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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 9 — May. 5, 2014
  • pp: 10735–10746
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Multi-meter fiber-delivery and pulse self-compression of milli-Joule femtosecond laser and fiber-aided laser-micromachining

B. Debord, M. Alharbi, L. Vincetti, A. Husakou, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 9, pp. 10735-10746 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.010735


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Abstract

We report on damage-free fiber-guidance of milli-Joule energy-level and 600-femtosecond laser pulses into hypocycloid core-contour Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. Up to 10 meter-long fibers were used to successfully deliver Yb-laser pulses in robustly single-mode fashion. Different pulse propagation regimes were demonstrated by simply changing the fiber dispersion and gas. Self-compression to ~50 fs, and intensity-level nearing petawatt/cm2 were achieved. Finally, free focusing-optics laser-micromachining was also demonstrated on different materials.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

A further boost to such accomplishments would be to deliver the USP laser beam in a flexible optical fiber whilst preserving the pulse power-level and temporal profile integrity during the propagation. Hitherto, the maximum USP energy level that could be guided in optical fibers is limited to nano-Joule for silica-core based optical fiber, and to a few micro-Joule for photonic bandgap (PBG) guiding hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) [9

9. X. Peng, M. Mielke, and T. Booth, “High average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse laser beam delivery using large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fiber,” Opt. Express 19(2), 923–932 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The pulse-energy limit in solid conventional optical fiber is set by the intrinsic catastrophic material damage of the silica [4

4. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1706–1716 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. The limitation of PBG guiding HC-PCF is mainly due to the strong optical overlap of the core guided mode with the silica core surround [10

10. G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. This effect is exacerbated near the anti-crossing spectral range between the surface modes and the core modes [11

11. J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, “Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1485–1496 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In addition to the material damage limit, the fiber optical nonlinearity and dispersion are two further major limiting factors in USP waveguiding and delivery as they strongly distort the pulse temporal profile. Indeed, pulses propagating through silica will rapidly spread out due to the normal group-velocity dispersion of the material (case of wavelength below 1300 nm). As the pulse energy increases to few nano-Joule levels, there will be an additional contribution to the spreading from the Kerr and Raman responses of the medium, which will lead to spectral broadening and yet greater dispersion. Within the above-mentioned framework, recently, up to 100 µJ energy pulses of 850 fs from a USP laser operating around 1550 nm were delivered through a 40 dB/km transmission loss hypocycloid core Kagome HC-PCF, and self-compression down to 300 fs was demonstrated [12

12. Y. Y. Wang, X. Peng, M. Alharbi, C. F. Dutin, T. D. Bradley, F. Gérôme, M. Mielke, T. Booth, and F. Benabid, “Design and fabrication of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers for high-power ultrashort pulse transportation and pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3111–3113 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. These results were achieved thanks to the intrinsic properties of the guidance mechanism (coined inhibited coupling), which distinguishes from PBG guiding HC-PCF with ultra-low spatial overlap with silica and low group velocity dispersion [13

13. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, P. S. Light, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation and Photonic Guidance of Multi-Octave Optical-Frequency Combs,” Science 318(5853), 1118–1121 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. Particularly, it was found that these performances can be further decreased by the introduction of hypocycloidal core-shaped Kagome fibers [14

14. Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,15

15. T. D. Bradley, Y. Y. Wang, M. Alharbi, B. Debord, C. Fourcade-Dutin, B. Beaudou, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Optical Properties of Low Loss (70dB/km) Hypocycloid-Core Kagome Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber for Rb and Cs Based Optical Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(16), 3052–3055 (2013). [CrossRef]

]. A systematic study on this curvature effect has recently been investigated resulting in an impressive 17 dB/km record loss value at 1 µm [16

