OSA's Digital Library

Optics Letters

Optics Letters


  • Vol. 21, Iss. 21 — Nov. 1, 1996
  • pp: 1729–1731

Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Letters, Vol. 21, Issue 21, pp. 1729-1731 (1996)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1047 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



With the goal of being able to create optical devices for the telecommunications industry, we investigated the effects of 810-nm, femtosecond laser radiation on various glasses. By focusing the laser beam through a microscope objective, we successfully wrote transparent, but visible, round-elliptical damage lines inside high-silica, borate, soda lime silicate, and fluorozirconate (ZBLAN) bulk glasses. Microellipsometer measurements of the damaged region in the pure and Ge-doped silica glasses showed a 0.01–0.035 refractive-index increase, depending on the radiation dose. The formation of several defects, including Si E′ or Ge E′ centers, nonbridging oxygen hole centers, and peroxy radicals, was also detected. These results suggest that multiphoton interactions occur in the glasses and that it may be possible to write three-dimensional optical circuits in bulk glasses with such a focused laser beam technique.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

Original Manuscript: May 6, 1996
Published: November 1, 1996

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978). [CrossRef]
  2. D. L. Griscom, in Glass Science and Technology, Vol. 4B of Advances in Structural Analysis, D. R. Uhlmann, N. J. Kreidl, eds. (Academic, New York, 1990), pp. 197–223.
  3. R. A. Weeks, E. Sonder, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Paramagnetic Resonance (Academic, New York, 1963), Vol. 2, p. 869.
  4. C. M. Nelson, R. A. Weeks, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 43, 396 (1960). [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. B. Devine, C. Fiori, J. Robertson, in Defects in Glasses, F. L. Galeener, D. L. Griscom, M. J. Weber, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), p. 177 .
  6. R. Tohmon, H. Mizuno, Y. Ohki, K. Sasagane, K. Nagawawa, Y. Hama, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1337 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. D. P. Hand, P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 15, 102 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. Kinser, R. Weeks, K. Muta, K. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992). [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762 (1991). [CrossRef]
  10. B. Poumellec, P. Niay, M. Douay, J. F. Bayon, in Photosensitivity and Quadratic Nonlinearity in Glass Waveguides: Fundamentals and Applications, Vol. 22 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 112.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited