeong, “A quasi-mode interpretation of acoustic radiation modes for analyzing Brillouin gain spectra of acoustically antiguiding optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7932–7946 (2014). [CrossRef]
  26. S. D. Grant, A. Abdolvand, “Evolution of conically diffracted Gaussian beams in free space,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3880–3886 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Kosuge, M. Mori, H. Okada, R. Hajima, K. Nagashima, “Polarization-selectable cavity locking method for generation of laser Compton scattered γ-rays,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6613–6619 (2014). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Sato, T. Taira, “Highly accurate interferometric evaluation of thermal expansion and dn/dT of optical materials,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 876–888 (2014). [CrossRef]
  29. I. Yorulmaz, E. Beyatli, A. Kurt, A. Sennaroglu, U. Demirbas, “Efficient and low-threshold Alexandrite laser pumped by a single-mode diode,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 776–789 (2014). [CrossRef]
  30. H. Karakuzu, M. Dubov, S. Boscolo, L. A. Melnikov, Y. A. Mazhirina, “Optimisation of microstructured waveguides in z-cut LiNbO3 crystals,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(3), 541–552 (2014). [CrossRef]

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