16. B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

Here, we report on a set of experiments that demonstrate the capabilities of the hypocycloid core-shaped HC-PCF as a novel photonic platform for high-field nonlinear optics, for ultra-low loss, low temporal distortion USP guidance with unprecedented energy-level, and finally, for laser micro-machining. The paper is structured as follow. Firstly, we describe the different fibers and configurations used to demonstrate the linear properties of the USP guidance in such fibers, and which led to the record transportation of milli-Joule energy pulses of ~600 fs duration operating around 1030 nm, in a robustly single-mode fashion over up to 10 m-long hypocycloid-core Kagome HC-PCF with loss figures as low as 45 dB/km. Secondly, we investigate these fibers to demonstrate some of the nonlinear optical dynamics for the pulse propagation in fiber that are possible by simply adjusting the fiber dispersion, effective area and/or the choice of the filling gas. Here, we show that USP can be guided in a regime with a minimum temporal distortion and in a self-compression regime. For the latter regime, a self-compression down to less than 49 fs was measured, and output peak intensity nearing the petawatt/cm2 was achieved. Finally, a flexible laser micromachining on glass, metal and semiconductor materials was demonstrated using USP laser beam that is delivered directly from the fiber output tip.

2. Fabricated HC-PCF linear properties and USP power-handling

7-cell and 19-cell hypocycloid core-shaped Kagome cladding lattice HC-PCFs were fabricated using the stack-and-draw technique. The fiber drawing parameters were set to have a fiber core contour with enhanced negative curvature [16

16. B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and to operate around the wavelength of 1030 nm. Figure 1
Fig. 1 Spectra of the transmission loss (blue solid curve), GVD (black dashed curve) and the PO (blue dot-dashed curve) for the 7-cell fiber (a) and 19-cell fiber (b). The optical images of the cross section of the fibers are also added.
summarizes the physical and optical properties of the two fibers. The 19-cell hypocycloid-core Kagome HC-PCF exhibits a hypocycloid-core contour with an inner core diameter of 80 µm, corresponding to a mode field diameter (MFD) of ~64 µm. The 7-cell hypocycloid-core Kagome HC-PCF has an inner diameter of 55 µm (i.e. a MFD of ~44 µm). Both fibers have a silica strut thickness quite thick, 780 nm and 1300 nm respectively for the 19-cell and 7-cell designs, and a curvature parameter b (see definition in [16

16. B. Debord, M. Alharbi, T. Bradley, C. Fourcade-Dutin, Y. Y. Wang, L. Vincetti, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, “Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: Arc curvature effect on confinement loss,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28597–28608 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]) optimized and close to 1. The estimated numerical apertures (NA) for the 19-cell and 7-cell fibers are 0.012 and 0.018 respectively.

Figure 1 shows, for the 900-1300 nm spectral range, the spectra of the measured transmission loss (solid blue curves), the calculated waveguide group velocity dispersion (GVD) (dashed black curves), and the guided fundamental core mode optical-power overlap (PO) with the cladding silica (dot-dashed blue curves). The GVD and the PO were calculated numerically using finite-element-method with optimized perfectly matched layer [17

17. S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, A. Cucinotta, and M. Zoboli, “Complex FEM modal solver of optical waveguides with PML boundary conditions,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 33(4/5), 359–371 (2001). [CrossRef]

]. Around our operating laser-wavelength of 1030 nm, the 19-cell and 7-cell fibers respectively exhibit ~200 dB/km and 45 dB/km of measured loss. The GVD was found to be + 0.8 ps/nm/km and −16 ps/nm/km for the 19-cell and 7-cell fibers respectively. Of noteworthy are the staggering PO figures of 2.8x10−6 and 4.7x10−5 for the 19-cell and 7-cell fibers respectively, which are several orders of magnitude lower than the PBG guiding HC-PCF [10

10. G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, and B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1477–1484 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. All these characteristics make of these fibers an ideal medium to explore propagation of ultra-short duration and ultra-high power laser pulses. Moreover, the option to fill the hollow-core by an adequate choice of the gas gives a further room of maneuver to control the fiber dispersion and nonlinear coefficient as we demonstrate it below.

The transmission results show that for He-filled 19-cell core HC-PCF a maximum of 700 µJ is transmitted when the input energy is 1 mJ (see blue solid curve in Fig. 2(a)). This level of pulse energy was achieved over several runs spaced by several hours, and with no observable damage to the fiber or degradation in the transmission coefficient. It is noteworthy that the corresponding maximum input fluence achieved here is 32 J/cm2, which is more than one order of magnitude than the catastrophic damage threshold of the silica with sub-picosecond laser pulses [4

4. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, “Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(10), 1706–1716 (1997). [CrossRef]

]. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such energy level from femtosecond laser pulses can be transmitted through a single optical fiber. The corresponding intensities will be discussed below when the pulse temporal profiles are recorded.

