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Energy Express

  • Editor: Christian Seassal
  • Vol. 22, Iss. S4 — Jun. 30, 2014
  • pp: A1128–A1136
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Periodic anti-ring back reflectors for hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

Po-Yuan Chen, Hui-Hsin Hsiao, Chung-I Ho, Chi-Chih Ho, Wei-Li Lee, Hung-Chun Chang, Si-Chen Lee, Jian-Zhang Chen, and I-Chun Cheng  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 22, Issue S4, pp. A1128-A1136 (2014)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.0A1128


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Abstract

Large and periodic anti-ring arrays are fabricated by using a monolayer of polymer/nanosphere hybrid technique and applied as back reflectors in substrate-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells. The structure of each anti-ring comprises a nanodome centered inside a nanohole. The excitation of Bloch wave surface plasmon polaritons is observed in the Ag-coated anti-ring arrays. The nanodomes of the anti-ring arrays turn out to enhance large-angle light scattering and increase the effective optical path in the solar cell. The resulting efficiency of an ultrathin a-Si:H (thickness: 150 nm) solar cell is enhanced by 39% compared to that with a flat back reflector and by 13% compared to that with a nanohole back reflector.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells can be fabricated using smaller quantities of raw materials in comparison with crystalline silicon solar cells and are suitable as lightweight flexible devices [1

1. A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. To realize a high-performance a-Si:H thin-film solar cell, the trade-off between optically thick and electrically thin can be overcome by improving effective light trapping, particularly in the red to infrared region, within the thin absorber layer [2

2. H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983). [CrossRef]

,3

3. T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, J. M. Cebulka, and J. Pelz, “Photoconductivity enhancement by light trapping in rough amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(8), 712–714 (1983). [CrossRef]

]. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells is frequently realized by randomly texturing the transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) in the front contact, such as SnO2 [4

4. K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayasahi, K. Adachi, and H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2: F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. 42, 129–137 (1992).

], for superstrate-type cells or in the back contact, such as aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), for substrate-type cells [5

5. J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004). [CrossRef]

]. Another way to enhance the light trapping in substrate-type thin-film solar cells is to use periodic textured back reflectors. Back reflectors with different types of periodic structures have been demonstrated by various methods, such as two-dimensional sinusoidal grating by roll-to-roll embossing process [6

6. T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “TCOs for nip thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(3), 165–176 (2009). [CrossRef]

], hexagonal dimple pattern by anodization of aluminium [7

7. H. Sai, K. Saito, and M. Kondo, “Investigation of textured back reflectors with periodic honeycomb patterns in thin-film silicon solar cells for improved photovoltaic performance,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 5–10 (2013). [CrossRef]

], square lattice of nanopillar [8

8. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,9

9. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] and nanohole [10

10. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009). [CrossRef]

] by soft imprint, and hexagonal nanodome [11

11. J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

], nanopillar, nanocone [12

12. C. M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. C. Ruan, F. J. Haug, S. H. Fan, C. Ballif, and Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012). [CrossRef]

], and nanocylinder [13

13. W.-C. Tu, Y.-T. Chang, C.-H. Yang, D.-J. Yeh, C.-I. Ho, C.-Y. Hsueh, and S.-C. Lee, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell on glass substrate patterned by hexagonal nanocylinder array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193109 (2010). [CrossRef]

] by nanosphere lithography. The textured substrate can enhance the photocurrent (Jsc); however, the open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) often degrade owing to surface state recombinations or nonconformal step coverage during the growth of a thin absorber layer on the steep structure [12

12. C. M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. C. Ruan, F. J. Haug, S. H. Fan, C. Ballif, and Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. Fabricating a nanostructure that can enhance the photocurrent without much deterioration of Voc and FF is desirable [9

9. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

,10

10. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009). [CrossRef]

,13

13. W.-C. Tu, Y.-T. Chang, C.-H. Yang, D.-J. Yeh, C.-I. Ho, C.-Y. Hsueh, and S.-C. Lee, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell on glass substrate patterned by hexagonal nanocylinder array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193109 (2010). [CrossRef]

].

