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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Andrew M. Weiner
  • Vol. 22, Iss. 9 — May. 5, 2014
  • pp: 10792–10799
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Thermally driven dual-frequency Q-switching of Nd:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramic laser

G. Alombert-Goget, A. Brenier, Y. Guyot, A. Labruyère, B. Faure, and V. Couderc  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue 9, pp. 10792-10799 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.010792


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Abstract

Multi-wavelength operation of Q-switched Nd-doped YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 garnet ceramic lasers has been investigated. Dual-wavelength emission around ~1.06 µm has been demonstrated both in the actively and passively Q-switched configurations. The ratio of output energy between the two laser wavelengths was driven by the temperature elevation caused by pumping. Passively Q-switched operation yields dual-frequency emission of two unsynchronized laser pulses carried by distinct transverse modes whereas active Q-switched configuration offers the possibility of synchronizing emission at the two wavelengths.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Nd- or Yb-doped YAG laser ceramics have reached a level of quality equivalent to single crystals, including high transparency, high laser damage thresholds, and excellent thermal and mechanical properties. Laser ceramics can also be produced in large size at a lower cost with high and homogenous doping level [1

1. A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008). [CrossRef]

]. They can be shaped in various configurations such as clad-core fiber or cylindrical, undoped end-caps rods or concentration gradient rods [2

2. A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Synthesis and performances of advanced ceramic lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(6), 1936–1944 (2006). [CrossRef]

]. Their use in high power pulsed repetitive laser-driver has been favorably estimated [3

3. Y. Senatsky, A. Shirakawa, Y. Sato, J. Hagiwara, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Nonlinear refractive index of ceramic laser media and perspectives of their usage in a high-power laser-driver,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 500–506 (2004). [CrossRef]

].

Additionally, ceramic materials can accommodate larger amounts of dopants, including several active or inactive ions favoring the broadening of absorption while leading to high emission cross-section and short pulse generation respectively. So, mixed garnets have been synthesized and investigated with the objective that the disorder around the luminescent centers will broaden their lines without modification of the ceramic transparency. For example, Nd-doped Y3ScAl4O12 (YSAG) garnets have been demonstrated for CW and short-pulse emission [4

4. Y. Sato, J. Saikawa, T. Taira, and A. Ikesue, “Characteristics of Nd3+ doped Y3Al5O12 ceramic laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(10), 1277–1282 (2007). [CrossRef]

] and later on, the {YGd2}[Sc2](Al2Ga)O12 garnet ceramics was elaborated for laser applications [5

5. A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, H. J. Eichler, A. Shirakawa, M. Tokurakawa, H. Rhee, K. Takaichi, and T. Yanagitani, “Nonlinear laser χ(3) effects in novel garnet-type fine-grained ceramic-host YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 for Ln3+ lasants,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(9), 671–677 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. Moreover, the fluorescence spectrum of the neodymium-doped YSAG material includes two intense lines near 1059 and 1062 nm and laser emission switching between these two main laser lines has been demonstrated [6

6. J. Carreaud, A. Labruyère, L. Jaffres, V. Couderc, A. Maitre, R. Boulesteix, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, Y. Rabinovitch, and C. Sallé, “Wavelength switching in Nd:YSAG ceramic laser induced by thermal effect,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 344–349 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. This behavior was explained by the temperature impact on the two 4F3/2 sublevels population distribution inside the gain medium during laser operation. That temperature dependent emission is also responsible for an effect of gain filtering that tailors the shape of the transverse modes at the two laser wavelengths [7

7. L. Jaffres, A. Labruyère, V. Couderc, J. Carreaud, A. Maître, R. Boulesteix, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, Y. Rabinovitch, and C. Sallé, “Gain structuration in dual-wavelength Nd:YSAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25596–25602 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

].