Furthermore, these transmission results show a strong dependence with the fiber configuration. This is illustrated by the difference in the transmission coefficient between 19-cell fiber configuration, which reaches 75%, and that of 7-cell HC-PCF configuration, which doesn’t exceed 10% in the case of air-filled fiber, and 40% for He-filled for pulse-energies higher than 600 µJ. Such a drop in transmission coefficient with fiber-diameter decrease, and/or with the nature of the filling gas is resulted from the gas photoionization and the subsequent plasma absorption. Indeed, at the fiber input, the air ionization intensity threshold of 40 TW/cm2 is reached at pulse energy of less than 300 µJ. This qualitatively agrees with the transmission curve through the 10 m long air-filled 7-cell HC-PCF (black open circle and dashed line in Fig. 2(a)), which shows a drop in the transmission slop for energies higher than 100 µJ. The pulse energy, at which the onset of such a drop in the transmission-coefficient occurs, increases when the fiber core is filled with helium and/or the fiber effective area is increased, as it is readily shown in Fig. 2(a). As a matter of fact, as it is mentioned above, with He-filled 19-cell HC-PCF, one could guide 800 µJ with no significant drop in the transmission coefficient relative to lower pulse energies. This is explained in the 5 times higher ionization threshold intensity compared to the air-filled 7-cell HC-PCF (see Table 1

Table 1. Dispersion length, nonlinear length, self-focusing critical power and ionization threshold intensity [18] for the different fiber configurations considered. The dispersion length is taking for gas pressure of 1 bar. The nonlinear length is calculated for the case of 1 GW peak power.

table-icon
View This Table
). Also, several measurements were done with the same fiber and no observable damage to the fiber inside-structure despite guiding pulses with fluence levels that are orders of magnitude larger than that of the filling-gas photoionization. More remarkably, in the different fiber configurations, the light is guided in a single mode fashion for the whole laser energy-range as indicated in Fig. 2(b). The figure shows the far field output beam profiles from He-filled 7-cell and 19-cell HC-PCF for different input energies. The profiles indicate a robust single modedness for the whole input pulse energy range. This is further corroborated with Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Bend loss and M2 evolution with bend radius and (b) near field evolution with bend radius for the 7-cell fiber design.
which summarizes the bending loss properties of these fibers. For the 7-cell design, the measured fundamental core-mode near-field (NF) and M2~1.2 remain unchanged even for bend radius as small as 3.5 cm. For the case of the 19-cell fiber (not presented), the bending insensitivity is not as strong as the 7-cell fiber as expected due to the enlarged core size.

3. USP optical nonlinear propagation

Table 1 shows some of the relevant physical parameters for the nonlinear optical dynamics that could affect the USP guidance in the different HC-PCF configurations mentioned-above. It is readily noticeable that by simply changing the fiber configuration, one could dramatically alter these parameter ranges, and thus the propagation dynamics. For example, the dispersion length could be enhanced from 28 m for the He-filled 7-cell HC-PCF to almost 600 m for air-filled 19-cell HC-PCF. In order to demonstrate experimentally that this type of HC-PCF could indeed be an excellent and original platform to explore different high field nonlinear optical phenomena, a second set of experiments was performed.

Here, the spectral and temporal characteristics of the transmitted pulses with different energies were measured with different HC-PCF parameters. Three distinct propagation regimes have been identified and explored by simply controlling the following: the filling gas, the fiber dispersion regime and the hollow-core size (19-cell or 7-cell HC-PCF design). The first regime corresponds to high-energy USP delivery with minimum temporal and spectral distortion. Consequently, a 19-cell HC-PCF has been selected for its large core to reduce the nonlinear coefficient γ=n2ω0/cAeff Here, n2,ω0,Aeff and c are the fiber core nonlinear refractive index, angular frequency of the operating laser, fiber effective area and the light speed respectively. The fiber is filled with helium (3 bar at the output fiber end and 1 bar at the input end) because of its smaller nonlinear-index coefficient compared to other gas-phase media such as air, and thus to reduce further γ [12