In this study, we fabricate large area anti-ring array and nanohole array as back reflectors by using a monolayer of polymer/nanosphere hybrid [14

14. C.-C. Ho, P.-Y. Chen, K.-H. Lin, W.-T. Juan, and W.-L. Lee, “Fabrication of monolayer of polymer/nanospheres hybrid at a water-air interface,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(2), 204–208 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

] along with selective ion etching. For ultrathin a-Si:H (thickness: 150 nm) solar cells, optimal conversion efficiency was achieved by using an anti-ring array as a back reflector. The results of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and angle-resolved reflectance measurements show that the improved cell efficiency can be attributed to the enhancement of large-angle scattering in the anti-ring back reflector due to the presence of nanodomes.

2. Methods

To fabricate the anti-ring and nanohole arrays, a 100-nm-thick SiO2 film was first deposited on a glass substrate (Corning® Eagle 2000) by electron beam evaporation. A close-packed monolayer of nanosphere/polymer hybrid film was then deposited on the SiO2-coated glass substrate [14

14. C.-C. Ho, P.-Y. Chen, K.-H. Lin, W.-T. Juan, and W.-L. Lee, “Fabrication of monolayer of polymer/nanospheres hybrid at a water-air interface,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(2), 204–208 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. The original diameter of the polystyrene nanospheres was 1000 nm, which was reduced to 900 nm by O2 reactive ion etching (Oxford Plasmalab Plus 80). Next, a 13-nm-thick Cr layer was thermally evaporated onto the shrunk nanospheres as a protective layer. To fabricate the nanohole array, the nanospheres were removed prior to the CF4 plasma etching, as shown in Fig. 1(a).
Fig. 1 Schematics of fabrication process of the (a) nanohole array and (b) anti-ring array using a monolayer polymer/nanosphere hybrid with selective ion etching. The CF4 plasma can etch through the unprotected SiO2 under the nanospheres.
On the other hand, the anti-ring array was fabricated by CF4 plasma etching with the nanospheres on the sample surface, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The CF4 plasma selectively etches through the unprotected SiO2 under the nanospheres while keeping polystyrene nanospheres intact. The resulting anti-ring array contains a single nanodome within each hole. After CF4 plasma etching, the nanospheres were removed by scotch tape, and the substrate was cleaned using piranha solution (H2SO4:H2O2 = 3:1).

Fig. 2 Scanning electron micrographs of (a) a nanohole array and (b) an anti-ring array and atomic force micrographs of (c) a nanohole array and (d) an anti-ring array. The white scale bars are 1 μm. The insets of (a) and (b) show the laser diffraction patterns of the nanohole and the anti-ring arrays, respectively. Sharp hexagonal diffraction peaks imply a good periodicity of the surface structures.
Figure 2 shows the scanning electron micrographs and atomic force micrographs of the nanohole and anti-ring arrays. The insets of Figs. 2(a) and 2(b) show the diffraction patterns of the nanohole and anti-ring arrays irradiated by a laser beam with λ = 532 nm and a spot size about 2 mm. Sharp hexagonal diffraction peaks corresponding to a triangular lattice were observed, indicating a good periodicity of the surface structure over a large area.

To continue the solar cell fabrication process, 5-nm-thick Cr and 120-nm-thick Ag films were consecutively deposited on the nanohole and anti-ring arrays by electron beam evaporation, following which a 160-nm-thick AZO film was deposited by rf-sputtering. Then, the p-i-n a-Si:H layer was deposited by 13.56 MHz rf-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [15

15. C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I.-C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The thickness of the intrinsic layer was 150 nm, and that of the p and n layers was 20 and 10 nm, respectively. Finally, a 50-nm-thick indium tin oxide front contact was deposited by dc-sputtering through a shadow mask. The cell active area was 1 mm2. The cells were characterized by a Newport-oriel solar simulator under AM1.5G (100 mW/cm2), and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) was measured using QE-R3015 (Enli Technology).