CW and mode-locked laser operations in Yb3+:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramics has been demonstrated by M. Tokurakawa and associates [8

8. M. Tokurakawa, H. Kurokawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous-wave and mode-locked lasers on the base of partially disordered crystalline Yb3+:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramics,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4390–4395 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. 2.9 and 2.8 W were obtained at 1051 nm and 1031 nm respectively with 40% optical-to-optical efficiencies. Pulses of 69 fs in mode-locked laser have been also obtained with an average power of 820 mW. Some spectroscopic and physical properties of the Nd3+:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramics have been studied [9

9. H. Okada, M. Tanaka, H. Kiriyama, Y. Nakai, Y. Ochi, A. Sugiyama, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and N. Meichin, “Laser ceramic materials for subpicosecond solid-state lasers using Nd3+-doped mixed scandium garnets,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3048–3050 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] exhibiting a laser emission at 1060.8 nm in CW. A deeper investigation [10

10. A. Brenier, G. Alombert-Goget, Y. Guyot, and G. Boulon, “Laser and thermal properties of Nd:YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 garnet ceramic,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(10), 697–703 (2012). [CrossRef]

] revealed that the CW Nd3+ laser emission of the latter material was constituted by two lines near 1059 and 1062 nm (“cold” and “hot” lines respectively) and this behavior was explained by the temperature control of the two 4F3/2 sublevels population distribution inside the gain medium during laser operation.

Beyond these results no investigations regarding Q-switching regime of YGd2[Sc2](Al2Ga)O12 ceramic laser has been yet published. The potentiality to obtain simultaneous emissions of Q-switched pulses has also not been investigated.

The purpose of the present work is to exhibit passive and active Q-switching of a diode-pumped Nd:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 garnet ceramics. In the first section, we describe a study of passive Q-switch operation of that ceramic crystal introduced in a microcavity. In the second section, we show experimental evidence of simultaneous active Q-switching of the two main laser lines. In the latter configuration, the ratio of pulse energy is controlled by means of temperature.

2. Passive Q-switch laser operation

Passive Q-switching was investigated by using a Cr4+:YAG crystal as saturable absorber. The experimental set-up is schematically depicted in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the passively Q-switched Nd:GY ceramic laser. Inset: photograph of the set-up.

The Cr4+:YAG crystal had a length of 2 mm. The ceramic sample, provided by Komasa Inc, was 10 mm in side and 2 mm in length. Both the crystal and the ceramic sample had been cut at Brewster's angle on one side and 0° on the other side. The output face of the Cr4+:YAG crystal was coated for partial reflection at 1.06 µm, i.e. R = 88%. The input face of the ceramic sample was coated for high transmission at 808 nm, while being highly reflective at 1.06 µm. The laser cavity had an overall length of ~6 mm in order to obtain pulses in nanosecond scale. The crystal and the ceramic sample were cooled by means of a Peltier cooling plate whose temperature was fixed to 37°C. The pump light at 808-nm was focussed into the sample using a selfoc lens with a focal length of 8 mm.

The pump beam diameter measured with a CCD camera (Gentec USB 3.0) was ~60 µm in the sample. In that configuration, passively Q-switched operation was demonstrated. The evolution of the laser output power as a function of the pump power is shown in Fig. 2(a) (CW power meter from Ophir, ref: PD300-3W).
Fig. 2 (a) Evolution of the average output laser power as a function of the pump power; (b) temporal profile of a laser pulse; (c) near-field image of the output laser beam obtained with a CCD camera; (d) laser output spectrum for the pump power of 3.9 W.
The threshold for laser oscillations was at the pump power of ~2.9 W and the slope efficiency was ~4.8%. The temporal profile of the output pulses, measured with a fast photodiode (EOT, ref: ET-5000; 12.5 Ghz) coupled with a 20 Ghz bandwidth oscilloscope (Lecroy, WaveMaster 8 Zi-A series 20), is shown in Fig. 2 (b). For a pump power of 3.9 W, the peak power was 3.1 kW and the duration was 2 ns (FWHMI) at the repetition rate of 7.3 kHz.

In some situation, as illustrated in Fig. 3, the “hot” and the “cold” laser components can both oscillate simultaneously provided that a careful optimization of the geometrical parameters of the laser is made in order to minimize intracavity losses.
Fig. 3 (a) Evolution of the average output laser power as a function of the pump power; (b) temporal profile of a laser pulse; (c) far-field image of the output laser beam obtained with a CCD camera; (d) laser output spectrum for the pump powers of 3.1 W and 3.9 W, respectively.
Figure 3(a) represents the evolution of the laser output power as a function of the pump power in such case. In thequasi-monochromatic regime, for pump powers ranging from 2.7 W and 2.9 W, the laser emitted at the single wavelength of 1062.5 nm, while the output laser beam was approximately Gaussian-shaped. Above 2.9 W of pump power, the laser entered a dual-wavelength emission regime in which light was oscillating at 1062.5 nm and 1060.4 nm simultaneously, as can be seen in Fig. 3(b). The slope efficiency was ~7%. Furthermore, dual-wavelength emission was accompanied by the emergence of an additional transverse mode of the TEM01 type as depicted in Fig. 3(c) while also coinciding with the occurrence of a trailing pulse of lower intensity delayed by ~19 ns from the main pulse as illustrated in Fig. 3(d). Note that the ratio of energy contained in the two distinct pulses was approximately equal to the ratio between energies at 1062.5 nm and 1060.4 nm, i.e. ~1/15. In this context, one can reasonably assume that the two pulses were respectively carried by the two laser wavelengths in the spectral domain.

By remarking that the threshold for laser oscillation at 1060.4 nm eventually coincided with the emergence of the multi-mode regime, one can also infer that the 1060.4-nm radiation should be carried by the TEM01 mode essentially, whereas the 1062.5 nm component was distributed according to the TEM00 mode. Indeed in contrast to the fundamental mode, TEM01 only weakly overlaps with the central part of the pumping area where the temperature is maximal, and thus should be more favourable for laser oscillations around 1060.4 nm.

In order to overcome multimode emission and gain competition between 1062.5 and 1060.4 nm in passive Q-switch configuration we decided to realize an active generation of the Q-switched pulses. In that configuration it will be possible to manage more accurately the pulse emissions even if the obtained pulses could be larger in time than that obtained in passive regime.

3. Active Q-switch laser operation

3.1 Time resolved spectroscopy of the laser emission

The 1% Nd-doped YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 garnet ceramic sample used in this section has been provided by Komasa Inc. and was 6x6 mm2 in size and 3 mm in thickness. A longer crystal is used in that experiment in order to improve the pump absorption and to reach higher laser gain. The crystal was antireflection coated near 1060 nm. The sample was inserted inside a copper holder water-cooled near 13 °C. The laser cavity [10

10. A. Brenier, G. Alombert-Goget, Y. Guyot, and G. Boulon, “Laser and thermal properties of Nd:YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 garnet ceramic,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(10), 697–703 (2012). [CrossRef]

] was constituted with a plan dichroic input mirror highly transparent near 808 nm and highly reflective in the 1020-1100 nm range. The concave output mirror had 2% transmission near 1060 nm with 75 mm radius of curvature. The pump beam from a LIMO fibre coupled laser diode, near 808 nm wavelength, was focused inside the sample, the measured pump diameter being 220 µm. 83% of the pump was absorbed by the sample. An acousto-optics modulator from Goosch & Housego (50 W RF power, 68 MHz RF frequency) working in the shear mode was introduced inside the cavity close to the concave output coupler. A plate of YVO4 birefringent crystal was located between the modulator and the output mirror in order to achieve a linear polarization of the laser emission. The cavity length was 68 mm.

Exploring the 4-16 kHz repetition rate range and for an absorbed pump power up to 1.85 W, a pulsed laser emission was obtained. The spatial shape of the beam was checked with a Gentec CCD camera and a TEM00 type mode was observed (inset in Fig. 4(a)).
Fig. 4 (a) Time-resolved spectra of the two-wavelength active Q-switch laser emission; (b) “cold” and “hot” laser lines inserted in the Nd energy level scheme; (c) example of time position of the gate of the boxcar; (d) Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation of the two-laser wavelengths.
In the spectral domain, the laser beam is constituted by a dual-wavelength emission located near 1059.3 and 1061.6 nm (Fig. 4(a) at 4 kHz and 1.44 W absorbed pump power). The two wavelengths obtained here are shifted in frequency with respect to that obtained in the passive Q-switched configuration. This effect can be explained by the more limited pump power used in the active configuration. Their origin from the 4F3/2 Nd3+ sublevels is explained in Fig. 4(b) as in the CW operation described in [10

10. A. Brenier, G. Alombert-Goget, Y. Guyot, and G. Boulon, “Laser and thermal properties of Nd:YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 garnet ceramic,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(10), 697–703 (2012). [CrossRef]

] by Brenier et al.

The laser spectra of Fig. 4(a), was detected with a R1767 Hamamatsu photomultiplierthrough a HRS2 Jobin-Yvon monochromator equipped with a 1 µm blazed grating. The pulsed signal was sent in a Stanford Research Systems boxcar averager and selected with a 2 ns gate with a time position (Fig. 4(c)) chosen at the maximum of the pulse and 25 ns before and after the pulse maximum. We can see that whatever the gate position, the spectra are constituted with two peaks with similar relative intensities. This means that the dual-wavelength emission is constituted by two pulses with a similar time evolution.

In order to confirm the temporal overlap of the two pulses at the two different wavelengths, we used a nonlinear type I GdAl3(BO3)4 crystal cut for second harmonic generation close to 1060 nm. By focusing the laser beam inside the nonlinear crystal we obtained both the second harmonic generation of the two wavelengths (far right/left peaks of the spectrum in Fig. 4(d)) but also a third central peak corresponding to the sum-frequency generation of the “cold” and “hot” lines. That experiment confirms the simultaneity of the two generated pulses at 1059.3 and 1061.6 nm.

3.2 Time evolution of the two-mode laser emission

For a full study of the time evolution of the pulsed laser emission, we have spatially separated the two wavelength components of the beam by sending it on the surface of a 600 groves/mm near infrared grating. Then the first order diffraction, acting in the horizontal direction, was efficient enough to obtain two spots on the screen of the CCD Gentec camera. Typical separated spots are presented in the inset of Fig. 5(a).
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) Time evolution of the “cold” and “hot laser pulses at 0.42 and 1.44 W absorbed pump power; (c) and (d) distribution of the delay between the “cold” and “hot” lines for 0.42 and 1.44 W of absorbed pump power.
The centres of the spots correspond to the two peak wavelengths and their intensities were detected with two 5 GHz bandwidth SiR5-FC photodetectors connected to a WaveRunner 204Xi Lecroy oscilloscope (2 GHz bandwidth).

Then we conclude that a good temporal overlap between the two-frequency pulses is observed in the full range of the pump power used in this section. This is somewhat in contrast with a two-frequency system based on two inequivalent emitting centers (Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal [11

11. A. Brenier, Y. Wu, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, and P. Fu, “Laser properties of the diode-pumped Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093101 (2010). [CrossRef]

]) studied in a similar active Q-switched cavity with the result that the simultaneity was obtained only for a narrow range of pump powers. The simplicity of the one-pump cavity used in the present work for the Nd-doped YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 ceramic is also in contrast with the more complicated two-pump cavity used by Brenier et al. [11

11. A. Brenier, Y. Wu, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, and P. Fu, “Laser properties of the diode-pumped Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093101 (2010). [CrossRef]

,12

12. A. Brenier, “Active Q-switching of the diode-pumped two-frequency Yb3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(3), 279–284 (2011). [CrossRef]

] where the two-frequency emission is based on the anisotropy of the Yb3+-doped KGd(WO4)2 laser crystal.