12. Y. Y. Wang, X. Peng, M. Alharbi, C. F. Dutin, T. D. Bradley, F. Gérôme, M. Mielke, T. Booth, and F. Benabid, “Design and fabrication of hollow-core photonic crystal fibers for high-power ultrashort pulse transportation and pulse compression,” Opt. Lett. 37(15), 3111–3113 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The gas loading is undertaken using the set-up described in [19

19. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman Scattering in Hydrogen-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], with the difference that one of the fiber end is left open to the ambient air. For this configuration, the nonlinear coefficient is in the range of 10−6 W−1km−1, which is 6 orders of magnitude lower than silica core fiber with comparable effective areas, and corresponds to nonlinear length, LNL=(γPp)1, in excess of 1 m even for peak power Pp at GW level (see Table 1). Also, the use of the 19-cell HC-PCF allows a very small GVD and hence very limited temporal broadening (see Fig. 1(b)). Indeed, at our operating wavelength, the GVD was calculated to be + 0.8 ps/nm/km, corresponding to β2=0.45ps2/km, and to a dispersion length, LD=τ2/|β2|, nearing 600 m for the case of our laser input pulse duration of ~500 fs. Such a low nonlinear coefficient and dispersion is illustrated experimentally in Fig. 4
Fig. 4 High energy delivery: (a) Experimental and (b) theoretical evolution of the spectrum with input energy for the case of He-filled 19-cell HC-PCF; (c) Recorded output pulse duration and the corresponding output intensity.
. Figure 4(a) shows the measured output spectra of the USP laser after propagation through 3 m-long 19-cell HC-PCF and for different input pulse energies. The results show very little spectral broadening and negligible temporal distortion as it is illustrated in Fig. 4(c) (red trace). Figure 4(c) also shows the output intensity of the guided laser (black trace), which reaches a level as high as 38 TW/cm2 when 700 µJ pulse energy (i.e. ~1.4 GW peak power) is coupled into the fiber.

The pulse propagation through the gas filled fiber was then simulated using the so-called forward Maxwell equations, which is a first-order propagation equation for the electric field, without using the slowly-varying envelope approximation [20

20. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. In the linear part of the propagation operator, the effects of linear dispersion to all orders as well as wavelength-dependent loss were included. The data on waveguide dispersion and waveguide loss were taken from the measurement, while the dispersion of the filling gas was modelled by Sellmeyer-type formulae. The nonlinear part of the propagation accounted for the effect of the self-phase modulation including soliton-type behavior, self-steepening, third harmonic generation, the loss of energy for the formation of plasma, as well as the time-dependent change of the refractive index due to plasma. The ADK model for the photoionization rate was utilized in the simulation [21

21. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. B. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JEPT 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

]. Here, we have taken the ionization potentials of the main constituents of air, nitrogen and oxygen to be the same. Since the experimental research has demonstrated negligible energy transfer to the higher transverse modes of the waveguide, single-mode propagation was assumed in simulations. Figure 4(b) shows the calculation results for the 19-cell He-filled HC-PCF configuration. A good qualitative agreement with the experimental results is obtained, indicating the presence of spectra broadening due to SPM scaling linearly with the energy. Notice that the computations were running for energy higher than our experimental limit imposed by the laser performances in order to have more visibility on the dynamics.

Finally, a third nonlinear optical regime was obtained with a 10 m-long 7-cell He-filled HC-PCF working under normal dispersion regime. Despite the very low nonlinear coefficient of Helium, a relatively strong SPM and a moderate pulse compression were observed because of the smaller effective area. Similarly to the above results, the output spectra are corroborated by the simulations (Fig. 7(b)
Fig. 7 SPM regime: (a) Experimental and (b) theoretical evolution of the spectrum with input energy for the case of He-filled 7-cell HC-PCF; (c) Recorded output pulse duration and the corresponding output intensity.
). In this configuration, the peak intensity transmitted over the 10 m of fiber reached 90 TW/cm2.

A full theoretical account on the pulse propagation dynamics and on the fiber properties optimization for a given aim (i.e. maximizing the pulse compression for example) is beyond the present paper scope and will be the subject of a future publication.

4. Fiber laser pen: fiber-aided micromachining

Several samples of silicon wafer, aluminium and silica were engraved. This was achieved by placing the HC-PCF output-end on a tip of a printing tracer. Figure 8(a)
Fig. 8 (a) Laser engraving using 10 m long 19-cell HC-PCF on silicon wafer, aluminum, silica glass and (b) on highly inflammable materials; (c) The ablation rate and (d) the corresponding drilling depth evolution with the fiber delivered pulse energy; (e) A comparison of the 3D mapping of the drilling hole on glass and aluminium at 280 µJ is presented.
shows examples of laser scribing on the different above-mentioned materials. Furthermore, in order to illustrate the cold ablation regime of micro-graving, the scribing is carried out on the tip of a match (see Fig. 8(b)). Finally, it is noteworthy that the engraving was performed directly from the fiber output tip, i.e. free of focusing optics, configuration possible thanks to the low numerical aperture of this fiber. Furthermore, several runs of engraving have been undertaken with the same fiber and with no recleaving to the fiber tip. This capability is illustrated in the video showing a scribing process on glass sheet (Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Frame from the video showing glass sheet engraving from a USP laser beam directly delivered from the HC-PCF output end (See Media 2).
).

Ablation rate was then studied on the various materials for the same laser spot size and a constant 2 mm distance between the fiber tip and the material target. Figure 8(c) shows the ablation rate and Fig. 8(d) the drilling depth obtained for fiber output pulse energy range of 8 µJ-380 µJ. The minimum delivered pulse energy of 8 µJ was sufficient to perform precise graving of small patterns, less than 100 µm by 100 µm. A maximum ablation rate of 320,000 µm3/s for the case of the glass as plotted in Fig. 8(c). Furthermore, in the case of the glass, the ablation rate increases linearly with the pulse energy increase at a rate of 721 µm3/s per µJ. This contrasts with the Si wafer and aluminium where the energy increase seems to have little impact on the ablation rate. In addition, for the case of aluminium and Si wafer, the ablation rate is found to be only 20,000 µm3/s. However, for both materials, the measurements were corrupted by a re-deposition effect of the ejected debris as shown in Fig. 8(e), and consequently, the measured of the ablation rate for Si and Aluminium is a lower-figure of the actual ablation rate if the re-deposited debris is removed during the process.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, we experimentally demonstrated that hypocycloid core-shaped HC-PCF is an excellent platform for high field and ultra-fast optical applications. Milli-Joule level USP laser is guided over several meters long HC-PCF in either (i) a regime with minimum temporal and spectral distortion, (ii) a regime with strong soliton self-compression leading to record output peak intensity nearing the petawatt/cm2, and more than 10-fold compression ratio in a single stage process, or (iii) in a regime where self-phase modulation dominates the nonlinear optical effect in presence. Finally, fibers as long as 10 m were used to answer industrial requirements and laser engraving was done at high energy on several materials demonstrating high-precision focus-optics free laser microprocessing.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the PLATINOM platform for the help in the fiber fabrication and engraving 3D mapping. This research is funded by “Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR)” through grants PHOTOSYNTH and Σ_LIM Labex Chaire, Astrid UV-Factor and by “la région Limousin”.

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14.

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A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. B. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JEPT 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

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24.

P. Jaworski, F. Yu, R. R. Maier, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, J. D. Shephard, and D. P. Hand, “Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber for micro-machining applications,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22742–22753 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

OCIS Codes
(060.5530) Fiber optics and optical communications : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons
(320.7090) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast lasers
(350.3390) Other areas of optics : Laser materials processing
(060.5295) Fiber optics and optical communications : Photonic crystal fibers

ToC Category:
Laser Microfabrication

History
Original Manuscript: March 19, 2014
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: April 22, 2014
Published: April 25, 2014

Citation
B. Debord, M. Alharbi, L. Vincetti, A. Husakou, C. Fourcade-Dutin, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, F. Gérôme, and F. Benabid, "Multi-meter fiber-delivery and pulse self-compression of milli-Joule femtosecond laser and fiber-aided laser-micromachining," Opt. Express 22, 10735-10746 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-9-10735


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References

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