3. Results and discussions

Fig. 3 (a) Measured specular reflectance and reflective haze spectra of Ag-coated nanohole and Ag-coated anti-ring arrays. Dips are observed in the reflectance spectra, and the haze value of the anti-ring array is higher. (b) Simulated specular reflectance spectra. The inset shows the configuration used in the simulation.
Figure 3(a) shows the measured specular reflectance and reflective haze spectra of the Ag-coated nanohole and Ag-coated anti-ring arrays. The specular and total reflectance spectra were measured using a UV-Vis spectrometer (Jasco V-670) with a specular reflectance accessory (SLM-736) and an integrating sphere accessory (ISN-723), respectively. The reflective haze was defined as the ratio of the diffuse reflectance, given by the difference between the total reflectance and the specular reflectance, to the total reflectance. Three dips were marked for both arrays in the specular reflectance spectra. These dips were identified as the results of the excitation of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) [16

16. A. S. Hall, S. A. Friesen, and T. E. Mallouk, “Wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic crystals from patterned silicon templates prepared by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2623–2627 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. From the SPP model, periodic nanostructure can balance the momentum mismatch between the incident light and the SPP, which can be described by Eq. (1) [17

17. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
kspp=kinc+iG1+jG2
(1)
where i and j are integers referring to specific orders of resonance modes; G1 and G2denote the reciprocal lattice vectors of the periodic structure; kspp and kinc are the wave vectors of SPP and incident light. Considering a case with normal incidence, a hexagonal close-packed lattice and a flat interface between the dielectric and metal, Eq. (1) can be rewritten as Eq. (2) [17

17. C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]:
λspp=32ai2+ij+j2εdεmεd+εm
(2)
wherea,εdand εmdenote the period, permittivities of dielectric and metal, respectively. Accordingly to Eq. (2), the major measured dip at ~600 nm and simulated dip at ~580 nm are associated with the (1,1) SPP at the interface between Ag and air.

For the reflective haze spectra, peaks were observed at the same wavelengths that correspond to dips in the specular reflectance spectra. The haze values were used to evaluate the scattering characteristics of the back reflectors. The result shows that the scattering effect is more pronounced in the anti-ring structure than in the nanohole structure.

We used an in-house developed 3D FDTD program to simulate the reflectance spectra and near-field distributions to understand the physical characteristics of the resonant modes [18

18. H.-H. Hsiao, H.-F. Huang, S.-C. Lee, and H.-C. Chang, “Investigating far-field spectra and near-field features of extraordinary optical transmission through periodic U- to H-shaped apertures,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 387–398 (2012). [CrossRef]

]. The triangular lattice periodic boundary condition (PBC) [19

19. Z. T. Ma and K. Ogusu, “FDTD analysis of 2D triangular-lattice photonic crystals with arbitrary-shape inclusions based on unit cell transformation,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1322–1325 (2009). [CrossRef]

] was applied to simulate the hexagonal nanohole and anti-ring arrays, and a perfectly matched layer (PML) was used to suppress unnecessary spurious reflection. For the nanohole structure, the hole diameter was 900 nm, the thickness of Ag was 120 nm, and the depth of the nanohole was 100 nm, same as the thickness of deposited SiO2. We used the same parameters to simulate the glass substrate and the deposited SiO2. For the anti-ring structure, the nanodome inside the nanohole was approximated by a half ellipsoid with a major axis of 630 nm and a semi-minor axis of 100 nm. The dielectric constant of Ag was modeled using a Drude-Lorentz dispersion [20

20. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic press, 1985).

], whereas that of SiO2 was set to 1.47. We used the total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) technique [21

21. S. C. Hagness and A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

] to impinge plane wave propagating along the z-direction. Then, the simulated reflectance spectra were calculated by Eq. (3):
R=SPz,scatdsSPz,incds
(3)
where Pz,scat and Pz,inc are the z-components of the Poynting vectors from the scattering fields and the source indicated in the inset of Fig. 3(b), respectively. Figure 3(b) shows the results of the simulated specular reflectance spectra. Three dips were also found, and the corresponding wavelength of the major dip is 580 nm, which is close to that of the measured dip in the reflectance spectra. The value of the simulated reflectance is higher than that of the experimental one, because only reflected light within 5° is collected in the experiment whereas the entire z-component of the Poynting vector above the structure is integrated in the simulation.

Fig. 5 Angle-resolved reflectance spectra of (a) Ag-coated nanohole array and (b) Ag-coated anti-ring arrays. The large-angle reflectance of the anti-ring array is higher that of the nanohole array.
The angle-resolved reflectance spectra of the Ag-coated nanohole and Ag-coated anti-ring arrays were measured, and the corresponding contour plots are shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b). The angle-resolved reflectance spectra were obtained by using an angle-adjustable accessory (ARSN-733) with an angle of incidence of 5° and detection angle scanned from 5° to 75°. The Ag-coated anti-ring array reflects more light at large angles (>30°) in the wavelength range of 400–800 nm than the Ag-coated nanohole array does. The large-angle scattering can increase the optical path length inside the solar cell, thus increasing the photocurrent level and cell efficiency.

Fig. 6 (a) J-V curves and (b) measured EQE spectra of a-Si:H thin-film solar cells with anti-ring, nanohole, and flat back reflectors.
The J-V curves of the cells with the nanohole and the anti-ring back-reflectors are shown in Fig. 6(a) and the corresponding cell performance parameters are listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Performance Parameters of a-Si:H Thin-film Solar Cells Fabricated on Flat, Nanohole, and Anti-ring Back Reflectors

table-icon
View This Table
The cell with an anti-ring back reflector shows 17.9% higher Jsc and 39% higher efficiency than that with a flat reflector and 6.3% higher Jsc and 13% higher efficiency than that with a nanohole back reflector. Note that the Voc remains almost the same for all three samples. Cells with patterned (both nanohole and anti-ring) back reflectors exhibit slightly larger FFs than that with the flat back reflector. Similar observations have been reported previously and may be attributed to the differences between the electrical contacts [10

10. V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009). [CrossRef]

]. The EQE spectra is shown in Fig. 6(b). For all three cells, little difference is observed at a wavelength shorter than 500 nm because most light was absorbed before reaching the back reflectors. At wavelengths between 500 and 800 nm, the cell with an anti-ring back reflector shows better performance in comparison to that with a nanohole or flat back reflector.

By introducing periodic back reflectors, the excitation of SPP can enhance the light trapping by converting vertical propagating waves into horizontal propagating waves. The SPP fields confine the light at sub-wavelength scale near the interface between the absorber layer and back reflector, and the enhanced field may contribute to the carrier generation [22

22. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

]. However, in this study, although the presence of the SPP is observed in both anti-ring and nanohole back reflectors, the near-field enhancement may not be the major contribution to the cell performance due to a small penetration depth of SPP compared to the thickness of the AZO layer [23

23. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications: Fundamentals and Applications, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).

]. As shown in Figs. 7(b) and 7(c), the enhanced SPP fields are mainly located inside the AZO layer. Therefore, the improvement is more likely associated with the enhancement of far-field scattering at long wavelengths, which appears to be the most significant contribution in the cell using the anti-ring array as a back reflector.

4. Conclusion

We have successfully demonstrated a periodic anti-ring array by using a monolayer of polymer/nanosphere hybrid with selective ion etching. The a-Si:H thin-film solar cell with anti-ring back reflector shows improved efficiency by 13% and 39% compared to the cells with the nanohole back reflector and flat back reflector, respectively. The presence of the nanodome inside the nanohole enhances the large-angle scattering, thereby increasing the optical path length inside the solar cell to improve the photocurrent and cell efficiency. This anti-ring array back reflector can potentially be applied to other types of thin-film solar cells to further boost the cell performance.

Acknowledgment

The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding support from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan under grant nos. NSC 100-2221-E-002-151-MY3 and NSC 101-2628-E-002-020-MY3.

References and links

1.

A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science 285(5428), 692–698 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2.

H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(11), 968–970 (1983). [CrossRef]

3.

T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, J. M. Cebulka, and J. Pelz, “Photoconductivity enhancement by light trapping in rough amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(8), 712–714 (1983). [CrossRef]

4.

K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayasahi, K. Adachi, and H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2: F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. 42, 129–137 (1992).

5.

J. Müller, B. Rech, J. Springer, and M. Vanecek, “TCO and light trapping in silicon thin film solar cells,” Sol. Energy 77(6), 917–930 (2004). [CrossRef]

6.