3.3 Pulse energy

The two-wavelength laser power was measured with a Melles Griot power-meter at different repetition rates. The obtained pulse energies are increasing versus the absorbed pump power as it is visualized in Fig. 6(a).
Fig. 6 (a) Laser pulse energy; (b) laser pulse width versus the absorbed pump power at different repetition rate of the AO modulator; (c) image of the wavelength-separated laser beams for two different absorbed pump powers; (d) fraction of pulse energy in each wavelength-separated beam versus absorbed pump power.
At 4 kHz and 1.85 W absorbed pump power, we obtained 63µJ/pulse, this value being intentionally limited to prevent any optical damages of the coatings. The corresponding peak power (maximum about 630 W) can be deduced from the pulse widths shown in Fig. 6(b). This maximum pulse energy can be compared with the 24 µJ/pulse obtained for the simultaneous two-frequency pulses from the Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal [11

11. A. Brenier, Y. Wu, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, and P. Fu, “Laser properties of the diode-pumped Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093101 (2010). [CrossRef]

] and to the 47 and 18 µJ/pulse obtained for the ordinary and extraordinary simultaneous pulses from the Yb3+:KGd(WO4)2 crystal [12

12. A. Brenier, “Active Q-switching of the diode-pumped two-frequency Yb3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(3), 279–284 (2011). [CrossRef]

].

The relative intensity of the two pulses is expected to change in accordance with the thermal behaviour of emissions originating from two sublevels in Boltzman equilibrium. Using the set-up allowing the wavelength separation of the two beams described previously, we have recorded the intensities of the two spots versus the absorbed pump power. Just above the laser threshold, the “hot” line is hardly seen (Fig. 6(c)), but it quickly grows when increasing the pump power. The relative energy of the two lines can be properly adjusted by the control of the pump power. For an average power lower than 1.3 W (4 kHz repetition rate), the “cold” line exhibits higher energy whereas that proportion is reversed for higher average power (see Fig. 6(d)).

4. Conclusion

Pulsed laser emission has been demonstrated from the Nd-doped YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 garnet ceramics under laser diode pumping.

Passive Q-switching operation has been demonstrated with pulses as short as 2 ns and with 6.2 µJ of energy at 7.3 kHz repetition rate. In that configuration, no simultaneous emission of the “cold” and “hot” lines has been obtained.

From active Q-switching a plan-concave laser cavity, we obtained an emission constituted by two lines near 1059.3 (“cold” line) and 1061.6 nm (“hot” line), subjected to a red shift and a variable relative intensity versus the absorbed pump power, due to the temperature elevation of the pumped area. The simultaneity of the pulses has been demonstrated with two fast optical detectors and their ability to be frequency-converted was demonstrated by mean of sum-frequency generation in a nonlinear crystal. This result is promising for THz generation from difference-frequency mixing.

References and links

1.

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008). [CrossRef]

2.

A. Ikesue and Y. L. Aung, “Synthesis and performances of advanced ceramic lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(6), 1936–1944 (2006). [CrossRef]

3.

Y. Senatsky, A. Shirakawa, Y. Sato, J. Hagiwara, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, “Nonlinear refractive index of ceramic laser media and perspectives of their usage in a high-power laser-driver,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 500–506 (2004). [CrossRef]

4.

Y. Sato, J. Saikawa, T. Taira, and A. Ikesue, “Characteristics of Nd3+ doped Y3Al5O12 ceramic laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(10), 1277–1282 (2007). [CrossRef]

5.

A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, H. J. Eichler, A. Shirakawa, M. Tokurakawa, H. Rhee, K. Takaichi, and T. Yanagitani, “Nonlinear laser χ(3) effects in novel garnet-type fine-grained ceramic-host YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 for Ln3+ lasants,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(9), 671–677 (2009). [CrossRef]

6.

J. Carreaud, A. Labruyère, L. Jaffres, V. Couderc, A. Maitre, R. Boulesteix, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, Y. Rabinovitch, and C. Sallé, “Wavelength switching in Nd:YSAG ceramic laser induced by thermal effect,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 344–349 (2012). [CrossRef]

7.

L. Jaffres, A. Labruyère, V. Couderc, J. Carreaud, A. Maître, R. Boulesteix, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, Y. Rabinovitch, and C. Sallé, “Gain structuration in dual-wavelength Nd:YSAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25596–25602 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

8.

M. Tokurakawa, H. Kurokawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous-wave and mode-locked lasers on the base of partially disordered crystalline Yb3+:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramics,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4390–4395 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

H. Okada, M. Tanaka, H. Kiriyama, Y. Nakai, Y. Ochi, A. Sugiyama, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and N. Meichin, “Laser ceramic materials for subpicosecond solid-state lasers using Nd3+-doped mixed scandium garnets,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3048–3050 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

A. Brenier, G. Alombert-Goget, Y. Guyot, and G. Boulon, “Laser and thermal properties of Nd:YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 garnet ceramic,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(10), 697–703 (2012). [CrossRef]

11.

A. Brenier, Y. Wu, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, and P. Fu, “Laser properties of the diode-pumped Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093101 (2010). [CrossRef]

12.

A. Brenier, “Active Q-switching of the diode-pumped two-frequency Yb3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(3), 279–284 (2011). [CrossRef]

OCIS Codes
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.6810) Lasers and laser optics : Thermal effects

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: January 17, 2014
Revised Manuscript: February 19, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: February 20, 2014
Published: April 28, 2014

Citation
G. Alombert-Goget, A. Brenier, Y. Guyot, A. Labruyère, B. Faure, and V. Couderc, "Thermally driven dual-frequency Q-switching of Nd:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramic laser," Opt. Express 22, 10792-10799 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-9-10792


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References

  1. A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, “Ceramic laser materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 721–727 (2008). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ikesue, Y. L. Aung, “Synthesis and performances of advanced ceramic lasers,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89(6), 1936–1944 (2006). [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Senatsky, A. Shirakawa, Y. Sato, J. Hagiwara, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, “Nonlinear refractive index of ceramic laser media and perspectives of their usage in a high-power laser-driver,” Laser Phys. Lett. 1(10), 500–506 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sato, J. Saikawa, T. Taira, A. Ikesue, “Characteristics of Nd3+ doped Y3Al5O12 ceramic laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(10), 1277–1282 (2007). [CrossRef]
  5. A. A. Kaminskii, S. N. Bagaev, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, H. J. Eichler, A. Shirakawa, M. Tokurakawa, H. Rhee, K. Takaichi, T. Yanagitani, “Nonlinear laser χ(3) effects in novel garnet-type fine-grained ceramic-host YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 for Ln3+ lasants,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(9), 671–677 (2009). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Carreaud, A. Labruyère, L. Jaffres, V. Couderc, A. Maitre, R. Boulesteix, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, Y. Rabinovitch, C. Sallé, “Wavelength switching in Nd:YSAG ceramic laser induced by thermal effect,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(5), 344–349 (2012). [CrossRef]
  7. L. Jaffres, A. Labruyère, V. Couderc, J. Carreaud, A. Maître, R. Boulesteix, A. Brenier, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, Y. Rabinovitch, C. Sallé, “Gain structuration in dual-wavelength Nd:YSAG ceramic lasers,” Opt. Express 20(23), 25596–25602 (2012). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Tokurakawa, H. Kurokawa, A. Shirakawa, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, A. A. Kaminskii, “Continuous-wave and mode-locked lasers on the base of partially disordered crystalline Yb3+:YGd2Sc2Al2GaO12 ceramics,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4390–4395 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Okada, M. Tanaka, H. Kiriyama, Y. Nakai, Y. Ochi, A. Sugiyama, H. Daido, T. Kimura, T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, N. Meichin, “Laser ceramic materials for subpicosecond solid-state lasers using Nd3+-doped mixed scandium garnets,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3048–3050 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Brenier, G. Alombert-Goget, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, “Laser and thermal properties of Nd:YGd2 Sc2 Al2Ga O12 garnet ceramic,” Laser Phys. Lett. 9(10), 697–703 (2012). [CrossRef]
  11. A. Brenier, Y. Wu, J. Zhang, Y. Wu, P. Fu, “Laser properties of the diode-pumped Nd3+-doped La2CaB10O19 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 093101 (2010). [CrossRef]
  12. A. Brenier, “Active Q-switching of the diode-pumped two-frequency Yb3+:KGd(WO4)2 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(3), 279–284 (2011). [CrossRef]

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