The concept of polarization freedom is employed to design diffraction gratings that are capable of transforming an electromagnetic plane wave into two or three diffraction orders with an arbitrary efficiency distribution among them, such that the combined efficiency of the signal orders is always equal to 100%. As a special case we consider paraxial-domain duplicators and triplicators with 100% efficiency, which is not possible for illumination by scalar waves: Diffractive elements that are capable of performing the required wave transformation must modulate the state of polarization of the incident field.
© 2000 Optical Society of America
Jani Tervo and Jari Turunen, "Paraxial-domain diffractive elements with 100% efficiency based on polarization gratings," Opt. Lett. 25, 785-786 (2000)