T. Söderström, F. J. Haug, X. Niquille, and C. Ballif, “TCOs for nip thin film silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 17(3), 165–176 (2009). [CrossRef]

7.

H. Sai, K. Saito, and M. Kondo, “Investigation of textured back reflectors with periodic honeycomb patterns in thin-film silicon solar cells for improved photovoltaic performance,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 5–10 (2013). [CrossRef]

8.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

9.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. Lare, R. E. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-Si:H solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4239–4245 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

10.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(18), 183503 (2009). [CrossRef]

11.

J. Zhu, C. M. Hsu, Z. Yu, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Nanodome solar cells with efficient light management and self-cleaning,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 1979–1984 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

12.

C. M. Hsu, C. Battaglia, C. Pahud, Z. C. Ruan, F. J. Haug, S. H. Fan, C. Ballif, and Y. Cui, “High-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell on a periodic nanocone back reflector,” Adv. Energy Mater. 2(6), 628–633 (2012). [CrossRef]

13.

W.-C. Tu, Y.-T. Chang, C.-H. Yang, D.-J. Yeh, C.-I. Ho, C.-Y. Hsueh, and S.-C. Lee, “Hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell on glass substrate patterned by hexagonal nanocylinder array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(19), 193109 (2010). [CrossRef]

14.

C.-C. Ho, P.-Y. Chen, K.-H. Lin, W.-T. Juan, and W.-L. Lee, “Fabrication of monolayer of polymer/nanospheres hybrid at a water-air interface,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 3(2), 204–208 (2011). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

15.

C.-I. Ho, D.-J. Yeh, V.-C. Su, C.-H. Yang, P.-C. Yang, M.-Y. Pu, C.-H. Kuan, I.-C. Cheng, and S.-C. Lee, “Plasmonic multilayer nanoparticles enhanced photocurrent in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(2), 023113 (2012). [CrossRef]

16.

A. S. Hall, S. A. Friesen, and T. E. Mallouk, “Wafer-scale fabrication of plasmonic crystals from patterned silicon templates prepared by nanosphere lithography,” Nano Lett. 13(6), 2623–2627 (2013). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

17.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

18.

H.-H. Hsiao, H.-F. Huang, S.-C. Lee, and H.-C. Chang, “Investigating far-field spectra and near-field features of extraordinary optical transmission through periodic U- to H-shaped apertures,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(2), 387–398 (2012). [CrossRef]

19.

Z. T. Ma and K. Ogusu, “FDTD analysis of 2D triangular-lattice photonic crystals with arbitrary-shape inclusions based on unit cell transformation,” Opt. Commun. 282(7), 1322–1325 (2009). [CrossRef]

20.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic press, 1985).

21.

S. C. Hagness and A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed. (Artech House, 2005).

22.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

23.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications: Fundamentals and Applications, 1st ed. (Springer, 2007).

OCIS Codes
(040.5350) Detectors : Photovoltaic
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(250.5403) Optoelectronics : Plasmonics

ToC Category:
Light Trapping for Photovoltaics

History
Original Manuscript: April 3, 2014
Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2014
Manuscript Accepted: May 21, 2014
Published: June 2, 2014

Citation
Po-Yuan Chen, Hui-Hsin Hsiao, Chung-I Ho, Chi-Chih Ho, Wei-Li Lee, Hung-Chun Chang, Si-Chen Lee, Jian-Zhang Chen, and I-Chun Cheng, "Periodic anti-ring back reflectors for hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells," Opt. Express 22, A1128-A1136 (2014)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-22-S4-A1128


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References

  1. A. Shah, P. Torres, R. Tscharner, N. Wyrsch, and H. Keppner, “Photovoltaic technology: the case for thin-film solar cells,” Science285(5428), 692–698 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. W. Deckman, C. R. Wronski, H. Witzke, and E. Yablonovitch, “Optically enhanced amorphous silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(11), 968–970 (1983). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Tiedje, B. Abeles, J. M. Cebulka, and J. Pelz, “Photoconductivity enhancement by light trapping in rough amorphous silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 712–714 (1983). [CrossRef]
  4. K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayasahi, K. Adachi, and H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2: F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd.42, 129–137 (1992).
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